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Oshima H.,Fermentation and Food Research Branch | Kimura I.,Fermentation and Food Research Branch | Kitakubo Y.,Kagawa University | Hayakawa S.,Kagawa University | Izumori K.,Kagawa University
Food Science and Technology Research | Year: 2014

Factors affecting the formation of psicose in food products during cooking were investigated based on psicose formation from fructose in various food products and during the caramelization process. Psicose was produced upon heating not only in fructose meringue that had a high fructose content and was alkaline, but also in dried apple that was weakly acidic. Optimized conditions for psicose formation were determined by experiments on fructose caramelization. From the results, we concluded that the following factors affect psicose formation in food products during cooking: high temperatures, high pH, high fructose concentration, and extended cooking time. Of these, the pH of the food was the most important factor for psicose formation in food products. Copyright © 2014, Japanese Society for Food Science and Technology.


Hishiike T.,Kagawa University | Ogawa M.,Kagawa University | Hayakawa S.,Kagawa University | Nakajima D.,Kagawa University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2013

d-Psicose (Psi), the C3-epimer of d-fructose (Fru), is a noncalorie sugar with a lower glycemic response. The trans-cellular pathway of Psi in human enterocytes was investigated using a Caco-2 cell monolayer. The permeation rate of Psi across the monolayer was not affected by the addition of phlorizin, an inhibitor of sugar transporter SGLT1, whereas it was accelerated by treatment with forskolin, a GLUT5-gene inducer, clearly showing that GLUT5 is involved in the transport of Psi. The permeability of Psi was suppressed in the presence of d-glucose (Glc) and Fru, suggesting that the three monosaccharides are transported via the same transporter. Since GLUT2, the predominant sugar transporter on the basolateral membrane of enterocytes, mediates the transport of Glc and Fru, Psi might be mediated by GLUT2. The present study shows that Psi is incorporated from the intestinal lumen into enterocytes via GLUT5 and is released to the lamina propria via GLUT2. © 2013 American Chemical Society.


Oshima H.,Fermentation and Food Research Branch | Ozaki Y.,Food Research Branch | Kitakubo Y.,Kagawa University | Hayakawa S.,Kagawa University
Food Science and Technology Research | Year: 2014

D-Psicose is expected to be widely used as a raw material for various foods in the future due to its beneficial health properties and rheological characteristics. To provide the functional effects of d-psicose to consumers, this sugar needs to be stable during food processing. To evaluate the stability of d-psicose, we investigated changes in d-psicose concentration during caramelization and the Maillard reaction, both of which are important reactions that typically occur during food processing; and during general food processing. During caramelization and the Maillard reaction, the concentration of d-psicose is decreased as the reaction temperature and pH are increased. During food processing, a similar tendency was observed: d-psicose degradation ranged from 3.3% (fig jam) to 10.8% (sponge cake). We concluded that although d-psicose degradation occurs at elevated temperatures and pHs, d-psicose loss can be minimized by controlling the temperature and pH during the cooking process. Copyright © 2014, Japanese Society for Food Science and Technology.

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