Lubbe A.,FH Fulda
International Journal of Refugee Law | Year: 2015
The CJEU decision NS and others has led to a debate on the meaning and consequences of 'systemic deficiencies' or 'systemic flaws' as a precondition for a transfer obstacle within the Dublin system. This contribution proposes a concept that avoids any inconsistency between the CJEU and the ECtHR: a systemic flaw within the receiving country is required for an arguable claim, and a real risk of an inhuman or degrading treatment in the individual case is sufficient. © The Author (2015).
Lucke F.-K.,FH Fulda |
Zangerl P.,Bundesanstalt For Alpenlandische Milchwirtschaft Federal Institute For Alpine Dairying Bam
Food Control | Year: 2014
The "German-speaking region" in Central Europe is characterized by a large variety of regional food specialities and long tradition in craftsman's skills and experience in safe small-scale food processing and preservation. There is also increasing interest in these traditional products in other countries. Hence, this paper discusses the properties of characteristic food products, and outlines the steps critical for their safety. Such foods include fermented milk products (in particular cheeses), meat and fish products, fermented vegetables, and baked goods such as sourdough breads and spiced cookies. Data analysed show, among others, that (1) hard cheeses made from raw milk are regarded as safe, due to effective hurdles which eliminate foodborne pathogens during production and ripening, and semi-hard cheeses made from raw milk - which are generally ripened for more than 60 days - exhibit only a low health risk if Good Manufacturing Practice (including mastitis control) and effective HACCP systems (e.g. control of starter activity) are implemented; (2) Listeria monocytogenes is not a hazard specific to products from raw milk since it may grow on the surface of smear- and mold ripened cheeses after recontamination, and can be effectively controlled by monitoring systems including environmental samples; (3) semi-dry and dry sausages have a favourable record of safety whereas, in the manufacture of some undried, spreadable types, salmonellae (especially in pork sausages) and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC; especially in sausages containing meat from ruminants) are frequently reduced only by one log cycle or less. Hence, the safety of these products critically depends on the quality of the raw material. This stresses the need of implementing Good Manufacturing Practice also in traditional processes. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.
Birringer M.,FH Fulda
Pharmaceutical Research | Year: 2011
A series of dietary ingredients and metabolites are able to induce an adaptive stress response either by generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and/or via activation of the Nrf2/Keap1 stress response network. Most of the molecules belong to activated Michael acceptors, electrophiles capable to S-alkylate redox sensitive cysteine thiols. This review summarizes recent advances in the (re) search of these compounds and classifies them into distinct groups. More than 60 molecules are described that induce the Nrf2 network, most of them found in our daily diet. Although known as typical antioxidants, a closer look reveals that these molecules induce an initial mitochondrial or cytosolic ROS formation and thereby trigger an adaptive stress response and hormesis, respectively. This, however, leads to higher levels of intracellular glutathione and increased expression levels of antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase, thioredoxin reductase, and superoxide dismutase. According to this principle, the author suggests the term hormetics to describe these indirect antioxidants. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011.
Pfrepper C.,FH Fulda
Blood Coagulation and Fibrinolysis | Year: 2016
Severe hereditary factor VII deficiency is a rare bleeding disorder and may be associated with a severe bleeding phenotype. We describe a pregnancy in a 33-year-old woman with compound heterozygous factor VII deficiency and a history of severe menorrhagia and mucocutaneous bleedings. After discontinuation of contraceptives, menstruation was covered with recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa), and during pregnancy, rFVIIa had to be administered in first trimester in doses ranging from 15 to 90?μg/kg per day because of recurrent retroplacental hematomas and vaginal bleedings. Thrombin generation was measured in first trimester at different doses of rFVIIa and showed an increase in lag time when doses of less than 30?μg/kg/day were administered, whereas time to thrombin peak and peak thrombin were not influenced. A low-dose rFVIIa prophylactic treatment of 15?μg/kg every other day in the late second and in the third trimester was sufficient to allow a successful childbirth in this patient with severe factor VII deficiency. Copyright © 2016 YEAR Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.
Johner S.A.,University of Bonn |
Gunther A.L.B.,FH Fulda |
Remer T.,University of Bonn
British Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2011
Worldwide, the iodisation of salt has clearly improved iodine status. In industrialised countries, iodised salt added to processed food contributes most to iodine supply. Yet it is unclear as to what extent changes in the latter may affect the iodine status of populations. Between 2004 and 2009, 24-h urinary iodine excretions (UIE) were repeatedly measured in 278 German children (6 to 12 years old) of the Dortmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed Study (n 707). Na excretion measurements and simultaneously collected 3-d weighed dietary records provided data on intakes of the most important dietary sources of iodine in the children's diet. Actual trends of UIE (2004-9) and contributions of relevant food groups were analysed by mixed linear regression models. Longitudinal regression analysis showed a plateau of UIE in 2004-6; afterwards, UIE significantly decreased till 2009 (P=0•01; median 24-h UIE in 2004-6: 85•6μg/d; 2009: 80•4μg/d). Median urinary iodine concentration fell below the WHO criteria for iodine sufficiency of 100μg/l in 2007-9. Salt, milk, fish and egg intake (g/d) were significant predictors of UIE (P<0•005); and the main sources of iodine were salt and milk (48 and 38%, respectively). The present data hint at a beginning deterioration in the iodine status of German schoolchildren. A decreased use of iodised salt in industrially produced foods may be one possible reason for this development. Because of the generally known risks for cognitive impairment due to even mild iodine deficits in children, a more widespread use of iodised salt, especially in industrially processed foods, has to be promoted. © 2011 The Authors.