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Skalska K.,Technical University of Lodz | Miller J.S.,Technical University of Lodz | Wilk M.,Fertilizers Research Institute | Ledakowicz S.,Technical University of Lodz
Ozone: Science and Engineering | Year: 2012

Attempts to develop new technologies of reduction of NOx emission are still carried out all around the world. However, most of them as literature survey suggests is focused on NOx emission control from power plants and mobile vehicles. Fewer investigations are conducted on the NOx emission abatement from the chemical industry. One of the relatively new approaches is the application of ozone injection into exhaust gas stream followed by an absorption process. Ozone is used to transform NOx to higher nitrogen oxides that are more soluble in water, and therefore the higher yield of nitric acid is expected. The main objective of this article is to present results of our studies in which the effectiveness of the ozonation process, as well as the dependence of the conversion rate and the selectivities of NO ozonation into NO2, N2O5 and HNO3 on the residence time of reagents in the reactor space were studied. Results of laboratory investigations were confirmed during ozonation experiments with real exhaust gases from a nitric acid pilot plant in Fertilizers Research Institute in Pulawy, Poland. © 2012 Copyright 2012 International Ozone Association. Source


Labuzek K.,University of Silesia | Gorki K.,University of Silesia | Jaroszek H.,Fertilizers Research Institute | Jarzabek K.,University of Silesia | And 2 more authors.
CNS and Neurological Disorders - Drug Targets | Year: 2013

The blood-brain barrier significantly impedes treatment of central nervous system disorders by preventing drug entry into the brain. Several strategies have been developed to overcome this problem, but progress has been hampered due to a lack of efficacious drug delivery systems (DDS). Now, owing to DDS, therapeutic compounds can be transported to the site of action and accumulate there. This modern approach allows one to decrease the required dose of drug and, therefore, minimize toxicity and side effects. Also, treatment efficiency is increased. Highly organized nanostructures made of biological, polymeric or carbon-based materials are promising carriers in drug delivery to the brain, due to their unique and easily tailorable properties. The drug can be either attached to or entrapped in a carrier. To achieve greater site specificity and selectivity, DDS can be also modified with suitable ligands, providing identification of the molecular site of action. This review illustrates recent advances in using highly-organized structures: dendrimers, fullerenes, liposomes, micelles, nanogels, nanoparticles and nanotubes for this purpose. We also discuss advantages and limitations of each system. © 2013 Bentham Science Publishers. Source


Wojcik P.,Research Institute of Horticulture | Borowik M.,Fertilizers Research Institute
Journal of Plant Nutrition | Year: 2013

The aim of the study was to examine effect of preharvest sprays of a mixture of calcium (Ca) formate, Ca-acetate, Ca-chloride (CaCl2) and Ca-nitrate [Ca(NO3)2] on quality and apple storability. The experiment was conducted during 2008-2009 at the Experimental Station of the Research Institute of Horticulture in Skierniewice, Poland, on mature 'Jonagold' apple trees/M.26, planted at a moderate density on a coarse-textured soil with low status of organic matter and abundant in exchangeable Ca. Apple trees were sprayed with Ca, 7 times per season, at 2-week intervals, starting 3 weeks after blooming. In the spray treatments a mixture of Ca-formate, Ca-acetate, CaCl2 and Ca(NO3)2 (as Insol Wap fertilizer), CaCl2 or Ca(NO3)2 were used at rates of 7.3 kg Ca, 11.8 kg Ca, and 9.9 kg Ca ha-1 per season, respectively. The trees sprayed with water were treated as the control. The results showed that Ca sprays caused no leaf and fruit injury. Calcium spray measures did not affect yield, mean fruit weight, and soluble solids concentration (SSC), titratable acidity and starch index of fruit at harvest. However, at harvest apples sprayed with Ca contained more this nutrient and were firmer than those of the control plots. After storage apples sprayed with Ca had more acids, and were firmer and less liable to bitter pit than the control fruit. Calcium sprays did not affect SSC of fruit after storage but reduced postharvest decay of fruit caused by Peziculla spp. and Penicillium expansum fungi. Apples sprayed with Insol Wap material were the least affected by the above pathogens. It is concluded that in apple orchards preharvest sprays of a mixture of Ca-formate, Ca-acetate, CaCl2 and Ca(NO3)2, containing 10% Ca (w/w) with ca. 50% in an organic form, can be the alternative to sprays of CaCl2 or Ca(NO3)2. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source


Smolik M.,Silesian University of Technology | Turkowska M.,Fertilizers Research Institute
Talanta | Year: 2013

A method of determination of low amounts of tantalum in niobium and niobium compounds without its prior separation by means of inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) has been worked out. The method involves dissolution of the analyzed samples of niobium as well as its various compounds (oxides, fluorides, chlorides, niobates(V)) in fluoride environments, precipitation of sparingly soluble niobic(tantalic) acid (Nb2O 5(Ta2O5)·xH2O), converting them into soluble complex compounds by means of oxalic acid with addition of hydrogen peroxide and finally analyzing directly obtained solutions by ICP-OES. This method permits determination of Ta in niobium at the level of 10 -3% with relatively good precision (≤8% RSD) and accuracy (recovery factor: 0.9-1.1). Relative differences in the results obtained by two independent methods (ICP-OES and ICP-MS) do not exceed 14%, and other elements present in niobium compounds (Ti, W, Zr, Hf, V, Mo, Fe, Cr) at the level of 10-2% do not affect determination. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source


Eggers R.,TU Hamburg - Harburg | Jaeger P.,TU Hamburg - Harburg | Heinrich H.,TU Hamburg - Harburg | Roj E.,Fertilizers Research Institute
Journal of Supercritical Fluids | Year: 2010

Swelling of plant material belonging to several plant families and the influence of swelling on supercritical fluid extraction process were investigated in this study. While swelling of Lamiaceae family species as well as hop cones and pellets occurred during the exposure of plant material to supercritical carbon dioxide, swelling of valerian root and ginger rhizome happened after the decompression step. Optimal pretreatment of herbaceous matrix which will enable commencement of continuous extraction from already swollen plant material was defined on the basis of swelling test results. Experimental results were modeled and energy savings due to the optimal processing on the laboratory scale were calculated. Sorption of carbon dioxide into the hop pellet was measured and the diffusion coefficient in the solid phase was determined. Obtained results indicated that the effective diffusion coefficient in the hop pellet was increased by one order of magnitude due to swelling. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

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