Fermentation and Food Processing Division

NAAS, South Korea

Fermentation and Food Processing Division

NAAS, South Korea
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Lee S.-W.,Kyungpook National University | Kwon J.-H.,Kyungpook National University | Yoon S.-R.,Kyungpook National University | Woo S.-M.,Keimyung University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition | Year: 2010

This study investigated the quality characteristics of brown rice vinegar (agitated culture and static culture) derived from brown rice Takju with different types of yeasts. The alcohol content by yeast was the highest in B (brown rice Takju produced by S. cerevisiae GRJ) at 14.3% and the titratable acidity was less than 0.6% in all ranges. When quality characteristics of agitated and static culture brown rice vinegar using them were compared, acidity of agitated culture vinegar recorded the highest level or 6.05% at 7 day of fermentation DV (brown rice vinegar produced by S. kluyveri DJ97) with the initial acidity of 1.0% and the initial pH of 3.9∼4.0, and AV (brown rice vinegar produced by S. cerevisiae JK99), CV (brown rice vinegar produced by S. cerevisiae H9) and BV (brown rice vinegar produced by S. cerevisiae GRJ) recorded as 5.64, 5.55 and 5.32%, respectively. In addition, acidity of static culture vinegar increased continuously to 5.01∼5.31% until the 14 day of fermentation and then tended to decrease slightly from the 16 day of fermentation. Difference in acidity and pH of brown rice vinegar according to types of yeast was not significant. Comparison of free amino acid of brown rice vinegar showed that for agitated culture brown rice vinegar, the content of total free amino acid was higher in the order of BV, DV, AV and CV and the content of essential amino acid was the highest in BV by recording over 1,000 ppm. The content of total free amino acid of static culture brown rice vinegar was higher than that of agitated culture vinegar in all ranges and especially static culture brown rice vinegar contained more serine, alanine, valine, isoleucine, leucine and γ-aminobutyric acid than agitated culture vinegar. In particular, γ -aminobutyric acid recorded over ten times higher level or 456.91∼522.66 ppm. From these results, quality characteristics of brown rice vinegar was affected by acetic acid fermentation methods rather than types of yeast. However, as future aging process is expected to change flavor components and sensory characteristics, studies on various quality factors of vinegar are needed.


Woo S.-M.,Keimyung University | Shin J.-S.,Pusan National University | Seong J.-H.,Pusan National University | Yeo S.-H.,Fermentation and Food Processing Division | And 3 more authors.
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition | Year: 2010

This study evaluates quality of Nuruk, which is a source material of Takju, collected in Daegu and Gyeongbuk and investigates fermentation characteristics of Takju made of it. Totally 7 types of Nuruk were examined and their pH and titratable acidity were 5.4~5.9 and around 0.1%, respectively. Saccharifying activity was high in D, F, G, A and E Nuruk by recording over 300 mg%. Lactic acid bacteria count was the highest in G Nuruk with 3.78×108 and yeast and total microbe count recorded the highest levels, 3.78×108 and 3.47×108, respectively in B Nuruk. When quality characteristics of Takju made of each type of Nuruk were compared, alcohol content was the highest in G Nuruk by recording 19.0% and titratable acidity was 0.44~0.86% in all samples. Hunter's color, brown color and turbidity showed different levels according to types of Nuruk and all lactic acid bacteria, yeast and total microbe counts were the highest in A and E Nuruk. For alcohol components, E and G Nuruk showed high fusel oil content levels and methanol and fusel oil contents of all samples were suitable as standards, respectively. The total organic acid content was the highest in B Nuruk at about 4,000 mg% and it was 2,000 mg% and around 1,000 mg% in A, E, F and G Nuruk and C and D Nuruk, respectively. The content of total free amino acid was the highest in B Nuruk at 3,676 mg% and it was observed to be 1,890, 1,676 and 1,531 mg% in G, E and C Nuruk in that order, respectively. Sensory preference of subjects in their 20s was high overall in G and C Nuruk and that of those in their 40s was high in F and C Nuruk. From all of these results, the types of Nuruk largely affected quality and components of Takju and an appropriate method to consider useful purpose is needed.


Jo D.,Kyungpook National University | Park E.-J.,Kyungpook National University | Yeo S.-H.,Fermentation and Food Processing Division | Jeong Y.-J.,Keimyung University | Kwon J.-H.,Kyungpook National University
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition | Year: 2013

Various commercial vinegars of high-strength acidity (10% or more of total acidity) were investigated to compare their physicochemical and antioxidant properties. The total acidity of double-strength vinegars was relatively lower than triple-strength vinegars. Irrespective of the acidity, sugar and reducing sugar content ranged from 7.00~ 10.80°Bx and 1.32~3,885.90 mg%, respectively. Free sugars were mainly composed of fructose and glucose, and were relatively high in double-strength vinegars. The content of acetic acid (a principal organic acid in vinegars) increased with acidity, but oxalic acid was not identified in commercial high-strength acidity vinegars. Double-strength vinegars using malt extracts were the highest in free amino acid content, showing 24 kinds of amino acids. The content of total phenolics and flavonoids was highest in apple vinegars of double-strength acidity, which affected the scavenging ability of DPPH and ABTS radicals. Overall, the quality of high-strength acidity vinegars was affected by its content and production methods, and double-strength acidity vinegar using apples showed the best antioxidant activities.© 2013 by The Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition. All rights reserved.


Sung N.-H.,Kyungpook National University | Woo S.-M.,Keimyung University | Yeo S.-H.,Fermentation and Food Processing Division | Yea M.-J.,Lotte R and nter | And 2 more authors.
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition | Year: 2013

This study compared and analyzed the quality characteristics of five different apple juice concentrates (A~E) after alcoholic fermentation to establish test indicators for their defects. From our results, the titratable acidity was nearly similar in all diluted solutions. However, A and D showed a high pH of above 4.0 while B, C and E exhibited a low pH of below 3.0. In terms of free sugar content, maltose was undetected in A and D. In contrast, about 698 mg% maltose was found in C and more than 1,000 mg% maltose were detected in B and E. Malic acid, one of the main organic acids in apple, was measured at a high value of about 600 mg% in A and D and about 50 mg% in B, C and E. Potassium, one of the main minerals, was about 180 mg% in A and D, whereas a small amount of potassium, ranging between 6~9 mg% were present in B, C and E. Preservative (by sorbic acid) was not detected at all in all apple juice concentrates (A~E). When the above diluted apple concentrates were fermented, the alcohol contents were 11.2% and 10.8% in DAFB and AAFB, respectively. Alcoholic fermentation almost did not take place in BAFB, CAFB and EAFB. The use of maltose as the yeast may have influenced the fermentation. However, B, C and E were thought to be either defective or contaminated apple concentrates based on the analysis results of free sugar and organic acid.


Lee S.-W.,Kyungpook National University | Yoon S.-R.,Kyungpook National University | Kim G.-R.,Kyungpook National University | Kyung H.-K.,Keimyung University | And 3 more authors.
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2011

The effect of nuruks and crude amylolytic enzyme on free amino acid and volatile components of brown rice vinegar prepared by static cultures was investigated. Five groups consisted of AV (100% nuruk without crude amylolytic enzyme), BV (75% nuruk, 25% crude amylolytic enzyme), CV (50% nuruk, 50% crude amylolytic enzyme), DV (25% nuruk, 75% crude amylolytic enzyme) and EV (100% crude amylolytic enzyme without nuruk). Free amino acid content in AV vinegar (132.06 mg%) was lower than the others (184.56-191.22 mg%). Acetic acid, 3-methyl butyl acetate, acetoin and isoamyl alcohol were major volatile components as analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after headspace solid-phase microextraction. Acetic acid in AV and EV samples represented 67.56% and 55.53% of total GC peak area, respectively. E-nose provided different patterns in each case showing variation in sensory properties. © The Korean Society of Food Science and Technology.


Sung N.-H.,Kyungpook National University | Woo S.-M.,Keimyung University | Kwon J.-H.,Kyungpook National University | Yeo S.-H.,Fermentation and Food Processing Division | Jeong Y.-J.,Keimyung University
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition | Year: 2014

This study investigated the manufacturing conditions of apple vinegar with high acetic acid content following fermentation according to alcohol concentration without any nutrients. We compared and analyzed the quality characteristics of high acetic acid fermentation by varying the initial alcohol content (6%, 7%, 8%, and 9%). In the results, it was possible to manufacture high acetic acid vinegar with 12% titratable acidity and an alcohol content of 6% and 7%. Lower initial alcohol content was associated with higher yield due to a shorter lag phase. For quality characteristics of the high acetic acid apple vinegar, pH was 2.91~3.20, titratable acidity was 12.0%, and organic acid consisted of acetic acid, malic acid, critic acid and oxalic acids. Based on the results, high acetic acid apple vinegar was produced using a two stage fermentation process after alcohol fermentation but the further research is needed to reduce the time of fermentation in fed-batch culture for industrial use.


Baek S.Y.,Fermentation and Food Processing Division | Yun H.J.,Fermentation and Food Processing Division | Yun H.J.,Kyungpook National University | Park H.-D.,Kyungpook National University | Yeo S.-H.,Fermentation and Food Processing Division
Korean Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology | Year: 2011

Bacterial strains exhibiting fibrinolytic activity were screened from traditional Korean soybean sauce. The Fibrinolytic activities of the various isolated microorganism were further examined and the superior strain YJ11-21 was selected for further analyses. Gene sequence analysis of 16S rDNA of the YJ11-21 strain revealed Bacillus licheniformis. Optimal culture conditions were investigated in order to maximize the production of the fibrinolytic enzyme by YJ11-21. Amongst the carbon sources tested, glucose was the most effective for enzyme production and amongst the nitrogen sources tested, yeast extract was seen to be the most effective. A one percent addition of NaCl to the medium resulted in the highest fibrinolytic activity. Interestingly, a 10% addition of NaCl resulted in a high activity together with a high cell growth rate. Therefore, YJ11-21 is speculated of being a halotolerant. The optimum pH and temperature for enzyme production were a pH of 9.0 and 30°C, respectively. © The Korean Society for Microbiology and Biotechnology.


Choi J.-S.,Fermentation and Food Processing Division | Jung S.-T.,Fermentation and Food Processing Division | Kim J.-Y.,Fermentation and Food Processing Division | Choi J.-H.,Fermentation and Food Processing Division | And 2 more authors.
Korean Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology | Year: 2011

This study focus was primarily the development of liquid starters for Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus niger prepared with wheat bran as a low cost culture medium. For the preparation of the liquid media wheat bran was added at rates of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% and the Aspergillus sp. strains were then inoculated to these prepared broths. The results indicated that the more that wheat bran was contained in the medium, the more mycelia was produced for A. oryzae ana A. niger. The highest enzyme activities were obtained with a 10-15% adding rate of wheat bran for both strains. Changes in the enzyme activities of the liquid starters during various incubation times (0, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hrs), indicated that the highest enzyme activities were seen between 48 and 72 hrs of culture. In addition, a comparative study was carried out on the production of enzymes using wheat as a substrate in nuruk, with liquid starter made from fermented agents according to the same concentrations used with the wheat bran. The pH, acidity, amino acidity, reducing sugar content and enzyme activity (aamylase, glucoamylase, acidic protease) of wheat nuruk made with liquid starter were compared with those of wheat nuruk made with solid starter. The results suggest that the liquid starter is superior in both cases. © The Korean Society for Microbiology and Biotechnology.


Choi J.-H.,Fermentation and Food Processing Division | Jeon J.-A.,Fermentation and Food Processing Division | Jung S.-T.,Fermentation and Food Processing Division | Park J.-H.,Fermentation and Food Processing Division | And 5 more authors.
Korean Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology | Year: 2011

We investigated quality characteristics of Seoktanju (one of the Korean traditional rice wine) which was fermented using five kinds of Korean commercial Nuruks. The purpose of this study was to research what effects on the quality of Seoktanju by using different Nuruks. We analyzed general component such as each mash's temperature change patterns, pH, titrable acidities, reducing sugar contents, volatile acids, and sugar contents during fermentation periods and studied sensory evaluation of produced Seoktanju (10 days). On the whole, temperature change patterns in the each mashes were depend on room temperature. All Seoktanju's pH was reduced rapidly up to three days after first mashing (pH 3.13-3.57) and after that was increased gradually. The end of fermentation pH was pH 3.6-4.05. Mostly, acidities were indicated high(0.59%) and Nuruk-B was showed highest acid value. These results seems to be different as occasion organic acids producing activity depend on the number of yeast, material contents, optimal temperature in the each mashes by fungi and lactic acid bacteria in Nuruks. In reducing sugar contents and sugar contents, Nuruk-C treatment were showed the highest value with 5.36%, 23° brix, respectively and alcohol content was lowest with 8.6%. In the five kinds of reproduced Seoktanju, alcohol content was the highest in the treated Nuruk-A group. Volatile acid value was the highest with 132.6∼263.7 ppm at the 3 day after first mashing day but as the fermentation time goes on, it was reduced sharply by 5.25∼5.94 ppm. Sensory evaluation was performed with 5 point scale, the Seoktanju using Nuruk-D was presented by 4 point, while Nuruk-A was presented lowest by 2.77 point on overall acceptability.

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