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Weiss J.P.,Brooklyn College | Herschorn S.,University of Toronto | Albei C.D.,Clinical Research | Van Der Meulen E.A.,Ferring International PharmaScience Center
Journal of Urology | Year: 2013

Purpose: We investigated the efficacy and safety of 50 and 75 μg desmopressin orally disintegrating tablets in men with nocturia (2 or more nocturnal voids). Materials and Methods: In this 3-month, randomized, double-blind, parallel study 50 and 75 μg desmopressin were compared with placebo. The co-primary efficacy end points were changes from baseline in mean number of nocturnal voids and proportions of patients achieving at least a 33% reduction from baseline in nocturnal voids (33% responders) during a 3-month treatment period. Results: The full analysis set comprised 385 men (age range 20 to 87 years). The 50 and 75 μg doses significantly reduced the number of nocturnal voids (-0.37, p <0.0001 and -0.41, p = 0.0003, respectively) and increased the odds of a 33% or greater response (OR 1.98, p = 0.0009 and OR 2.04, p = 0.0004, respectively) compared with placebo during 3 months. Desmopressin 50 and 75 μg increased the time to first void from baseline by approximately 40 minutes compared to placebo (p = 0.006 and p = 0.003, respectively). The response to desmopressin was seen by 1 week of treatment and was sustained. Significant increases in health related quality of life and sleep quality were observed compared to placebo. Desmopressin was well tolerated as only 2 subjects (age 74 and 79 years) on 50 μg had a serum sodium level of less than 130 mmol/L (vs 9 subjects on 75 μg). Conclusions: Desmopressin (orally disintegrating tablet) is an effective and well tolerated treatment for men with nocturia. Treatment with 50 μg desmopressin, the minimum effective dose, provided sustained improvement of nocturia throughout the study and meaningful benefits to patients with an improved safety profile. © 2013 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Source


Juul K.V.,Ferring International PharmaScience Center
Endocrine | Year: 2012

In this mini-review, current evidence for how the vasopressin/V2-type receptor/aquaporin axis developed co-evolutionary as a crucial part of the urine-concentrating mechanism will be presented. The present-day human kidney, allowing the concentration of urine up to a maximal osmolality around 1200 mosmol kg-1-or urine to plasma osmolality ratio around 4-with essentially no sodium secreted is the result of up to 3 billion years evolution. Moving from aquatic to terrestrial habitats required profound changes in kidney morphology, most notable the loops of Henle modifying the kidneys from basically a water excretory system to a water conserving system. Vasopressin-like molecules has during the evolution played a significant role in body fluid homeostasis, more specifically, the osmolality of body liquids by controlling the elimination/reabsorption of fluid trough stimulating V2-type receptors to mobilize aquaporin water channels in the renal collector tubules. Recent evidence supports that all components of the vasopressin/V2-type receptor/aquaporin axis can be traced back to early precursors in evolutionary history. The potential clinical and pharmacological implications of a better phylogenetic understanding of these biological systems so essential for body fluid homeostasis relates to any pathological aspects of the urine-concentrating mechanism, in particular deficiencies of any part of the vasopressin-V2R-AQP2 axis causing central or nephrogenic diabetes insipidus-and for broader patient populations also in preventing and treating disturbances in human circadian regulation of urine volume and osmolality that may lead to enuresis and nocturia. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012. Source


Weiss J.P.,SUNY Downstate Medical School | Zinner N.R.,University of California at Los Angeles | Klein B.M.,Ferring International PharmaScience Center | Norgaard J.P.,Ferring International PharmaScience Center
Neurourology and Urodynamics | Year: 2012

Aims The primary objective was to investigate the efficacy of desmopressin orally disintegrating tablet versus placebo in patients with nocturia. Pharmacodynamics, safety and patient-reported quality of life (QoL) outcomes were also evaluated. One of several benefits of the new formulation is increased bioavailability. Exploring lower doses allows for a better evaluation of therapeutic effect versus tolerability. Methods This was a 4-week, randomized, double-blind study comparing 10, 25, 50, or 100μg desmopressin versus placebo in adults with defined nocturia. Results The intent to treat population comprised 757 patients experiencing ∼3 voids/night and a high prevalence of nocturnal polyuria (∼90%). Increasing doses of desmopressin were associated with decreasing numbers of nocturnal voids and voided volume, greater proportions of subjects with >33% reduction in nocturnal voids, and increased duration of first sleep period. The lowest dose reaching statistical significance (P<0.05 vs. placebo) varied by endpoint. Improvements were clinically meaningful, meaning that patients actually had fewer nightly voids. Post hoc analyses by gender suggested a lower minimum effective dose for women. Desmopressin was generally well tolerated. Reductions in serum sodium to <125mmol/L in six women (taking >25μg desmopressin) and two men (aged 67 and 82) taking 100μg, support lower and gender-specific dosing to reduce the small but clinically significant risk of hyponatraemia. Each void reduced/hour of sleep gained was associated with significant improvements in QoL. Conclusions Desmopressin orally disintegrating tablet is an effective and well-tolerated treatment for patients with nocturia. Further exploration of the lower dose range is warranted. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source


Yamaguchi O.,Nihon University | Nishizawa O.,Shinshu University | Juul K.V.,Ferring International PharmaScience Center | Norgaard J.P.,Ferring International PharmaScience Center
BJU International | Year: 2013

What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Desmopressin orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) 60-240 μg has proved an effective and well-tolerated antidiuretic treatment in male and female patients with nocturia. The main adverse event is hyponatraemia. Recent studies suggest that female patients are more sensitive to desmopressin ODT, achieving the same efficacy at lower doses than male patients. The study demonstrates the efficacy of desmopressin ODT in male and female Japanese patients with nocturia. It provides further evidence that the optimum desmopressin dose for the treatment of nocturia is lower in females than in males. Tailoring the dose according to gender provides an improved therapeutic window with the benefits of a decreased risk of hyponatraemia without compromising efficacy. Objectives To establish the dose-response efficacy of desmopressin in a Japanese patient population for the treatment of nocturia. To explore gender differences in sensitivity to desmopressin in Japanese patients with nocturia. Patients and Methods A phase II multicentre, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel-group, comparative clinical trial was conducted. Subjects aged 55-75 years, with a mean of ≥2 voids per night, were included and randomized to receive placebo or one of four doses of desmopressin orally disintegrating tablet (ODT): 10 μg, 25 μg, 50 μg or 100 μg. The dose-response relationship of pharmacodynamic variables measured after a single dose of desmopressin administered to water-loaded subjects (treatment period 1) was compared with the primary clinical endpoint of change from baseline in mean number of nocturnal voids, after 28 days of desmopressin treatment (treatment period 2). Results A total of 116 patients were treated in treatment period 1 of whom 113 qualified for treatment period 2, and 111 completed the study. In treatment period 1 a dose-response relationship was observed, both overall and in each gender group. Overall, the duration of antidiuretic action (DOA; time with urine osmolality >200 mOsm/kg) for the 25, 50 and 100 μg doses was 2 h (P = 0.010), 3.45 h (P < 0.001) and 5.74 h (P < 0.001), respectively; all statistically significant compared with placebo. Female patients were found to be more sensitive to desmopressin; DOA in female patients was longer than in male patients after desmopressin 25 and 50 μg. Extrapolation suggests that male patients require ∼58 μg to achieve similar DOA to females receiving 25 μg. A dose-response relationship was also seen in treatment period 2 for the group overall with a greater reduction in mean number of nocturnal voids from baseline to day 28 at higher doses, and with significant reductions in the 25- (P = 0.015) 50- (P < 0.001) and 100-μg (P = 0.001) dose groups compared with placebo. Similar dose-response relationships were also seen when the data were analysed by gender. Desmopressin ODT was well tolerated with no serious or severe adverse events. Conclusions A dose-response relationship for desmopressin ODT was shown in a population of Japanese patients with nocturia. The study suggests that the optimum desmopressin dose for the treatment of nocturia is lower in females than in males, indicating a gender-specific therapeutic window with a decreased risk of hyponatraemia without compromising efficacy on reduction of nocturnal voids. Further dose-finding studies are planned to confirm the recommended dose for the treatment of nocturia in a Japanese patient population. © 2012 BJU International. Source


Sand P.K.,Central University of Costa Rica | Dmochowski R.R.,Vanderbilt University | Reddy J.,Ferring International PharmaScience Center | Van Der Meulen E.A.,Ferring International PharmaScience Center
Journal of Urology | Year: 2013

Purpose: Previous studies suggest a lower dose of desmopressin orally disintegrating tablet may be effective in females compared to males with nocturia. We confirm the efficacy and safety of 25 μg desmopressin orally disintegrating tablet compared to placebo in female patients. Materials and Methods: In this 3-month, randomized, double-blind, parallel group study 25 μg desmopressin once daily was compared to placebo in women with nocturia (2 or more nocturnal voids). The co-primary efficacy end points were change from baseline in mean number of nocturnal voids and proportion of patients achieving at least a 33% reduction from baseline in the mean number of nocturnal voids (33% responders). Results: The full analysis set comprised 261 patients (age range 19 to 87 years). Desmopressin significantly reduced the mean number of nocturnal voids and increased the odds of a 33% or greater response compared to placebo during 3 months, assessed by longitudinal analysis (-0.22, p = 0.028 and OR 1.85, p = 0.006, respectively). Desmopressin increased the mean time to first nocturnal void by 49 minutes compared to placebo at 3 months (p = 0.003). The response to desmopressin was seen by week 1 of treatment and was sustained throughout the trial. Significant increases in health related quality of life and sleep quality were observed compared to placebo. Desmopressin was well tolerated. Serum sodium levels remained greater than 125 mmol/L throughout the trial and 3 transient decreases to less than 130 mmol/L were recorded. Conclusions: At a dose of 25 μg, desmopressin orally disintegrating tablet is an effective and well tolerated treatment for women with nocturia. Treatment provides rapid and sustained improvement in nocturia and quality of life. © 2013 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Source

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