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Sung N.-H.,Kyungpook National University | Woo S.-M.,Keimyung University | Yeo S.-H.,Fermentation and Food Processing Division | Yea M.-J.,Lotte R and nter | And 2 more authors.
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition | Year: 2013

This study compared and analyzed the quality characteristics of five different apple juice concentrates (A~E) after alcoholic fermentation to establish test indicators for their defects. From our results, the titratable acidity was nearly similar in all diluted solutions. However, A and D showed a high pH of above 4.0 while B, C and E exhibited a low pH of below 3.0. In terms of free sugar content, maltose was undetected in A and D. In contrast, about 698 mg% maltose was found in C and more than 1,000 mg% maltose were detected in B and E. Malic acid, one of the main organic acids in apple, was measured at a high value of about 600 mg% in A and D and about 50 mg% in B, C and E. Potassium, one of the main minerals, was about 180 mg% in A and D, whereas a small amount of potassium, ranging between 6~9 mg% were present in B, C and E. Preservative (by sorbic acid) was not detected at all in all apple juice concentrates (A~E). When the above diluted apple concentrates were fermented, the alcohol contents were 11.2% and 10.8% in DAFB and AAFB, respectively. Alcoholic fermentation almost did not take place in BAFB, CAFB and EAFB. The use of maltose as the yeast may have influenced the fermentation. However, B, C and E were thought to be either defective or contaminated apple concentrates based on the analysis results of free sugar and organic acid.

Jo D.,Kyungpook National University | Park E.-J.,Kyungpook National University | Yeo S.-H.,Fermentation and Food Processing Division | Jeong Y.-J.,Keimyung University | Kwon J.-H.,Kyungpook National University
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition | Year: 2013

Various commercial vinegars of high-strength acidity (10% or more of total acidity) were investigated to compare their physicochemical and antioxidant properties. The total acidity of double-strength vinegars was relatively lower than triple-strength vinegars. Irrespective of the acidity, sugar and reducing sugar content ranged from 7.00~ 10.80°Bx and 1.32~3,885.90 mg%, respectively. Free sugars were mainly composed of fructose and glucose, and were relatively high in double-strength vinegars. The content of acetic acid (a principal organic acid in vinegars) increased with acidity, but oxalic acid was not identified in commercial high-strength acidity vinegars. Double-strength vinegars using malt extracts were the highest in free amino acid content, showing 24 kinds of amino acids. The content of total phenolics and flavonoids was highest in apple vinegars of double-strength acidity, which affected the scavenging ability of DPPH and ABTS radicals. Overall, the quality of high-strength acidity vinegars was affected by its content and production methods, and double-strength acidity vinegar using apples showed the best antioxidant activities.© 2013 by The Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition. All rights reserved.

Lee S.-W.,Kyungpook National University | Yoon S.-R.,Kyungpook National University | Kim G.-R.,Kyungpook National University | Kyung H.-K.,Keimyung University | And 3 more authors.
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2011

The effect of nuruks and crude amylolytic enzyme on free amino acid and volatile components of brown rice vinegar prepared by static cultures was investigated. Five groups consisted of AV (100% nuruk without crude amylolytic enzyme), BV (75% nuruk, 25% crude amylolytic enzyme), CV (50% nuruk, 50% crude amylolytic enzyme), DV (25% nuruk, 75% crude amylolytic enzyme) and EV (100% crude amylolytic enzyme without nuruk). Free amino acid content in AV vinegar (132.06 mg%) was lower than the others (184.56-191.22 mg%). Acetic acid, 3-methyl butyl acetate, acetoin and isoamyl alcohol were major volatile components as analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after headspace solid-phase microextraction. Acetic acid in AV and EV samples represented 67.56% and 55.53% of total GC peak area, respectively. E-nose provided different patterns in each case showing variation in sensory properties. © The Korean Society of Food Science and Technology.

Sung N.-H.,Kyungpook National University | Woo S.-M.,Keimyung University | Kwon J.-H.,Kyungpook National University | Yeo S.-H.,Fermentation and Food Processing Division | Jeong Y.-J.,Keimyung University
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition | Year: 2014

This study investigated the manufacturing conditions of apple vinegar with high acetic acid content following fermentation according to alcohol concentration without any nutrients. We compared and analyzed the quality characteristics of high acetic acid fermentation by varying the initial alcohol content (6%, 7%, 8%, and 9%). In the results, it was possible to manufacture high acetic acid vinegar with 12% titratable acidity and an alcohol content of 6% and 7%. Lower initial alcohol content was associated with higher yield due to a shorter lag phase. For quality characteristics of the high acetic acid apple vinegar, pH was 2.91~3.20, titratable acidity was 12.0%, and organic acid consisted of acetic acid, malic acid, critic acid and oxalic acids. Based on the results, high acetic acid apple vinegar was produced using a two stage fermentation process after alcohol fermentation but the further research is needed to reduce the time of fermentation in fed-batch culture for industrial use.

Choi J.-H.,Fermentation and Food Processing Division | Jeon J.-A.,Fermentation and Food Processing Division | Jung S.-T.,Fermentation and Food Processing Division | Park J.-H.,Fermentation and Food Processing Division | And 5 more authors.
Korean Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology | Year: 2011

We investigated quality characteristics of Seoktanju (one of the Korean traditional rice wine) which was fermented using five kinds of Korean commercial Nuruks. The purpose of this study was to research what effects on the quality of Seoktanju by using different Nuruks. We analyzed general component such as each mash's temperature change patterns, pH, titrable acidities, reducing sugar contents, volatile acids, and sugar contents during fermentation periods and studied sensory evaluation of produced Seoktanju (10 days). On the whole, temperature change patterns in the each mashes were depend on room temperature. All Seoktanju's pH was reduced rapidly up to three days after first mashing (pH 3.13-3.57) and after that was increased gradually. The end of fermentation pH was pH 3.6-4.05. Mostly, acidities were indicated high(0.59%) and Nuruk-B was showed highest acid value. These results seems to be different as occasion organic acids producing activity depend on the number of yeast, material contents, optimal temperature in the each mashes by fungi and lactic acid bacteria in Nuruks. In reducing sugar contents and sugar contents, Nuruk-C treatment were showed the highest value with 5.36%, 23° brix, respectively and alcohol content was lowest with 8.6%. In the five kinds of reproduced Seoktanju, alcohol content was the highest in the treated Nuruk-A group. Volatile acid value was the highest with 132.6∼263.7 ppm at the 3 day after first mashing day but as the fermentation time goes on, it was reduced sharply by 5.25∼5.94 ppm. Sensory evaluation was performed with 5 point scale, the Seoktanju using Nuruk-D was presented by 4 point, while Nuruk-A was presented lowest by 2.77 point on overall acceptability.

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