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Sand Hutton, United Kingdom

Thompson H.M.,Fera | Thompson H.M.,Hill International | Levine S.L.,Monsanto Corporation | Doering J.,Feinchemie Schwebda GmbH | And 5 more authors.
Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management

This study aimed to develop an approach to evaluate potential effects of plant protection products on honeybee brood with colonies at realistic worst-case exposure rates. The approach comprised 2 stages. In the first stage, honeybee colonies were exposed to a commercial formulation of glyphosate applied to flowering Phacelia tanacetifolia with glyphosate residues quantified in relevant matrices (pollen and nectar) collected by foraging bees on days 1, 2, 3, 4, and 7 postapplication and glyphosate levels in larvae were measured on days 4 and 7. Glyphosate levels in pollen were approximately 10 times higher than in nectar and glyphosate demonstrated rapid decline in both matrices. Residue data along with foraging rates and food requirements of the colony were then used to set dose rates in the effects study. In the second stage, the toxicity of technical glyphosate to developing honeybee larvae and pupae, and residues in larvae, were then determined by feeding treated sucrose directly to honeybee colonies at dose rates that reflect worst-case exposure scenarios. There were no significant effects from glyphosate observed in brood survival, development, and mean pupal weight. Additionally, there were no biologically significant levels of adult mortality observed in any glyphosate treatment group. Significant effects were observed only in the fenoxycarb toxic reference group and included increased brood mortality and a decline in the numbers of bees and brood. Mean glyphosate residues in larvae were comparable at 4 days after spray application in the exposure study and also following dosing at a level calculated from the mean measured levels in pollen and nectar, showing the applicability and robustness of the approach for dose setting with honeybee brood studies. This study has developed a versatile and predictive approach for use in higher tier honeybee toxicity studies. It can be used to realistically quantify exposure of colonies to pesticides to allow the appropriate dose rates to be determined, based on realistic worst-case residues in pollen and nectar and estimated intake by the colony, as shown by the residue analysis. Previous studies have used the standard methodology developed primarily to identify pesticides with insect-growth disrupting properties of pesticide formulations, which are less reliant on identifying realistic exposure scenarios. However, this adaptation of the method can be used to determine dose-response effects of colony level exposure to pesticides with a wide range of properties. This approach would limit the number of replicated tunnel or field-scale studies that need to be undertaken to assess effects on honeybee brood and may be of particular benefit where residues in pollen and nectar are crop- and/or formulation-specific, such as systemic seed treatments and granular applications. © 2014 The Authors. Source

Cuthbertson A.G.S.,Fera | Vanninen I.,Natural Resources Institute Finland

The sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is a major pest of economically important crops worldwide. Both the United Kingdom (UK) and Finland hold Protected Zone status against this invasive pest. As a result B. tabaci entering these countries on plants and plant produce is subjected to a policy of eradication. The impact of B. tabaci entering, and becoming established, is that it is an effective vector of many plant viruses that are not currently found in the protected zones. The Mediterranean species is the most commonly intercepted species of B. tabaci entering both the UK and Finland. The implications of maintaining Protected Zone status are discussed. © 2015 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Source

Dorne J.L.,Unit on Contaminants | Doerge D.R.,U.S. Food and Drug Administration | Vandenbroeck M.,Unit on Contaminants | Fink-Gremmels J.,University Utrecht | And 6 more authors.
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology

Melamine can be present at low levels in food and feed mostly from its legal use as a food contact material in laminates and plastics, as a trace contaminant in nitrogen supplements used in animal feeds, and as a metabolite of the pesticide cyromazine. The mechanism of toxicity of melamine involves dose-dependent formation of crystals with either endogenous uric acid or a structural analogue of melamine, cyanuric acid, in renal tubules resulting in potential acute kidney failure. Co-exposure to melamine and cyanuric acid in livestock, fish, pets and laboratory animals shows higher toxicity compared with melamine or cyanuric acid alone. Evidence for crystal formation between melamine and other structural analogs i.e. ammelide and ammeline is limited. Illegal pet food adulterations with melamine and cyanuric acid and adulteration of milk with melamine resulted in melamine-cyanuric acid crystals, kidney damage and deaths of cats and dogs and melamine-uric acid stones, hospitalisation and deaths of children in China respectively. Following these incidents, the tolerable daily intake for melamine was re-evaluated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, the World Health Organisation, and the Scientific Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). This review provides an overview of toxicology, the adulteration incidents and risk assessments for melamine and its structural analogues. Particular focus is given to the recent EFSA risk assessment addressing impacts on animal and human health of background levels of melamine and structural analogues in animal feed. Recent research and future directions are discussed. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. Source

Ioos R.,Laboratoire Of La Sante Des Vegetaux | Fourrier C.,Laboratoire Of La Sante Des Vegetaux | Wilson V.,Laboratoire Of La Sante Des Vegetaux | Webb K.,Fera | And 2 more authors.

Plasmopara halstedii, the causal agent of downy mildew of sunflower, is an oomycete listed as a quarantine pathogen. This obligate parasite resides in a quiescent state in seeds of sunflower and can be spread from seed production areas to areas of crop production by international seed trade. To prevent the spread or the introduction of potentially new genotypes or fungicide-tolerant strains, an efficient method to detect P. halstedii in sunflower seed is required. This work reports the optimization of a real-time detection tool that targets the pathogen within sunflower seeds, and provides statistically validated data for that tool. The tool proved to be specific and inclusive, based on computer simulation and in vitro assessments, and could detect as few as 45 copies of target DNA. A fully optimized DNA extraction protocol was also developed starting from a sample of 1,000 sunflower seeds, and enabled the detection of <1 infected seed/1,000 seeds. To ensure reliability of the results, a set of controls was used systematically during the assays, including a plant-specific probe used in a duplex quantitative polymerase chain reaction that enabled the assessment of the quality of each DNA extract. © 2012 The American Phytopathological Society. Source

Cook R.T.A.,30 Galtres Avenue | Braun U.,Martin Luther University of Halle Wittenberg | Beales P.A.,Fera

Modes of branching of appressoria on conidial germ tubes of 36 Erysiphe spp. were studied. Only unlobed appressoria, termed alobatus pattern, were seen in E. lonicerae, E. magnifica and E. symphoricarpi. Viewed from above with light or scanning electron microscopes, other species had ± irregular lobing, but from below in the plane of contact with the substrate successive dichotomous branchings at 120° were seen to produce a five-lobed appressorium within 6 h. Each division produced a temporarily dormant outward-facing lobe and an inward limb that continued growth and division to form the axis of curved, hooked, single- or double-headed symmetrical or asymmetrical structures in a helicoid cyme-like pattern. Outlines of extracellular material after removal of germinated conidia confirmed this manner of branching. After 36 h some lobes re-divided forming botryose or jigsaw patterns even extending with extra appressoria to form candelabra-like structures. Conidia developed only one true germ tube; rarely secondary unswollen tubes emerged from spare shoulders or ends. The same true germ tubes developed initially on host surfaces, where secondary tubes and/or extensions from appressorial lobes grew into colony-forming hyphae. Lobed appressoria of Neoerysphe and Phyllactinia also branched at 120°. Podosphaera xanthii exhibited a simpler branching pattern. © 2010 The Mycological Society of Japan and Springer. Source

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