Ljubljana, Slovenia
Ljubljana, Slovenia

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Tuno N.,University of Zagreb | Mulahusic A.,University of Zagreb | Kogoj D.,FGG Oddelek za geodezijo
Geodetski Vestnik | Year: 2012

This paper presents a basic overview of the historical development of electronic tachymeters, through solutions developed by the German manufacturer Zeiss. This factory is responsible for the first instrument of its kind in the world, which is described with special attention. Subsequently, the possibilities of different tachymeters are illustrated in chronological order, over their three decades of evolution. Finally, an overview on the current state of development and production of Zeiss tachymeters is given, since the plant became an integral part of Trimble's large concern.

Preseren P.P.,FGG Oddelek za geodezijo | Mencin A.,FGG Oddelek za geodezijo | Stopar B.,FGG Oddelek za geodezijo
Geodetski Vestnik | Year: 2010

GNSS-instruments (Global Navigation Satellite System) are the standard field surveying equipment (in addition to tachymeter and levels) for geodetic network establishment and detail surveying. As in the case of other geodetic instruments, it is essential to pre-analyse GNSS-receiver quality parameters, obtained from laboratory calibration and/or field testing of the specific instrument and/or measuring method. Thus, the relevance of the results, as indicated by manufacturer, is obtained that may explain the suitability of a specific GNSS-instrument for field measurements. In 2007, the International Organization of Standardization (ISO), Technical Committee 172, Subcommittee 6 (ISO/TC 172/SC6), presented a comprehensive GNSS field testing procedures for real time measurements, based on statistical evaluation and verification of the manufacturer's hardware and firmware. The test can be performed anywhere on the field assuming that the test area includes minimal potential influences to GNSS measurements. At the same time, a test does not require any additional processing software, because the test data evaluation is based on elementary statistics. This paper presents the theoretical basis of GNSS instrument testing in accordance with the ISO 17123-8 guidelines and further examination of specific measurements on the selected site.

Marjetic A.,FGG Oddelek za geodezijo | Ambrozic T.,FGG Oddelek za geodezijo | Kogoj D.,FGG Oddelek za geodezijo
Geodetski Vestnik | Year: 2011

This article deals with practical examples of the applications of modern tachymeters in the determination of the nonverticality of high industrial chimneys, as an alternative to the classic methods. The possibility of a reflectorless measuring mode to determine the point cloud at the chimney's circumference is described. Using these points, we are able to model the chimney as a mathematically correct body using the least squares adjustment method. Subsequently, the unknown nonverticality of the chimney is determined as the deviation of the primary axis of the modelled body from the vertical.

This paper describes GNSS-processing optimisation for better autonomous single-point positioning using single frequency code receivers. GNSS processing improvement is carried out in terms of near-real time ionosphere delay modelling, which will be crucial during the upcoming 24th maximum solar cycle. The main scope of this article is to examine how sudden changes in the ionosphere, caused by events on the Sun, affect autonomous single-point positioning in simple navigation tasks. Further, the specific method of ionosphere delay modelling from actual two-frequency receivers, acquiring carrier phase and code observations, is shown. The modelled value of the ionospheric refraction, which is given in GNSS path delay, is further used in point positioning from single-frequency code instruments. In addition, we show the advantage of GNSS permanent stations that can supply a wide range of users with better ionosphere data in near real time. From actual experiments, the magnitude of the ionospheric impact on each specific 3D position component is shown and further improved using modelled ionosphere delay values. Finally, we show how to improve GNSS position determination from simple single-or two-frequency GNSS code or carrier-phase receivers in differential GNSS method. This study was conducted for preparations for the upcoming solar cycle maximum, expected to be held in May 2013.

At each point of the geodetic network, kinematic quantities are considered: normal strain, shear strain and rotation. This differs from the treatment of deformations on the basis of point movements as the traditional geodetic approach. Strain and rotation depend on the changes of geodetic datum. In the case of two different coordinate systems in each epoch, we cannot calculate the real value of movements, strains and rotations. Despite the empirical studies of the datum invariance, we derived analytical mathematical expressions of functional dependency of strains and rotations from the relative change of datum parameters between two measurement epochs. Practical demonstration of functional dependencies has been shown in the case of the selected planar geodetic network.

Vrecko A.,FGG Oddelek za geodezijo | Ambrozic T.,FGG Oddelek za geodezijo
Geodetski Vestnik | Year: 2013

In this article, the Fredericton approach to deformation analysis is presented. It is possible to use several deformation models to determine the differences between the geodetic observations or between the coordinates of points in geodetic network in more epochs. The most appropriate deformation model has been chosen based on statistical testing and available information about dynamics at the area of interest. First, a theoretical background of the approach is described. Then it is applied to the generated observations in two epochs. In the present example, the results of the Fredericton approach differ only slightly from the results obtained with the Delft, Karlsruhe in Hannover approaches.

Cimpric T.,Sving konzultanti d. o. o | Lamovsek A.Z.,FGG Oddelek za geodezijo | Lisec A.,FGG Oddelek za geodezijo
Geodetski Vestnik | Year: 2013

This article discusses the field of agricultural land protection against soil sealing in Slovenia from the perspective of the land development tax applied to land-use changes. In Slovenia, the land development tax for agricultural land use change was introduced in 1970s with the aim to slow-down the then huge interventions in agricultural land and at the same time to get financial resources for investments in agriculture, in particular for the purpose of agrarian operations. In the research, the methodology for calculating the land development tax for conversion of agricultural land to built-up land and the amount of the tax in Slovenia during reference intervals in the study period 1979-2012 is analysed. The results of the research are presented together with the legal framework, which regulated the discussed field in individual time periods. For the study period, an analysis of methodology for calculating the agricultural land development tax was done for three cadastral districts (Novo mesto, Kranjska Gora and Murska Sobota), and an in-depth analysis of actual payments was done in the area of administrative unit of Lendava in the cadastral district of Murska Sobota. It has been shown that the amount of the agricultural land development tax was changing in the study period and that its value in the past had significantly exceeded the amount, which was determined with the change of legislation in 2011, and has been even decreased in 2012.

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