Ferguson Smith Center for Clinical Genetics

United Kingdom, Ireland

Ferguson Smith Center for Clinical Genetics

United Kingdom, Ireland
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Walker L.C.,Queensland Institute of Medical Research | Fredericksen Z.S.,Mayo Medical School | Wang X.,Mayo Medical School | Tarrell R.,Mayo Medical School | And 71 more authors.
Breast Cancer Research | Year: 2010

Introduction: Current attempts to identify genetic modifiers of BRCA1 and BRCA2 associated risk have focused on a candidate gene approach, based on knowledge of gene functions, or the development of large genome-wide association studies. In this study, we evaluated 24 SNPs tagged to 14 candidate genes derived through a novel approach that analysed gene expression differences to prioritise candidate modifier genes for association studies.Methods: We successfully genotyped 24 SNPs in a cohort of up to 4,724 BRCA1 and 2,693 BRCA2 female mutation carriers from 15 study groups and assessed whether these variants were associated with risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.Results: SNPs in five of the 14 candidate genes showed evidence of association with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 or BRCA2 carriers (P < 0.05). Notably, the minor alleles of two SNPs (rs7166081 and rs3825977) in high linkage disequilibrium (r2= 0.77), located at the SMAD3 locus (15q22), were each associated with increased breast cancer risk for BRCA2 mutation carriers (relative risk = 1.25, 95% confidence interval = 1.07 to 1.45, Ptrend= 0.004; and relative risk = 1.20, 95% confidence interval = 1.03 to 1.40, Ptrend= 0.018).Conclusions: This study provides evidence that the SMAD3 gene, which encodes a key regulatory protein in the transforming growth factor beta signalling pathway and is known to interact directly with BRCA2, may contribute to increased risk of breast cancer in BRCA2 mutation carriers. This finding suggests that genes with expression associated with BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation status are enriched for the presence of common genetic modifiers of breast cancer risk in these populations. © 2010 Walker et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Turnbull C.,The Institute of Cancer Research | Seal S.,The Institute of Cancer Research | Renwick A.,The Institute of Cancer Research | Warren-perry M.,The Institute of Cancer Research | And 36 more authors.
Human Molecular Genetics | Year: 2012

There have been few definitive examples of gene-gene interactions in humans. Through mutational analyses in 7325 individuals, we report four interactions (defined as departures from a multiplicative model) between mutations in the breast cancer susceptibility genes ATM and CHEK2 with BRCA1 and BRCA2 (case-only interaction between ATM and BRCA1/BRCA2 combined, P = 5.9 × 10 -4; ATM and BRCA1, P= 0.01; ATM and BRCA2, P= 0.02; CHEK2 and BRCA1/BRCA2 combined, P = 2.1 × 10 =4; CHEK2 and BRCA1, P= 0.01; CHEK2 and BRCA2, P= 0.01). The interactions are such that the resultant risk of breast cancer is lower than the multiplicative product of the constituent risks, and plausibly reflect the functional relationships of the encoded proteins in DNA repair. These findings have important implications for models of disease predisposition and clinical translation. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

Antoniou A.C.,University of Cambridge | Beesley J.,Queensland Institute of Medical Research | McGuffog L.,University of Cambridge | Sinilnikova O.M.,University of Lyon | And 193 more authors.
Cancer Research | Year: 2010

The known breast cancer susceptibility polymorphisms in FGFR2, TNRC9/TOX3, MAP3K1, LSP1, and 2q35 confer increased risks of breast cancer for BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers. We evaluated the associations of 3 additional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs4973768 in SLC4A7/NEK10, rs6504950 in STXBP4/COX11, and rs10941679 at 5p12, and reanalyzed the previous associations using additional carriers in a sample of 12,525 BRCA1 and 7,409 BRCA2 carriers. Additionally, we investigated potential interactions between SNPs and assessed the implications for risk prediction. The minor alleles of rs4973768 and rs10941679 were associated with increased breast cancer risk for BRCA2 carriers (per-allele HR = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.03-1.18, P = 0.006 and HR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.01-1.19, P = 0.03, respectively). Neither SNP was associated with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 carriers, and rs6504950 was not associated with breast cancer for either BRCA1 or BRCA2 carriers. Of the 9 polymorphisms investigated, 7 were associated with breast cancer for BRCA2 carriers (FGFR2, TOX3, MAP3K1, LSP1, 2q35, SLC4A7, 5p12, P = 7 × 10-11 - 0.03), but only TOX3 and 2q35 were associated with the risk for BRCA1 carriers (P = 0.0049, 0.03, respectively). All risk-associated polymorphisms appear to interact multiplicatively on breast cancer risk for mutation carriers. Based on the joint genotype distribution of the 7 risk-associated SNPs in BRCA2 mutation carriers, the 5% of BRCA2 carriers at highest risk (i.e., between 95th and 100th percentiles) were predicted to have a probability between 80% and 96% of developing breast cancer by age 80, compared with 42% to 50% for the 5% of carriers at lowest risk. Our findings indicated that these risk differences might be sufficient to influence the clinical management of mutation carriers. ©2010 AACR.

Martrat G.,Catalan Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology | Martrat G.,LHospitalet del Llobregat 08908 | Maxwell C.A.,Catalan Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology | Maxwell C.A.,LHospitalet del Llobregat 08908 | And 134 more authors.
Breast Cancer Research | Year: 2011

Introduction: Proteins encoded by Fanconi anemia (FA) and/or breast cancer (BrCa) susceptibility genes cooperate in a common DNA damage repair signaling pathway. To gain deeper insight into this pathway and its influence on cancer risk, we searched for novel components through protein physical interaction screens.Methods: Protein physical interactions were screened using the yeast two-hybrid system. Co-affinity purifications and endogenous co-immunoprecipitation assays were performed to corroborate interactions. Biochemical and functional assays in human, mouse and Caenorhabditis elegans models were carried out to characterize pathway components. Thirteen FANCD2-monoubiquitinylation-positive FA cell lines excluded for genetic defects in the downstream pathway components and 300 familial BrCa patients negative for BRCA1/2 mutations were analyzed for genetic mutations. Common genetic variants were genotyped in 9,573 BRCA1/2 mutation carriers for associations with BrCa risk.Results: A previously identified co-purifying protein with PALB2 was identified, MRG15 (MORF4L1 gene). Results in human, mouse and C. elegans models delineate molecular and functional relationships with BRCA2, PALB2, RAD51 and RPA1 that suggest a role for MRG15 in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks. Mrg15-deficient murine embryonic fibroblasts showed moderate sensitivity to γ-irradiation relative to controls and reduced formation of Rad51 nuclear foci. Examination of mutants of MRG15 and BRCA2 C. elegans orthologs revealed phenocopy by accumulation of RPA-1 (human RPA1) nuclear foci and aberrant chromosomal compactions in meiotic cells. However, no alterations or mutations were identified for MRG15/MORF4L1 in unclassified FA patients and BrCa familial cases. Finally, no significant associations between common MORF4L1 variants and BrCa risk for BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers were identified: rs7164529, P trend= 0.45 and 0.05, P 2df= 0.51 and 0.14, respectively; and rs10519219, P trend= 0.92 and 0.72, P 2df= 0.76 and 0.07, respectively.Conclusions: While the present study expands on the role of MRG15 in the control of genomic stability, weak associations cannot be ruled out for potential low-penetrance variants at MORF4L1 and BrCa risk among BRCA2 mutation carriers. © 2011 Martrat et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Domchek S.M.,University of Pennsylvania | Domchek S.M.,Abramson Family Cancer Research Institute | Tang J.,University of Pennsylvania | Stopfer J.,University of Pennsylvania | And 16 more authors.
Cancer Discovery | Year: 2013

BRCA1 and BRCA2 are the most important breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility genes. Biallelic mutations in BRCA2 can lead to Fanconi anemia and predisposition to cancers, whereas biallelic BRCA1 mutations have not been confirmed, presumably because one wild-type BRCA1 allele is required during embryogenesis. This study describes an individual who was diagnosed with ovarian carcinoma at age 28 and found to have one allele with a deleterious mutation in BRCA1, c.2457delC (p.Asp821Ilefs*25), and a second allele with a variant of unknown significance in BRCA1, c.5207T>C (p.Val1736Ala). Medical records revealed short stature, microcephaly, developmental delay, and significant toxicity from chemotherapy. BRCA1 p.Val1736Ala cosegregated with cancer in multiple families, associated tumors showed loss of wild-type BRCA1, and BRCA1 p.Val1736Ala showed reduced DNA damage localization. These findings represent the first validated example of biallelic deleterious human BRCA1 mutations and have implications for the interpretation of genetic test results. Significance: Accurate assessment of genetic testing data for BRCA1 mutations is essential for clinical monitoring and treatment strategies. Here, we report the first validated example of an individual with biallelic BRCA1 mutations, early-onset ovarian cancer, and clinically significant hypersensitivity to chemotherapy. © 2013 American Association for Cancer Research.

Davidson D.F.,University Hospital Crosshouse | Bradshaw N.,Ferguson Smith Center for Clinical Genetics | Perry C.G.,University of Glasgow | Lindsay R.,University of Glasgow | Freel E.M.,University of Glasgow
Annals of Clinical Biochemistry | Year: 2012

Background: Catecholamine-producing neuroendocrine tumours are found in chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla (phaeochromocytoma) or extra-adrenal paraganglia (paraganglioma), known collectively as PPGLs. In approximately a quarter or more of cases of PPGL, these rare tumours arise as a result of germline mutations of several tumour susceptibility genes. At the Crosshouse laboratory, urine tests include free metadrenalines (fMAs) (also known as free metanephrines) which demonstrate superior sensitivity over that obtained by urinary vanillyl mandelic acid, catecholamines or plasma catecholamines in the diagnosis of PPGL. This retrospective audit was to determine if urinary fMAs offered discrimination among the hereditary forms of PPGL. Methods: Retrospective biochemical and genetic data were gathered from 1997 to 2011. The identified urine specimens were those obtained at the time of first diagnosis or recurrence of PPGL. Results of catecholamines and metabolites were standardized as multiples of their respective relevant upper reference limits (URLs). Results: Results were available for 29 affected patients (15 females and 14 males), median age 26 (range 9-63) years, comprising three mutation groups: succinate dehydrogenase subunit B or D ([SDHB/D] 16 patients), multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 ([MEN 2] 6 patients) and von Hippel-Lindau disease ([VHL] 7 patients). The parent catecholamines exhibited increased values for noradrenaline (NA) and/or adrenaline (AD) for 25/29 (86.2%) patients. Either or both free normetadrenaline (fNMA) and fMA were elevated in 29/29 (100%) patients. Conclusions: The ratio of the multiples of URL for fMA/fNMA displayed a clearer separation of MEN 2 patients from those with SDHB/D or VHL than did the equivalent AD/NA ratio.

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