Fermalogic Inc.

Franklin Park, IL, United States

Fermalogic Inc.

Franklin Park, IL, United States
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Mark Weber J.,Fermalogic Inc. | Reeves A.,Coskata | Cernota W.H.,Fermalogic Inc. | Wesley R.K.,Fermalogic Inc.
Methods in Molecular Biology | Year: 2017

Transposon mutagenesis is an invaluable technique in molecular biology for the creation of random mutations that can be easily identified and mapped. However, in the field of microbial strain improvement, transposon mutagenesis has scarcely been used; instead, chemical and physical mutagenic methods have been traditionally favored. Transposons have the advantage of creating single mutations in the genome, making phenotype to genotype assignments less challenging than with traditional mutagens which commonly create multiple mutations in the genome. The site of a transposon mutation can also be readily mapped using DNA sequencing primer sites engineered into the transposon termini. In this chapter an in vitro method for transposon mutagenesis of Saccharopolyspora erythraea is presented. Since in vivo transposon tools are not available for most actinomycetes including S. erythraea, an in vitro method was developed. The in vitro method involves a significant investment in time and effort to create the mutants, but once the mutants are made and screened, a large number of highly relevant mutations of direct interest to erythromycin production can be found. © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017.


Reeves A.R.,Coskata Inc. | Weber J.M.,Fermalogic Inc
Methods in Molecular Biology | Year: 2012

A program of mutation and screening, with stepwise reverse engineering or "decoding" of the improved strain, is a way to better understand the genetics and physiology of the strain improvement process. As more is learned about the genetics of strain improvement, it is hoped that more fundamental principles will emerge about the types of mutations and genetic manipulations that reliably lead to higher producing strains. This will accelerate the construction of higher producing strains by metabolic engineering in the future. In this chapter, a detailed tagged mutagenesis approach is described using in vitro transposon mutagenesis which allowed the successful identification of key genes involved in macrolide (erythromycin) antibiotic biosynthesis. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Weber J.M.,Fermalogic Inc. | Cernota W.H.,Fermalogic Inc. | Gonzalez M.C.,Fermalogic Inc. | Gonzalez M.C.,Northwestern University | And 5 more authors.
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology | Year: 2012

The Saccharopolyspora erythraea mutB knockout strain, FL2281, having a block in the methylmalonyl-CoA mutase reaction, was found to carry a diethyl methylmalonate-responsive (Dmr) phenotype in an oil-based fermentation medium. The Dmr phenotype confers the ability to increase erythromycin A (erythromycin) production from 250-300% when the oil-based medium is supplemented with 15 mM levels of this solvent. Lower concentrations of the solvent stimulated proportionately less erythromycin production, while higher concentrations had no additional benefit. Although the mutB strain is phenotypically a low-level erythromycin producer, diethyl methylmalonate supplementation allowed it to produce up to 30% more erythromycin than the wild-type (control) strain-a strain that does not show the Dmr phenotype. The Dmr phenotype represents a new class of strain improvement phenotype. A theory to explain the biochemical mechanism for the Dmr phenotype is proposed. Other phenotypes found to be associated with the mutB knockout were a growth defect and hyper-pigmentation, both of which were restored to normal by exposure to diethyl methylmalonate. Furthermore, mutB fermentations did not significantly metabolize soybean oil in the presence of diethyl methylmalonate. Finally, a novel method is proposed for the isolation of additional mutants with the Dmr phenotype. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.


Weber J.M.,Fermalogic Inc | Reeves A.R.,Fermalogic Inc | Reeves A.R.,Coskata | Seshadri R.,Fermalogic Inc | And 6 more authors.
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology | Year: 2013

The objective of this study was to follow the metabolic fate of isoflavone glucosides from the soybean meal in a model industrial fermentation to determine if commercially useful isoflavones could be harvested as coproducts from the spent broth at the end of the fermentation. The isoflavone aglycones, genistein, and daidzein together make up 0.1-0.2 % of the soybean meal by weight but serve no known function in the manufacturing process. After feeding genistein to washed cells of the erythromycin-producing organism, Saccharopolyspora erythraea, the first biotransformation product (Gbp1) was determined by X-ray crystallography to be genistein-7-O-α-rhamnoside (rhamnosylgenistein). Subsequent feeding of rhamnosylgenistein to growing cells of Saccharopolyspora erythraea led to the production of a second biotransformation product, Gbp2. Chromatographic evidence suggested that Gbp2 accumulated in the spent broth of the erythromycin fermentation. When the spent broth was hydrolyzed with acid or industrial enzyme preparations, the isoflavone biotransformation products were returned back to their parental forms, genistein and daidzein, which were then recovered as coproducts. Desirable features of this method are that it does not require modification of the erythromycin manufacturing process or genetic engineering of the producing organism to be put into practice. A preliminary investigation of five additional antibiotic fermentations of industrial importance also found isoflavone coproduct potential. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Patent
Fermalogic Inc. | Date: 2010-04-27

Fermentation media containing an isoflavone-depleted soybean meal or isoflavone-depleted soybean meal product and at least one exogenous added ingredient that comprises a substrate for microbial growth are provided. Methods of making a fermentation medium comprising an isoflavone-depleted soybean meal or isoflavone-depleted soybean meal product and methods for obtaining a fermentation product are also provided. The present invention is further directed to fermentation broths obtained by the media and methods. The present invention is also directed to feed additives produced from fermentation broths obtained by the methods.


Patent
Fermalogic Inc. | Date: 2013-03-19

Fermentation media containing an isoflavone-depleted soybean meal or isoflavone-depleted soybean meal product and at least one exogenous added ingredient that comprises a substrate for microbial growth are provided. Methods of making a fermentation medium comprising an isoflavone-depleted soybean meal or isoflavone-depleted soybean meal product and methods for obtaining a fermentation product are also provided. The present invention is further directed to fermentation broths obtained by the media and methods. The present invention is also directed to feed additives produced from fermentation broths obtained by the methods.


PubMed | Fermalogic Inc
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Applied microbiology and biotechnology | Year: 2012

The Saccharopolyspora erythraea mutB knockout strain, FL2281, having a block in the methylmalonyl-CoA mutase reaction, was found to carry a diethyl methylmalonate-responsive (Dmr) phenotype in an oil-based fermentation medium. The Dmr phenotype confers the ability to increase erythromycin A (erythromycin) production from 250-300% when the oil-based medium is supplemented with 15 mM levels of this solvent. Lower concentrations of the solvent stimulated proportionately less erythromycin production, while higher concentrations had no additional benefit. Although the mutB strain is phenotypically a low-level erythromycin producer, diethyl methylmalonate supplementation allowed it to produce up to 30% more erythromycin than the wild-type (control) strain-a strain that does not show the Dmr phenotype. The Dmr phenotype represents a new class of strain improvement phenotype. A theory to explain the biochemical mechanism for the Dmr phenotype is proposed. Other phenotypes found to be associated with the mutB knockout were a growth defect and hyper-pigmentation, both of which were restored to normal by exposure to diethyl methylmalonate. Furthermore, mutB fermentations did not significantly metabolize soybean oil in the presence of diethyl methylmalonate. Finally, a novel method is proposed for the isolation of additional mutants with the Dmr phenotype.


PubMed | Fermalogic Inc.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Applied microbiology and biotechnology | Year: 2013

The objective of this study was to follow the metabolic fate of isoflavone glucosides from the soybean meal in a model industrial fermentation to determine if commercially useful isoflavones could be harvested as coproducts from the spent broth at the end of the fermentation. The isoflavone aglycones, genistein, and daidzein together make up 0.1-0.2% of the soybean meal by weight but serve no known function in the manufacturing process. After feeding genistein to washed cells of the erythromycin-producing organism, Saccharopolyspora erythraea, the first biotransformation product (Gbp1) was determined by X-ray crystallography to be genistein-7-O--rhamnoside (rhamnosylgenistein). Subsequent feeding of rhamnosylgenistein to growing cells of Saccharopolyspora erythraea led to the production of a second biotransformation product, Gbp2. Chromatographic evidence suggested that Gbp2 accumulated in the spent broth of the erythromycin fermentation. When the spent broth was hydrolyzed with acid or industrial enzyme preparations, the isoflavone biotransformation products were returned back to their parental forms, genistein and daidzein, which were then recovered as coproducts. Desirable features of this method are that it does not require modification of the erythromycin manufacturing process or genetic engineering of the producing organism to be put into practice. A preliminary investigation of five additional antibiotic fermentations of industrial importance also found isoflavone coproduct potential.

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