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Stamm T.,Medical University of Vienna | Stamm T.,FH Campus Wien, University of Applied Sciences | Hill J.,Leeds Institute of Molecular Medicine
Musculoskeletal Care | Year: 2011

Background and objective. Due to the increasing prevalence of rheumatic diseases, extended roles of non-physician health professionals and innovative models of care may be important options in rheumatology in the future. Extended roles have been pioneered in the UK, Canada, USA and Australia and been found to be effective and safe. However, few data are available about mainland Europe, so the aim of this study was to explore the current status of the extended roles undertaken by health professionals within Europe, and the corresponding models of care used. Methods. Non-physician health professionals from various European countries were asked to complete a web-based survey using convenience and snowball sampling techniques. Data analysis involved calculating descriptive statistics and frequencies based on the countries where the participants currently worked. Results. Of the 479 health professionals who filled in the survey, 430 (92%) indicated that they were performing extended roles. Considerable differences between the 27 participating countries existed, in terms of which extended roles and which innovative models of care were being used. Barriers to performing extended roles were cited as the attitude of rheumatologists in all but eight countries, while attitudes of patients were less common barriers. Lack of knowledge, education and educational opportunities were also experienced in several countries. Conclusion. The present study produced the first data on extended roles for non-physician health professionals and corresponding innovative models of care in rheumatology within Europe. We recommend increasing educational opportunities, as well as developing strategies to limit the barriers experienced. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source


Steiger M.G.,Austrian Center of Industrial Biotechnology | Steiger M.G.,University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna | Blumhoff M.L.,University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna | Blumhoff M.L.,FH Campus Wien, University of Applied Sciences | And 4 more authors.
Frontiers in Microbiology | Year: 2013

Itaconic acid is an unsaturated dicarbonic acid which has a high potential as a biochemical building block, because it can be used as a monomer for the production of a plethora of products including resins, plastics, paints, and synthetic fibers. Some Aspergillus species, like A. itaconicus and A. terreus, show the ability to synthesize this organic acid and A. terreus can secrete significant amounts to the media (>80 g/L). However, compared with the citric acid production process (titers >200 g/L) the achieved titers are still low and the overall process is expensive because purified substrates are required for optimal productivity. Itaconate is formed by the enzymatic activity of a cis-aconitate decarboxylase (CadA) encoded by the cadA gene in A. terreus. Cloning of the cadA gene into the citric acid producing fungus A. niger showed that it is possible to produce itaconic acid also in a different host organism. This review will describe the current status and recent advances in the understanding of the molecular processes leading to the biotechnological production of itaconic acid. © 2013 Steiger, Blumhoff, Mattanovich and Sauer. Source


Birner P.,Medical University of Vienna | Beer A.,Medical University of Vienna | Vinatzer U.,Medical University of Vienna | Stary S.,Medical University of Vienna | And 5 more authors.
Clinical Cancer Research | Year: 2012

Purpose: ETV1 has been proposed to be activated by KIT mutations in gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST). The aim of the study was to evaluate the clinical role of ETV1 and associated proteins in GIST. Experimental Design: Expressions of ETV1, MAPKAP kinase 2 (MAPKAPK2), phosphorylated p38 MAP kinase (pp38), phosphorylated MSK1 (pMSK1), phosphorylated RSK1, COP1, and KIT protein were determined immunohistochemically in 139 GISTs. Sequence analysis of KIT, PDGFRA, and MAPKAPK2 and FISHs of ETV1 as well as chromosomes 1 and 7 were done. Results: Prominent ETV1 expression was seen in 50% of GISTs, but no correlation with clinical outcome was found. Correlation of ETV1 expression and KIT mutation was seen in 60% of cases. MAPKAPK2 overexpression (n = 62/44.6%) correlated with pp38 expression (P = 0.021, χ 2 test) and alterations of chromosome 1 (n = 17, P = 0.024, χ 2 test). In one of 20 sequenced cases with high MAKAPK2 expression, a putative damaging MAPKAPK2 gene mutation was found. All relapsing GISTs with very low/low risk according to Fletcher showed high MAPKAPK2 and KIT expression. MAPKAPK2 overexpression was an independent prognostic factor for disease-free survival (P = 0.006, Cox regression). Conclusion: ETV1 is not universally overexpressed in GIST and seems to also be induced by pathways other than KIT mutation. Nevertheless, its clinical relevance is low. Overexpression of ETV1 inhibitor MAPKAPK2 is associated with shorter survival in GIST, indicating a clinically relevant role of this gene not reported previously. Patients with low-risk GISTs showing MAPKAPK2 overexpression might profit from early adjuvant tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy. ©2012 AACR. Source


Ivanov A.N.,Vienna University of Technology | Wellenzohn M.,Vienna University of Technology | Wellenzohn M.,FH Campus Wien, University of Applied Sciences
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2015

We derive the most general effective low-energy potential to order O(1/m) for slow Dirac fermions with mass m, coupled to gravitational, chameleon and torsion fields in the Einstein-Cartan gravity. The obtained results can be applied to the experimental analysis of gravitational, chameleon and torsion interactions in terrestrial laboratories. We discuss the use of rotating coordinate systems, caused by rotations of devices, for measurements of the torsion vector and tensor components, caused by minimal torsion-fermion couplings [A. N. Ivanov and M. Wellenzohn, Phys. Rev. D 92, 065006 (2015)]. Using the most general form of a metric tensor of curved spacetimes in rotating coordinate systems, proposed by Obukhov, Silenko, and Teryaev [Phys. Rev. D 84, 024025 (2011)], we extend this metric by the inclusion of the chameleon field and calculate the set of vierbein fields, in terms of which Dirac fermions couple to the torsion vector and tensor components through minimal torsion-fermion couplings. For such a set of vierbein fields we discuss a part of the effective low-energy potential for slow Dirac fermions, coupled to gravitational, chameleon and torsion fields to order O(1) in the large fermion mass expansion. © 2015 American Physical Society. Source


Ivanov A.N.,Vienna University of Technology | Wellenzohn M.,Vienna University of Technology | Wellenzohn M.,FH Campus Wien, University of Applied Sciences
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2015

We analyze a nonrelativistic approximation of the Dirac equation for slow fermions, coupled to the chameleon field and torsion in the spacetime with the Schwarzschild metric, taken in the weak gravitational field of the Earth approximation. We follow the analysis of the Dirac equation in the curved spacetime with torsion, proposed by Kostelecky [Phys. Rev. D 69, 105009 (2004)], and apply the Foldy-Wouthuysen transformations. We derive the effective low-energy gravitational potentials for slow fermions, coupled to the gravitational field of the Earth, the chameleon field and to torsion with minimal and nonminimal couplings. © 2015 American Physical Society. Source

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