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Driffield M.,Fera Science Ltd Fera | Bradley E.,Fera Science Ltd Fera | Castle L.,Fera Science Ltd Fera | Lloyd A.,Fera Science Ltd Fera | And 4 more authors.
Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry | Year: 2015

Rationale: Plasticisers are used in the PVC gaskets of metal closures on glass jars and bottles used for foods and beverages. They may migrate and so contaminate the packed foodstuff. The plasticisers are present in a high proportion and are often a complex mixture of substances leading to time-consuming analytical methodologies. This work describes a rapid screening method to identify the plasticisers used. Methods: Analysis was carried out by direct sampling of the gaskets using atmospheric pressure solids analysis probe (ASAP) with time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) using a SYNAPT G2 HDMS system. The accurate mass information collected was then compared to a user-prepared database of plasticisers to aid identification. Results: The rapid identification approach was shown to be successful for 24 gasket samples previously analysed by alternative more lengthy gas chromatographic (GC) methods. Quantification by dissolution followed by standard addition was also demonstrated to be reliable. Conclusions: The ASAP-TOFMS method is a useful technique for rapidly screening gaskets for the presence of plasticisers. It can be used to identify specific gaskets deserving of further quantitative analysis by chromatographic methods, saving time and money by avoiding unnecessary analyses. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


von Goetz N.,ETH Zurich | Pirow R.,Federal Institute for Risk Assessment BfR | Hart A.,Fera Science Ltd FERA | Bradley E.,Fera Science Ltd FERA | And 8 more authors.
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology | Year: 2017

In the most recent risk assessment for Bisphenol A for the first time a multi-route aggregate exposure assessment was conducted by the European Food Safety Authority. This assessment includes exposure via dietary sources, and also contributions of the most important non-dietary sources. Both average and high aggregate exposure were calculated by source-to-dose modeling (forward calculation) for different age groups and compared with estimates based on urinary biomonitoring data (backward calculation). The aggregate exposure estimates obtained by forward and backward modeling are in the same order of magnitude, with forward modeling yielding higher estimates associated with larger uncertainty. Yet, only forward modeling can indicate the relative contribution of different sources. Dietary exposure, especially via canned food, appears to be the most important exposure source and, based on the central aggregate exposure estimates, contributes around 90% to internal exposure to total (conjugated plus unconjugated) BPA. Dermal exposure via thermal paper and to a lesser extent via cosmetic products may contribute around 10% for some age groups. The uncertainty around these estimates is considerable, but since after dermal absorption a first-pass metabolism of BPA by conjugation is lacking, dermal sources may be of equal or even higher toxicological relevance than dietary sources. © 2017 Elsevier Inc.


van Vaerenbergh J.,Belgium Institute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research | Muller P.,Julius Kuhn Institute | Elphinstone J.G.,Fera Science Ltd Fera | Vreeburg R.A.M.,Dutch General Inspection Service | Janse J.D.,Dutch General Inspection Service
EPPO Bulletin | Year: 2017

In the European Union (EU) potato production is surveyed for Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus (potato ring rot) and Ralstonia solanacearum (potato brown rot) under Commission Directives 93/85/EEC with its amendment 2006/56/EC and 98/57/EEC with its amendment 2006/63/EC. A regular update of the Directives is required in view of developments in understanding of the biology of these organisms and the diagnostics recommended for their detection and identification. Three inter-laboratory tests (ILT1, ILT2 and ILT3) were performed from 2009 to 2012 as part of a Euphresco Phytosanitary ERA-NET project to assess performance of current official methods for C. michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus and R. solanacearum. A major aim of the ILTs was to generate data on the performance of real-time PCR protocols to support their introduction as primary (core) screening tests for both pathogens. In ILT1, 29 laboratories from 23 countries participated, in ILT2, 23 laboratories from 18 countries and in ILT3 42 laboratories from 24 countries. Relative accuracies for real-time PCR tests averaged 92% for R. solanacearum and 96% for C. michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus) and compared with existing primary (core) screening tests (immunofluorescence, conventional PCR, semi-selective plating and bioassay) in terms of analytical sensitivity, analytical specificity and robustness. It was concluded that all methods tested, including real-time PCR, can be considered as equivalent. Therefore TaqMan® real-time PCR is recommended for inclusion in EU Directives and EPPO Standards as a reliable primary (core) screening method. © 2016 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2016 OEPP/EPPO


Bramwell L.,Northumbria University | Glinianaia S.V.,Northumbria University | Rankin J.,Northumbria University | Rose M.,Fera Science Ltd. Fera | And 3 more authors.
Environment International | Year: 2016

The aim of this review was to identify and appraise the current international evidence of associations between concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in humans and their indoor dusts and food. We systematically searched Medline, Embase, Web of Science and Scopus (up to Jan 2015), using a comprehensive list of keywords, for English-language studies published in peer-reviewed journals. We extracted information on study design, quality, participants, sample collection methods, adjustments for potential confounders and correlations between PBDE concentrations in internal and external matrices. Of 131 potential articles, 17 studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in the narrative synthesis. We concluded that three key factors influenced correlations between external and internal PBDE exposure; half-life of individual congeners in the human body; proximity and interaction between PBDE source and study subject; and time of study relative to phase out of PBDE technical products. Internal dose of Penta-BDE technical mix congeners generally correlated strongly with dust. The exception was BDE-153 which is known to have higher persistence in human tissues. Despite the low bioaccessibility and short half-life of BDE-209, its high loading in dusts gave strong correlations with body burden where measured. Correlations between PBDE concentrations in duplicate diet and body burden were not apparent from the included studies. Whether dust or diet is the primary exposure source for an individual is tied to the loading of PBDE in dust or food items and the amounts ingested. Simple recommendations such as more frequent hand washing may reduce PBDE body burden. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

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