Fern Research Foundation

Kerikeri, New Zealand

Fern Research Foundation

Kerikeri, New Zealand
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Bauret L.,CNRS Systematics, Biodiversity and Evolution Institute | Bauret L.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Gaudeul M.,CNRS Systematics, Biodiversity and Evolution Institute | Sundue M.A.,University of Vermont | And 8 more authors.
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution | Year: 2017

Based on a worldwide phylogenetic framework filling the taxonomic gap of Madagascar and surrounding islands of the Western Indian Ocean (WIO), we revisited the systematics of grammitid fern species (Polypodiaceae). We also investigated the biogeographic origin of the extant diversity in Madagascar and estimated the relative influence of vicariance, long-distance dispersals (LDD) and in situ diversification. Phylogenetic inferences were based on five plastid DNA regions (atpB, rbcL, rps4-trnS, trnG-trnR, trnL-trnF) and the most comprehensive taxonomic sampling ever assembled (224 species belonging to 31 out of 33 recognized grammitids genera). 31 species from Madagascar were included representing 87% of the described diversity and 77% of the endemics. Our results confirmed a Paleotropical clade nested within an amphi-Atlantic grade. In addition, we identified three new major clades involving species currently belonging to Grammitis s.l., Ctenopterella and Enterosora. We resolved for the first time Grammitis s.s. as monophyletic, and Ctenopterella (newly tested here) and Enterosora as polyphyletic. The Neotropical genus Moranopteris was shown to also occur in Madagascar through a newly discovered species. Most importantly, we suggest a >30% inflation of the species number in the WIO due to the hidden diversity in >10 cryptic lineages, best explained by high morphological homoplasy. Molecular dating and ancestral areas reconstruction allowed identifying the Neotropics as the predominant source of LDD to the African-WIO region, with at least 12 colonization events within the last 20 Ma. Repeated eastward migrations may be explained by transoceanic westerly winds transporting the dust-like spores. Tropical Asia s.l. would also have played a (minor) role through one dispersal event to Madagascar at the end of the Oligocene. Last, within the complex Malagasy region made of a mosaic of continental and oceanic islands located close to the African continent, we showed that contrary to theoretical expectations and empirical evidence in angiosperms, Africa does not act as a dispersal source and Madagascar seems to have a more important influence on the regional dynamics: we observed both in situ species diversification and dispersal out of Madagascar. This influence also extends beyond the region, since one dispersal event probably originated from Madagascar and reached the Subantarctic island of Amsterdam. © 2017 Elsevier Inc.


Parris B.S.,Fern Research Foundation
Fern Gazette | Year: 2013

Archigrammitis, a new genus of grammitid ferns (Polypodiaceae) is described from Malesia and Polynesia. The genus has some characteristics of Prosaptia - dorsiventral rhizomes with stipes articulated to phyllopodia and ciliate rhizome scales, but the rhizome scales are concolorous, rather than clathrate, as in Prosaptia. It also has setose sporangia, with simple eglandular hairs at the apex adjacent to the annulus, a character seen in Oreogrammitis and Radiogrammitis, but not in Prosaptia. New combinations are made for A demissa (Parris) Parris, A. friderici-et-pauli (Christ) Parris, A. marquesensis (Parris) Parris, A. ponapensis (Copel.) Parris, A. samoensis (Baker) Parris and A. tahitensis (C.Chr.) Parris.


New combinations are made for Ctenopterella nhatrangensis (C.Chr. & Tardieu) Parris, Oreogrammitis pubinervis (Blume) Parris, Oreogrammitis subevenosa (Baker) Parris, Prosaptia brassii (Copel.) Parris, Prosaptia javanica (Copel.) Parris, Prosaptia samoensis (C.Chr.) Parris, Stenogrammitis minutissima (J.W.Moore) Parris, Tomophyllum duriusculum (Christ) Parris, T. foersteri (Rosenst.) Parris, T lividum (Mett.) Parris, T secundum (Ridl.) Parris and T. sesquipinnatum (Copel.) Parris. Lectotypes are chosen for Polypodium emersonii var. samoense C.Chr., P. minutissimum J.W.Moore, P. secundum Ridl., P subcoriaceum Copel. & P. subsecundodissectum var. novoguineense Rosenst.


Sundue M.A.,University of Vermont | Sundue M.A.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | Parris B.S.,Fern Research Foundation | Ranker T.A.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | And 9 more authors.
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution | Year: 2014

We examined the global historical biogeography of grammitid ferns (Polypodiaceae) within a phylogenetic context. We inferred phylogenetic relationships of 190 species representing 31 of the 33 currently recognized genera of grammitid ferns by analyzing DNA sequence variation of five plastid DNA regions. We estimated the ages of cladogenetic events on an inferred phylogeny using secondary fossil calibration points. Historical biogeographical patterns were inferred via ancestral area reconstruction. Our results supported four large-scale phylogenetic and biogeographic patterns: (1) a monophyletic grammitid clade that arose among Neotropical polypod ancestors about 31.4. Ma; (2) a paraphyletic assemblage of clades distributed in the Neotropics and the Afro-Malagasy region; (3) a large clade distributed throughout the Asia-Malesia-Pacific region that originated about 23.4. Ma; and, (4) an Australian or New Zealand origin of the circumaustral genus Notogrammitis. Most genera were supported as monophyletic except for Grammitis, Oreogrammitis, Radiogrammitis, and Zygophlebia. Grammitid ferns are a well-supported monophyletic group with two biogeographically distinct lineages: a primarily Neotropical grade exhibiting several independent successful colonizations to the Afro-Malagasy region and a primarily Paleotropical clade exhibiting multiple independent dispersals to remote Pacific islands and temperate, austral regions. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.


New combinations are proposed for Oreogrammitis bongoensis, O. meijer-dreesii, O. nana, O. reinwardtioides, Prosaptia fusca, P. micropora, P. pendens, P. rhodocarpa, P. subulatipinna, P. vomaensis, P. whartoniana, Radiogrammitis neocaledonica, Themelium decrescens, T. pullei and Tomophyllum hornei. © 2010 The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.


Perrie L.R.,Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa | Perrie L.R.,Victoria University of Wellington | Parris B.S.,Fern Research Foundation
New Zealand Journal of Botany | Year: 2012

Eleven species of grammitid ferns have been recognized from New Zealand, in Ctenopteris (one species) and Grammitis (10 species). On account of their morphology, it has previously been hypothesized that these species belong to a single clade. We found this to be supported by phylogenetic analysis of chloroplast DNA sequences, with the species misclassified in their current genera. Consequently, a new genus is described, Notogrammitis, containing a global total of 12 species. The only grammitid species south of 35°30′S worldwide belong to Notogrammitis. Within Notogrammitis, it appears that small-spored species of more benign habitats have originated from within a grade of larger-spored species, generally of colder environments. The chloroplast DNA sequences indicate several cases where the sampled populations may not actually be conspecific: New Zealand and Tasmanian N. billardierei; the circum-Antarctic N. crassior; and the morphologically variable, New Zealand endemic N. ciliata. © 2012 The Royal Society of New Zealand.


Labiak P.,Federal University of Paraná | Parris B.,Fern Research Foundation | Rouhan G.,CNRS Systematics, Biodiversity and Evolution Institute
PLoS Currents | Year: 2010

Grammitid ferns are a well-supported clade of ~900 primarily tropical epiphytic species. Recent phylogenetic studies have found support for a distinctive, geographically diverse group of 24 species referred to as the Lellingeria myosuroides clade and have provided evidence for a variety of phylogenetic relationships within the group, as well as hypotheses of historical processes that have produced current biogeographical patterns. We present new data and analyses that support the following primary conclusions: 1) the L. myosuroides clade is monophyletic and pantropical; 2) that clade is sister to a more species rich clade of entirely Neotropical species (Lellingeria s.s.); 3) we infer two independent dispersal events from the Neotropics to Pacific islands, five independent dispersal events from the Neotropics to the Paleotropics, and two separate dispersal events from mainland tropical America to the West Indies.


Parris B.S.,Fern Research Foundation
Fern Gazette | Year: 2012

A new species of grammitid fern, Ctenopterella gabonensis (Polypodiaceae), is described from Gabon. The only grammitid ferns previously reported from Gabon are Cochlidium serrulatum (Sw.) L.E.Bishop (syn. Xiphopteris serrulata (Sw.) Kaulf.) and Zygophlebia villosissima (Hook.) L.E.Bishop (syn. Ctenopteris villosissima (Hook.) W.J.Harley).


Brownsey P.J.,Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa | Parris B.S.,Fern Research Foundation
New Zealand Journal of Botany | Year: 2012

A lectotype is chosen for Acrostichum barbarum L. from amongst extant Linnaean material. Lectotypes of other basionyms relevant to New Zealand representatives of the fern family Osmundaceae have all been selected previously. This article is a contribution towards clarifying the taxonomic and nomenclatural status of New Zealand plants for the plant names database (Ngā Tipu Aotearoa) and the electronic Flora of New Zealand. © 2012 The Royal Society of New Zealand.


PubMed | Fern Research Foundation, French Natural History Museum, University of Vermont, National Tsing Hua University and 4 more.
Type: | Journal: Molecular phylogenetics and evolution | Year: 2014

We examined the global historical biogeography of grammitid ferns (Polypodiaceae) within a phylogenetic context. We inferred phylogenetic relationships of 190 species representing 31 of the 33 currently recognized genera of grammitid ferns by analyzing DNA sequence variation of five plastid DNA regions. We estimated the ages of cladogenetic events on an inferred phylogeny using secondary fossil calibration points. Historical biogeographical patterns were inferred via ancestral area reconstruction. Our results supported four large-scale phylogenetic and biogeographic patterns: (1) a monophyletic grammitid clade that arose among Neotropical polypod ancestors about 31.4 Ma; (2) a paraphyletic assemblage of clades distributed in the Neotropics and the Afro-Malagasy region; (3) a large clade distributed throughout the Asia-Malesia-Pacific region that originated about 23.4 Ma; and, (4) an Australian or New Zealand origin of the circumaustral genus Notogrammitis. Most genera were supported as monophyletic except for Grammitis, Oreogrammitis, Radiogrammitis, and Zygophlebia. Grammitid ferns are a well-supported monophyletic group with two biogeographically distinct lineages: a primarily Neotropical grade exhibiting several independent successful colonizations to the Afro-Malagasy region and a primarily Paleotropical clade exhibiting multiple independent dispersals to remote Pacific islands and temperate, austral regions.

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