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Witman N.,University of Stockholm | Heigwer J.,University of Stockholm | Heigwer J.,University of Heidelberg | Thaler B.,University of Stockholm | And 3 more authors.
Developmental Biology | Year: 2013

Cardiovascular disease is a global scourge to society, with novel therapeutic approaches required in order to alleviate the suffering caused by sustained cardiac damage. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are being touted as one such approach in the fight against heart disease, acting as possible post-transcriptional molecular triggers responsible for invoking cardiac regeneration. To further ones understanding of miRNAs and cardiac regeneration, it is prudent to learn from organisms that can intrinsically regenerate their hearts following injury. Using the red-spotted newt, an adult chordate capable of cardiac regeneration, we decided to delve deeper into the role miRNAs play during this process. RNA isolated from regenerating newt heart samples, was used in a microarray screen, to identify significantly expressed candidate miRNAs during newt cardiac regeneration. We performed quantitative qPCR analysis on several conserved miRNAs and found one in particular, miR-128, to be significantly elevated when cardiac hyperplasia is at its peak following injury. In-situ hybridisation techniques revealed a localised expression pattern for miR-128 in the cardiomyocytes and non-cardiomyocytes in close proximity to the regeneration zone and in vivo knockdown studies revealed a regulatory role for miR-128 in proliferating non-cardiomyocyte populations and extracellular matrix deposition. Finally, 3'UTR reporter assays revealed Islet1 as a biological target for miR-128, which was confirmed further through in vivo Islet1 transcriptional and translational expression analysis in regenerating newt hearts. From these studies we conclude that miR-128 regulates both cardiac hyperplasia and Islet1 expression during newt heart regeneration and that this information could be translated into future mammalian cardiac studies. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.


Steiger M.G.,Austrian Center of Industrial Biotechnology | Steiger M.G.,University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna | Blumhoff M.L.,University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna | Blumhoff M.L.,FH Campus Wien, University of Applied Sciences | And 4 more authors.
Frontiers in Microbiology | Year: 2013

Itaconic acid is an unsaturated dicarbonic acid which has a high potential as a biochemical building block, because it can be used as a monomer for the production of a plethora of products including resins, plastics, paints, and synthetic fibers. Some Aspergillus species, like A. itaconicus and A. terreus, show the ability to synthesize this organic acid and A. terreus can secrete significant amounts to the media (>80 g/L). However, compared with the citric acid production process (titers >200 g/L) the achieved titers are still low and the overall process is expensive because purified substrates are required for optimal productivity. Itaconate is formed by the enzymatic activity of a cis-aconitate decarboxylase (CadA) encoded by the cadA gene in A. terreus. Cloning of the cadA gene into the citric acid producing fungus A. niger showed that it is possible to produce itaconic acid also in a different host organism. This review will describe the current status and recent advances in the understanding of the molecular processes leading to the biotechnological production of itaconic acid. © 2013 Steiger, Blumhoff, Mattanovich and Sauer.


Stamm T.,Medical University of Vienna | Stamm T.,FH Campus Wien, University of Applied Sciences | Hill J.,Leeds Institute of Molecular Medicine
Musculoskeletal Care | Year: 2011

Background and objective. Due to the increasing prevalence of rheumatic diseases, extended roles of non-physician health professionals and innovative models of care may be important options in rheumatology in the future. Extended roles have been pioneered in the UK, Canada, USA and Australia and been found to be effective and safe. However, few data are available about mainland Europe, so the aim of this study was to explore the current status of the extended roles undertaken by health professionals within Europe, and the corresponding models of care used. Methods. Non-physician health professionals from various European countries were asked to complete a web-based survey using convenience and snowball sampling techniques. Data analysis involved calculating descriptive statistics and frequencies based on the countries where the participants currently worked. Results. Of the 479 health professionals who filled in the survey, 430 (92%) indicated that they were performing extended roles. Considerable differences between the 27 participating countries existed, in terms of which extended roles and which innovative models of care were being used. Barriers to performing extended roles were cited as the attitude of rheumatologists in all but eight countries, while attitudes of patients were less common barriers. Lack of knowledge, education and educational opportunities were also experienced in several countries. Conclusion. The present study produced the first data on extended roles for non-physician health professionals and corresponding innovative models of care in rheumatology within Europe. We recommend increasing educational opportunities, as well as developing strategies to limit the barriers experienced. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Ivanov A.N.,Vienna University of Technology | Wellenzohn M.,Vienna University of Technology | Wellenzohn M.,FH Campus Wien, University of Applied Sciences
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2015

We derive the most general effective low-energy potential to order O(1/m) for slow Dirac fermions with mass m, coupled to gravitational, chameleon and torsion fields in the Einstein-Cartan gravity. The obtained results can be applied to the experimental analysis of gravitational, chameleon and torsion interactions in terrestrial laboratories. We discuss the use of rotating coordinate systems, caused by rotations of devices, for measurements of the torsion vector and tensor components, caused by minimal torsion-fermion couplings [A. N. Ivanov and M. Wellenzohn, Phys. Rev. D 92, 065006 (2015)]. Using the most general form of a metric tensor of curved spacetimes in rotating coordinate systems, proposed by Obukhov, Silenko, and Teryaev [Phys. Rev. D 84, 024025 (2011)], we extend this metric by the inclusion of the chameleon field and calculate the set of vierbein fields, in terms of which Dirac fermions couple to the torsion vector and tensor components through minimal torsion-fermion couplings. For such a set of vierbein fields we discuss a part of the effective low-energy potential for slow Dirac fermions, coupled to gravitational, chameleon and torsion fields to order O(1) in the large fermion mass expansion. © 2015 American Physical Society.


Ivanov A.N.,Vienna University of Technology | Wellenzohn M.,Vienna University of Technology | Wellenzohn M.,FH Campus Wien, University of Applied Sciences
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2015

We propose a version of a gravitational theory with a torsion field, induced by the chameleon field. Following Hojman et al. [Phys. Rev. D 17, 3141 (1976)], the results obtained in Phys. Rev. D 90, 045040 (2014) are generalized by extending Einstein gravity to Einstein-Cartan gravity with a torsion field as a gradient of the chameleon field through a modification of the local gauge invariance of minimal coupling in the Weinberg-Salam electroweak model. The contributions of the chameleon (torsion) field to the observables of electromagnetic and weak processes are calculated. Since in our approach the chameleon-photon coupling constant βγ is equal to the chameleon-matter coupling constant β, i.e., βγ=β, the experimental constraints on β - obtained in terrestrial laboratories by T. Jenke et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 115105 (2014)] and by H. Lemmel et al. [Phys. Lett. B 743, 310 (2015)] - can be used for the analysis of astrophysical sources of chameleons, proposed by C. Burrage et al. [Phys. Rev. D 79, 044028 (2009)], A.-C. Davis et al. [Phys. Rev. D 80, 064016 (2009)], and in references therein, where chameleons induce photons because of direct chameleon-photon transitions in the magnetic fields. © 2015 American Physical Society.


Ivanov A.N.,Vienna University of Technology | Wellenzohn M.,Vienna University of Technology | Wellenzohn M.,FH Campus Wien, University of Applied Sciences
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2015

We analyze a nonrelativistic approximation of the Dirac equation for slow fermions, coupled to the chameleon field and torsion in the spacetime with the Schwarzschild metric, taken in the weak gravitational field of the Earth approximation. We follow the analysis of the Dirac equation in the curved spacetime with torsion, proposed by Kostelecky [Phys. Rev. D 69, 105009 (2004)], and apply the Foldy-Wouthuysen transformations. We derive the effective low-energy gravitational potentials for slow fermions, coupled to the gravitational field of the Earth, the chameleon field and to torsion with minimal and nonminimal couplings. © 2015 American Physical Society.


Birner P.,Medical University of Vienna | Beer A.,Medical University of Vienna | Vinatzer U.,Medical University of Vienna | Stary S.,Medical University of Vienna | And 5 more authors.
Clinical Cancer Research | Year: 2012

Purpose: ETV1 has been proposed to be activated by KIT mutations in gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST). The aim of the study was to evaluate the clinical role of ETV1 and associated proteins in GIST. Experimental Design: Expressions of ETV1, MAPKAP kinase 2 (MAPKAPK2), phosphorylated p38 MAP kinase (pp38), phosphorylated MSK1 (pMSK1), phosphorylated RSK1, COP1, and KIT protein were determined immunohistochemically in 139 GISTs. Sequence analysis of KIT, PDGFRA, and MAPKAPK2 and FISHs of ETV1 as well as chromosomes 1 and 7 were done. Results: Prominent ETV1 expression was seen in 50% of GISTs, but no correlation with clinical outcome was found. Correlation of ETV1 expression and KIT mutation was seen in 60% of cases. MAPKAPK2 overexpression (n = 62/44.6%) correlated with pp38 expression (P = 0.021, χ 2 test) and alterations of chromosome 1 (n = 17, P = 0.024, χ 2 test). In one of 20 sequenced cases with high MAKAPK2 expression, a putative damaging MAPKAPK2 gene mutation was found. All relapsing GISTs with very low/low risk according to Fletcher showed high MAPKAPK2 and KIT expression. MAPKAPK2 overexpression was an independent prognostic factor for disease-free survival (P = 0.006, Cox regression). Conclusion: ETV1 is not universally overexpressed in GIST and seems to also be induced by pathways other than KIT mutation. Nevertheless, its clinical relevance is low. Overexpression of ETV1 inhibitor MAPKAPK2 is associated with shorter survival in GIST, indicating a clinically relevant role of this gene not reported previously. Patients with low-risk GISTs showing MAPKAPK2 overexpression might profit from early adjuvant tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy. ©2012 AACR.


Ivanov A.N.,Vienna University of Technology | Wellenzohn M.,Vienna University of Technology | Wellenzohn M.,FH Campus Wien, University of Applied Sciences
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2016

We analyse the Einstein-Cartan gravity in its standard form R = R + K2, where R and R are the Ricci scalar curvatures in the Einstein-Cartan and Einstein gravity, respectively, and K2 is the quadratic contribution of torsion in terms of the contorsion tensor K. We treat torsion as an external (or background) field and show that its contribution to the Einstein equations can be interpreted in terms of the torsion energy-momentum tensor, local conservation of which in a curved spacetime with an arbitrary metric or an arbitrary gravitational field demands a proportionality of the torsion energy-momentum tensor to a metric tensor, a covariant derivative of which vanishes owing to the metricity condition. This allows us to claim that torsion can serve as an origin for the vacuum energy density, given by the cosmological constant or dark energy density in the universe. This is a model-independent result that may explain the small value of the cosmological constant, which is a long-standing problem in cosmology. We show that the obtained result is valid also in the Poincaré gauge gravitational theory of Kibble, where the Einstein-Hilbert action can be represented in the same form: R = R + K2.


Patent
FH Campus Wien, University of Applied Sciences | Date: 2010-12-08

Invention relates to a eukaryotic host cell comprising a recombinant nucleotide sequence encoding an expression enhancer, which is selected from the group consisting of cLC52, RPL33, cLC61 and functional homologues thereof, and its use in a method of producing a protein of interest (POI).


Patent
FH Campus Wien, University of Applied Sciences | Date: 2010-05-20

Invention relates to a eukaryotic host cell comprising a recombinant nucleotide sequence encoding an expression enhancer, which is selected from the group consisting of cLC52, RPL33 and cLC61, and its use in a method of producing a protein of interest (POI).

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