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Lubary M.,Technical University of Delft | Jansens P.J.,Technical University of Delft | Ter Horst J.H.,Technical University of Delft | Hofland G.W.,Feyecon Development and Implementation
AIChE Journal | Year: 2010

We developed an efficient, integrated reaction-extraction process for the production of short-chain fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) from milk fat, using carbon dioxide as the only processing solvent. FAEE were synthesized using a short-chain fatty acid selective lipase. The expansion of the liquid mixture of reactants by dense carbon dioxide enhanced the apparent lipase selectivity. In situ extraction of FAEE by a continuous flow of supercritical carbon dioxide proved to increase the lipase production rate. When the integrated process was operated with alternated periods of synthesis and product removal, the overall selectivity for short-chain FAEE increased as well, as a result of the combination of the selectivities of lipase and extraction solvent. A two-fold increase of the lipase productivity was achieved at these conditions, compared to a single batch reaction. The developed process enables the synthesis and isolation of high-value fatty acid derivatives from a natural source such as milk fat. © 2009 American Institute of Chemical Engineers. Source


Lubary M.,Technical University of Delft | Hofland G.W.,Feyecon Development and Implementation | ter Horst J.H.,Technical University of Delft
European Food Research and Technology | Year: 2011

The overall decline in milk fat consumption experienced in the last decades has promoted global research efforts seeking for alternate uses of this valuable natural fat. Milk fat possesses a pleasant flavor and a rich chemical composition, including a range of bioactive, health beneficial minor components. The main drawbacks of milk fat from the consumer point of view are its poor spreadability at refrigeration temperature and its high content in saturated fatty acids, which raises health concerns. However, the rich fatty acid composition of milk fat could be utilized for the production of a wide range of added-value derivatives in the food and cosmetic industries, including nutritionally enhanced modified fats, food emulsifiers, flavors, and tailor-made lipids. A promising strategy for the revalorization of milk fat encompasses the isolation and commercialization of the valuable minor components of milk fat, coupled with a broader utilization of physically or nutritionally improved milk fat fractions and derivative products. © 2010 The Author(s). Source


Lubary M.,Technical University of Delft | De Loos T.W.,Technical University of Delft | Ter Horst J.H.,Technical University of Delft | Hofland G.W.,Feyecon Development and Implementation
Journal of Supercritical Fluids | Year: 2011

The ScMM (Supercritical Melt Micronization) process was applied for the production of microparticles from anhydrous milk fat (AMF) and a diacylglycerol-based modified milk fat (D-AMF). Both fats were able to dissolve ca. 30 wt% CO2 in the studied pressure and temperature ranges, being the CO2 amount slightly higher for AMF. A melting point depression was observed in both systems in the presence of CO2. Two powder morphologies were obtained (spherical hollow particles and a mass sponge-like broken particles) depending on the ScMM process conditions. The concentration of CO2 in the fat melt was the main process variable affecting the particle morphology, followed by the temperature of the melt. The small broken particles originated from the breakage of spherical fat particles that solidified before all CO2 could escape from the atomized droplets. While the hollow spheres had a tendency to agglomerate, the broken microparticles constituted a free-flowing powder as long as they were stored at low temperatures (up to -18 °C). Both types of particles have a potential for being incorporated in refrigerated or frozen food products as a structuring agent. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Lubary M.,Technical University of Delft | Hofland G.W.,Feyecon Development and Implementation | ter Horst J.H.,Technical University of Delft
European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology | Year: 2011

We propose a novel process for the production of a DAG-rich acylglycerol mixture derived from milk fat. This product has potentially interesting nutritional properties, derived from both its high content of DAG and of short-chain fatty acids (FAs). The proposed process consists of three steps: lipase-catalysed partial ethanolysis of milk fat, extraction of the by-product fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) and isomerization of DAG to increase the proportion of 1,3-DAG. The experimental investigation of the process steps was done using milk fat and trilaurin. Several lipases were tested for maximizing the percentage of DAG in the acylglycerol mixture produced by ethanolysis. The selectivity of the chosen lipase was such that the produced AG mixture was enriched in short-chain FAs in relation to the original milk fat. FAEEs were completely extracted from the ethanolysis mixture by SC-CO2. In the final process step, we explored the reaction conditions for facilitating acyl migration in the DAG mixture, so that the equilibrium proportion of 1,3-DAG (∼64%) was attained. Our results set the basis for the development of a simple process for the production of a DAG-rich milk fat analogue. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source


Lubary M.,Technical University of Delft | Hofland G.W.,Feyecon Development and Implementation | ter Horst J.H.,Technical University of Delft
Lipid Technology | Year: 2010

Lipase-catalyzed reactions and supercritical technology are powerful tools that can be effectively combined for the modification and processing of fats. In addition, both are "green" technologies, which can produce high-quality, food-grade products without the need of additional solvents. We show two examples in which milk fat was used as raw material for the production of added-value derivatives: shortchain fatty acid ethyl esters, which are natural flavor agents; and a diacylglycerol-based, potentially superior dietary fat. In both cases we applied a combination of lipases and supercritical carbon dioxide extraction for the synthesis and separation of products. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source

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