Bayyarapu V.B.,Fernandez Hospital |
Gundabattula S.R.,Fernandez Hospital
Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology of India | Year: 2017
Purpose: Interstitial, angular and rudimentary horn pregnancies have all been referred to as cornual pregnancies despite definite diagnostic criteria. Angular pregnancies can be followed up expectantly under close surveillance while interstitial and rudimentary horn pregnancies are terminated by medical or surgical methods. This study aimed to assess accuracy of ultrasound in the diagnosis of ‘cornual pregnancy’ and evaluate management. Methods: Data pertaining to clinical features, ultrasound findings and treatment modalities of the aforementioned conditions between January 2002 and December 2015 at a tertiary perinatal centre were retrieved from the medical records. The ultrasound images and surgical videos were reviewed by the authors. Results: Of 62 cases, 35 were interstitial, 26 were angular/eccentric intrauterine, and 1 was a rudimentary horn pregnancy. The accuracy of ultrasonography in the diagnosis of interstitial and angular pregnancies was 71.0 and 46.8%, respectively. Medical management was successful in 33.3% of interstitial pregnancies. Fifteen women with interstitial pregnancy had subsequent pregnancies and nine (75.0%) were Caesarean deliveries. Rupture and recurrence rates of interstitial pregnancy were 34.2 and 2.9%, respectively. The rudimentary horn pregnancy was managed by laparoscopic excision followed by a subsequent term delivery. Conclusion: This study identified frequent occurrences of imprecise nomenclature that resulted in mismanagement of a few potentially viable angular pregnancies. It is imperative for clinicians and sonologists to use unambiguous nomenclature and avoid the term ‘cornual pregnancy’ altogether. © 2017 Federation of Obstetric & Gynecological Societies of India
Gundabattula S.R.,Fernandez Hospital |
Surampudi K.,Fernandez Hospital
International Urogynecology Journal | Year: 2017
Introduction and hypothesis: Despite several studies that have reported risk factors for obstetric anal sphincter injuries (OASI), data from the Indian subcontinent are scarce. The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors for these sphincter injuries in an Indian population. Methods: This was a case–control study within a retrospective cohort of vaginal deliveries at a tertiary care facility. All vaginal births beyond 24 completed weeks of gestation and birth weight ≥500 g from January 2008 to December 2012 were identified from the hospital electronic database. Cases were women with OASI sustained during vaginal delivery; the rest constituted controls. Potential risk factors for occurrence and severity of OASI were assessed initially using bivariate analysis and then a logistic regression model. Results: The incidence of sphincter injury was 2.1% of vaginal births and 1.1% of all deliveries, and major-degree (3c and 4th-degree) tears constituted 20.9% of tears. After adjusted analysis, significant predictors for injury included primiparity, delivery at or beyond 41 weeks of gestation, epidural analgesia, instrumental delivery, shoulder dystocia, birth weight ≥4000 g, and head circumference ≥35 cm. Episiotomy protected against sphincter injuries, particularly in forceps and ventouse deliveries. Shoulder dystocia was significantly associated with major-degree tears, while episiotomy appeared to be protective. Conclusion: Risk factors are similar to those in other population groups; however, primiparity appears to be associated with lesser risk and forceps delivery with greater risk of sphincter trauma than previously reported. © 2017 The International Urogynecological Association
Perfetto J.C.,University of Buenos Aires |
Ruiz G.A.,Fernandez Hospital
IFMBE Proceedings | Year: 2017
The baroreflex is not only an important marker of cardiac risk, but also can serve as a monitor of improvements in baroreflex sensitivity and consequences of drug treatments, physical training, etc. Sensitivity is not the only parameter of baroreflex function, but another very important is the set point. This allows to know the value of blood pressure that baroreflex tries to stabilize. A method to obtain the Blood Pressure Set Point corresponding to vagal baroreflex curve, based on the analysis of blood pressure and heart pulse interval variability is presented. The Eurobavar, which is a heterogeneous dataset, extracted from subjects with different reflex response is used to test the method. Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP) and interval time between beats (RR) series are constructed using records from that Dataset. From both series baroreflex sequences are extracted using traditional Sequence Method. Instead of computing the average of the slopes obtained from all arterial pressure points, we segment the pressure space in non-overlapping windows of 10 mm of Hg wide averaging the gain values corresponding to pressure values within each window (data binning). The Blood Pressure corresponding to the maximum of histograms curves, constructed from SBP of the baroreflex sequences, is used to contrast the result obtained with other method. Results were 119 ± 17,7mmHg for method 1 and 118 ± 21,9 mmHg for method 2. In conclusion, with only rearranging the data, an important parameter, such as Set Point of the baroreflex, can be achieved. © Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2017.
Sharma D.,Fernandez Hospital |
Shastri S.,ACPM Medical College
Journal of Maternal-Fetal and Neonatal Medicine | Year: 2016
Neonatal sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) are two most important neonatal problems in nursery which constitute the bulk of neonatal mortality and morbidity. Inflammatory mediators secondary to sepsis and NEC increases morbidity, by affecting various system of body like lung, brain and eye, thus causing long term implications. Lactoferrin (LF) is a component of breast milk and multiple actions that includes antimicrobial, antiviral, anti-fungal and anti-cancer and various other actions. Few studies have been completed and a number of them are in progress for evaluation of efficacy and safety of LF in the prevention of neonatal sepsis and NEC in field of neonatology. In future, LF prophylaxis and therapy may have a significant impact in improving clinical outcomes of vulnerable preterm neonates. This review analyse the role of lactoferrin in prevention of neonatal sepsis and NEC, with emphasis on mechanism of action, recent studies and current studies going on around the globe. © 2015 Informa UK Ltd.
Kumar N.,Fernandez Hospital |
Murki S.,Fernandez Hospital
Indian Pediatrics | Year: 2013
Umbilical venous lines are sometimes complicated with pleural and or pericardial effusion, often due to line migration. Case Characteristics: Bilateral chylous pleural effusion without pericardial effusion in a 28 weeks, extremely low birth infant who was on total parenteral nutrition. Observations/Investigations: Investigations including chest x ray and 2D echocardiogram showed bilateral chylous pleural effusions but appropriate tip position of the umbilical venous line. Outcome: Removal of the umbilical venous line and cessation of total parenteral nutrition resulted in complete resolution of the pleural effusion. Message: In any newborn with central venous catheter in situ, acute deteriorations specially, those related to pleural and pericardial effusions should alert the clinicians to remove the catheter and should not be misguided by apparently appearing normal correct catheter position by x-ray or 2D echocardiogram. © 2013 Indian Academy of Pediatrics.
Murki S.,Fernandez Hospital
BMJ case reports | Year: 2014
Case 1: A term male child was re-admitted on day 10 of life due to acute onset of respiratory distress. Physical examination revealed tachypnoea, tachycardia and blood pressure (BP) above the 95th centile in all four limbs. Cardiovascular examination revealed a short systolic murmur on the sternal border. Abdomen showed hepatomegaly of 3 cm below the costal margin. Chest X-ray showed a cardiothoracic ratio of 0.65 with normal vascularity. Ultrasound and Doppler of the kidneys and brain were normal. The high parasternal view showed a large ductus arteriosus aneurysm (DAA) of 2.0 × 2.5 cm. The baby was managed with inotropes and antihypertensives. CT angiogram showed 1.6 × 0.6 cm thrombosed DAA, which was extending from the posterior descending aorta to the ampulla. With the resolution of aneurysm BPs normalised and antihypertensives were stopped at 6 weeks of age. Case 2: A premature male neonate weighing 1.2 kg was admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit for respiratory distress syndrome. On the 4th day of life during routine measurement of vitals, the BP was consistently above 95th centile in all four limbs. Blood tests revealed thrombocytopenia that persisted inspite of single donor transfusions. The evaluation for sepsis was negative. The ultrasound and Dopplers of the kidneys and brain were all normal. A transthoracic echocardiogram showed a large DAA measuring 5 × 1.8 mm. Hypertension was managed with antihypertensives. Serial transthoracic echocardiogram showed organising DAA. CT angiogram showed 6 mm × 2 mm thrombosed DAA. As the arterial BP normalised, antihypertensives were stopped on day 15 of life. The baby was discharged on day 29 of life and on follow-up BP remained normal.
Sharma D.,Pandit Bd Sharma Postgraduate Institute Of Medical Science |
Sharma D.,Fernandez Hospital |
Gathwala G.,Pandit Bd Sharma Postgraduate Institute Of Medical Science
Journal of Maternal-Fetal and Neonatal Medicine | Year: 2014
Aim: To study the impact of chlorhexidine cleansing of the umbilical cord on cord separation time and neonatal mortality in comparison to dry cord care. Methods: This is the secondary analysis of the data of the study which was conducted in the NICU of a teaching hospital in north India between 2010 and 2011. Newborns (>32 weeks of gestation and weighing >1500g) were randomized into chlorhexidine application and dry cord care groups. Here, we analyze the data regarding time of cord separation, umbilical sepsis and mortality in both the groups. Results: One hundred and forty (dry care group 70, chlorhexidine group 70) were enrolled and finally analyzed. A significant difference was observed among groups in terms of time to cord separation (8.92±2.77 days versus 10.31±3.23 days; t=2.20; p=0.02, significant) and neonatal mortality (χ2=4.11; p=0.042, significant). Conclusion: Use of chlorhexidine for umbilical cord care shortens duration of cord separation and decreases neonatal mortality in NICU. This simple intervention can be used as mode for decreasing neonatal mortality. © 2014 Informa UK Ltd. All rights reserved: reproduction in whole or part not permitted.
Kandraju H.,Fernandez Hospital |
Murki S.,Fernandez Hospital |
Subramanian S.,Fernandez Hospital |
Gaddam P.,Fernandez Hospital |
And 2 more authors.
Neonatology | Year: 2013
Background: Preterm neonates with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) benefit from early application of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP). However, it is not clear whether surfactant should be administered early as a routine to all such infants or later in a selective manner. Objective: It was the aim of this study to compare the efficacy of early routine versus late selective surfactant treatment in reducing the need for mechanical ventilation (MV) during the first week of life among moderate-sized preterm infants with RDS being supported by nCPAP. Methods: Infants born at 28 0/7 to 336/7 weeks of gestation with RDS and on nCPAP were randomly assigned within the first 2 h of life to early routine surfactant administration by the InSurE technique (early surfactant group) or to late selective administration of surfactant (late surfactant group). The primary outcome was need for MV in the first 7 days of life. Results: Among 153 infants randomized to early (n = 74) or late surfactant (n = 79) groups, the need for MV was significantly lower in the early surfactant group (16.2 vs. 31.6%; relative risk 0.41, 95% confidence interval 0.19-0.91). The incidence of pneumothorax (1.9 vs. 2.3%) and the need for supplemental O2 at 28 days (2.7 vs. 8.9%) were similar in the two groups. Conclusion: Early routine surfactant administration within 2 h of life as compared to late selective administration significantly reduced the need for MV in the first week of life among preterm infants with RDS on nCPAP. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Kumar S.D.,Fernandez Hospital
Iranian Journal of Neonatology | Year: 2014
NEC is inflammatory necrosis of the intestine, with the most common sites in preterm babies being the terminal ileum and the ascending colon (1). The condition is typically seen in premature infants, and the timing of its onset is generally inversely proportional to the gestational age of the baby at birth; i.e. the earlier a baby is born, the longer the time of risk for NEC in premature babies. The incidence of NEC is inversely proportional to the gestational age and birth weight (2). The baby may have initial symptoms that include feeding intolerance, increased gastric residuals, abdominal distension, and bloody stools (3). The laboratory triad includes metabolic acidosis, hyponatremia, and thrombocytopenia. Pneumatosis intestinalis is the pathognomonic radiological finding in the NEC. Modified Bell's staging is used to stage the NEC. Treatment involves Nil per Oral, supportive care, antibiotics, surgery in advanced stages, and parenteral nutrition (4, 5). Complication of NEC includes mortality, prolonged NICU stay, intestinal strictures, enterocutaneous fistula, intra-abdominal abscess, cholestasis, and short-bowel syndrome, and neurodevelopmental, motor, sensory, and cognitive problems (6-9). © 2014, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences. All rights reserved.
Lanka S.,Fernandez Hospital |
Surapaneni T.,Fernandez Hospital |
Nirmalan P.K.,Fernandez Hospital
Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research | Year: 2014
Aim The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of combined intracervical Foley catheter and low-dose vaginal misoprostol with low-dose vaginal misoprostol alone for induction of labor. Material and Methods This prospective non-blinded randomized controlled trial was conducted over a 2-year period in 126 pregnant women planned for induction of labor at a tertiary care centre. Women at ≥28 gestational weeks with a singleton fetus in cephalic presentation, intact membranes and a Bishop score of ≤4 were randomized for labor induction with either a combination of Foley catheter and misoprostol or only misoprostol. The primary outcome variable was the induction-to-delivery interval between the two groups. The secondary outcome variables included rate of vaginal deliveries, uterine hyperstimulation, cesarean section rate, Apgar scores at 1 and 5 min, neonatal intensive care unit admissions and chorioamnionitis. Results The mean induction-to-delivery interval and rate of vaginal deliveries were not significantly different between the groups (26.52 h in the combination group and 27.64 h in the misoprostol group, P = 0.65; 65.07% and 65.07%, respectively, P = 0.9). Uterine hyperstimulation and meconium-stained liquor were significantly more prevalent in the misoprostol group (P = 0.001). Neonatal outcomes did not differ significantly between the groups. Conclusion The addition of Foley catheter to misoprostol did not cause any statistically significant benefit in reducing the induction-to-delivery time. However, it reduced the incidence of uterine hyperstimulation and meconium-stained liquor. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2014 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.