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Alessandria, Italy

Bozzetti V.,Neonatal Intensive Care Unit | Paterlini G.,Neonatal Intensive Care Unit | Bel F.V.,Utrecht Medical Center | Visser G.H.A.,Utrecht Medical Center | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Maternal-Fetal and Neonatal Medicine | Year: 2016

Background: Fetal growth restriction (intra-uterine growth restriction [IUGR]) has a considerable impact on perinatal morbidity. Preterm IUGR infants are prone to impaired intestine function. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has been used to monitor oxygenation status of the brain and of the intestine.Patients and methods: We conducted a prospective case-control study at our NICU in 20 preterm infants of whom 10 infants complicated by compared with 10 non-IUGR preterm infants. Splanchnic and cerebral regional oximetry values were measured with NIRS. Three hours of consecutive recordings were performed in the first 24 h of life, T0, and during the transitional period, T1. The cerebral/splanchnic oxygenation ratio, CSOR, (cerebral regional saturations [rScO2]/splanchnic regional saturations [rSsO2]) was also calculated.Results: Both in the IUGR and the non-IUGR infants, at T0 and T1 monitoring time-points, the rSO2 values were higher in the cerebral district when compared to those of the splanchnic area. Comparison of the NIRS parameters between the IUGR and non-IUGR infants at T0 showed no difference in rScO2, while rSsO2 was significantly lower in the IUGR group. At T1, rScO2 was significantly lower and rSsO2 higher in the IUGR group.Conclusions: Cerebral/splanchnic vascular adaptation of IUGR infants to the extra-uterine environment is characterized by a postnatal persistence of the brain sparing effect with reperfusion in the transitional period. © 2015 Informa UK Ltd. Source


Michetti F.,University Cattolica Sacro Cuore | Corvino V.,University Cattolica Sacro Cuore | Geloso M.C.,University Cattolica Sacro Cuore | Lattanzi W.,University Cattolica Sacro Cuore | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Neurochemistry | Year: 2012

S100B is a calcium-binding protein concentrated in glial cells, although it has also been detected in definite extra-neural cell types. Its biological role is still debated. When secreted, S100B is believed to have paracrine/autocrine trophic effects at physiological concentrations, but toxic effects at higher concentrations. Elevated S100B levels in biological fluids (CSF, blood, urine, saliva, amniotic fluid) are thus regarded as a biomarker of pathological conditions, including perinatal brain distress, acute brain injury, brain tumors, neuroinflammatory/neurodegenerative disorders, psychiatric disorders. In the majority of these conditions, high S100B levels offer an indicator of cell damage when standard diagnostic procedures are still silent. The key question remains as to whether S100B is merely leaked from injured cells or is released in concomitance with both physiological and pathological conditions, participating at high concentrations in the events leading to cell injury. In this respect, S100B levels in biological fluids have been shown to increase in physiological conditions characterized by stressful physical and mental activity, suggesting that it may be physiologically regulated and raised during conditions of stress, with a putatively active role. This possibility makes this protein a candidate not only for a biomarker but also for a potential therapeutic target. © 2011 International Society for Neurochemistry. Source


Bersani I.,Neonatal Intensive Care Unit | Auriti C.,Neonatal Intensive Care Unit | Ronchetti M.P.,Neonatal Intensive Care Unit | Prencipe G.,Bambino Gesu Childrens Hospital | And 2 more authors.
BioMed Research International | Year: 2015

The identification of early noninvasive biochemical markers of disease is a crucial issue of the current scientific research, particularly during the first period of life, since it could provide useful and precocious diagnostic information when clinical and radiological signs are still silent. The ideal biomarker should be practical and sensitive in the precocious identification of at risk patients. An earlier diagnosis may lead to a larger therapeutic window and improve neonatal outcome. Brain damage and sepsis are common causes of severe morbidity with poor outcome and mortality during the perinatal period. A large number of potential biomarkers, including neuroproteins, calcium binding proteins, enzymes, oxidative stress markers, vasoactive agents, and inflammatory mediators, have been so far investigated. The aim of the present review was to provide a brief overview of some of the more commonly investigated biomarkers used in case of neonatal brain damage and sepsis. © 2015 Iliana Bersani et al. Source


Bellissima V.,Fetal and Neonatal Medicine
The journal of maternal-fetal & neonatal medicine : the official journal of the European Association of Perinatal Medicine, the Federation of Asia and Oceania Perinatal Societies, the International Society of Perinatal Obstetricians | Year: 2011

The use of antidepressant drugs during pregnancy is rapidly increasing both in Europe and in the USA, with controversial data regarding side-effects on fetus and newborn. We investigated, in pregnant women and in fetal biological fluids whether the concentrations of a brain protein, Activin A, changed in association with the use of selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRI). We conducted a case control study in 24 women treated with SSRIs, matched with 24 healthy pregnancies as controls. Maternal blood (during labor, T1), fetal blood (venous (T2) and arterial [T3] umbilical cord blood) and amniotic fluid (T4) were drawn for standard laboratory assessment and for Activin A measurement. Activin A concentrations in maternal and fetal biological fluids were significantly higher in SSRI users than in the control groups(P < 0.05, for all). Activin A in maternal and fetal biological fluids is increased after SSRI administration in the third trimester of pregnancy. The present findings open up a new cue for further studies aimed at investigating protein's key role in central nervous system protection/damage in pregnant women using these drugs. Source


Sannia A.,University of Genoa | Zimmermann L.J.I.,Maastricht University | Gavilanes A.W.D.,Maastricht University | Vles H.J.,Maastricht University | And 4 more authors.
Clinica Chimica Acta | Year: 2011

Background: Brain S100B assessment in maternal blood has been proposed as a useful tool for early perinatal brain damage detection. Among potential confounding factors the possibility of a protein gradient between maternal and fetal bloodstreams under pathophysiological conditions is consistent. The present study investigates in healthy and small gestational age fetuses (SGA) whether S100B concentrations differ among fetal and maternal bloodstreams. Methods: We conducted a case-control study in 160 pregnancies (SGA: n = 80; healthy: n = 80), in which standard monitoring parameters were recorded. S100B was assessed in arterial cord and in maternal blood samples at birth. Eighty non pregnant women (NP), matched for age at sampling, served as controls (1 SGA vs. 1 healthy vs. 1 NP). Results: Fetal S100B in SGA and healthy groups was significantly higher (P < 0.01) than that detected in the maternal district and in NP women groups, respectively. No differences in protein's gradient between fetal and maternal bloodstreams (P > 0.05) were observed between groups. No differences (P > 0.05) in fetal S100B have been found between the studied groups. Maternal S100B of SGA and healthy groups was significantly higher (P < 0.01) than that detected in NP women. No differences in maternal S100B concentrations (P > 0.05) were observed between SGA and control groups. Conclusion: The present study shows that S100B is pregnancy-dependent with the presence of a protein's gradient between fetal and maternal bloodstreams. The present data suggests that non-invasive fetal brain monitoring is becoming possible in opening a new cue on further investigations on S100B fetal/maternal gradient changes under pathological conditions. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source

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