Fenzian Ltd

Berkshire, United Kingdom

Fenzian Ltd

Berkshire, United Kingdom
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Sebastian A.,University of Manchester | Iqbal S.A.,University of Manchester | Colthurst J.,Fenzian Ltd. | Volk S.W.,University of Pennsylvania | Bayat A.,University of Manchester
Journal of Investigative Dermatology | Year: 2015

Cutaneous wounds establish endogenous "wound current" upon injury until re-epithelialization is complete. Keratinocyte proliferation, regulated partly by p53, is required for epidermal closure. SIVA1 promotes human double minute 2 homolog (HDM2)-mediated p53 regulation. However, the role of SIVA1 in wound healing is obscure. Here, we report that electrical stimulation (ES) accelerates wound healing by upregulating SIVA1 and its subsequent ability to modulate p53 activities. Cultured donut-shaped human skin explants, subjected to ES, exhibited better epidermal stratification, increased proliferation, and upregulation of gene and protein expression of HDM2SIVA1, compared with non-ES-treated explants. ES significantly increased in vitro keratinocyte proliferation and phospho-p53-SIVA1 interaction; however, this showed stable expression of phospho-p53, which increased significantly in the absence of SIVA1. Here, HDM2 alone was unable to downregulate nuclear-accumulated phospho-p53, which was evident from decreased proliferation and increased sub-G 1 population seen by flow cytometry. Further examination of the epidermis of human cutaneous wounds showed higher p53-SIVA1 coexpression and proliferation 7 days after injury in ES-treated wounds compared with control wounds. In summary, ES-inducible SIVA1 modulates p53 activities in proliferating keratinocytes, and exogenous ES affects p53HDM2SIVA1 axis leading to increased proliferation during re-epithelialization. This highlights ES as a potential strategy for enhancing cutaneous repair. © The Society for Investigative Dermatology.

Sebastian A.,University of Manchester | Allan E.,The Christie NHS Foundation Trust | Allan D.,The Christie NHS Foundation Trust | Allan D.,University of Manchester | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Dermatological Science | Year: 2011

Background: We recently reported use of photodynamic therapy (PDT) for treating keloid disease (KD). However, in view of high recurrence rates post any treatment modality, adjuvant therapies should be considered. Additionally, we previously demonstrated the effect of a novel electrical waveform, the degenerate wave (DW) on differential gene expression in keloid fibroblasts. Objective: In this study, we evaluated the in vitro cytotoxic effect of PDT at 5J/cm 2 and 10J/cm 2 of red light (633±3nm) using 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and methyl aminolevulinate (MAL) with and without DW, on keloid fibroblasts compared to normal skin fibroblasts. Methods: The rate of intracellular photosensitizer (protoporphyrin IX, PPIX) generation and disintegration, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, LDH cytotoxicity, WST-1 cytoproliferation, apoptosis by Caspase-3 activation, mitochondrial membrane potential assessment by JC-1 aggregates, qRT-PCR, flow cytometry and In-Cell Western Blotting were performed. Results: PPIX accumulation and disintegration rate was higher in keloid than normal fibroblasts after incubation with MAL compared to ALA. Increased cytotoxicity and decreased cytoproliferation were observed for keloid fibroblasts after PDT. +. DW treatment compared to PDT alone. ROS generation, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, apoptosis (Caspase-3 activation) and collagens I and III gene down-regulation were higher in keloid compared to normal skin fibroblasts after MAL-PDT. +. DW treatment. An increase in the number of cells entering apoptosis and necrosis was observed after PDT. +. DW treatment by flow cytometry analysis. All positive findings were statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusion: The cytotoxic effect of PDT on keloid fibroblasts can be enhanced significantly with addition of DW stimulation, indicating for the first time the utility of this potential combinational therapy. © 2011 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology.

Ud-Din S.,University of Manchester | Perry D.,University of Manchester | Giddings P.,Fenzian Ltd | Colthurst J.,Fenzian Ltd | And 5 more authors.
Experimental Dermatology | Year: 2012

Recent studies highlighted the beneficial effects of a novel electrical stimulation waveform, the degenerate wave (DW), on skin fibroblasts and symptomatic skin scarring. However, no study to date has investigated the role of DW on acute cutaneous wounds. Therefore, we evaluated this in a trial using a temporal punch biopsy model. Twenty healthy volunteers had a biopsy performed on day 0 (left arm) and day 14 (right arm). On day 14, DW was applied. Participants were randomised into two groups. Objective non-invasive assessments were performed on days 0, 7, 14, 60 and 90 using spectrophotometric intracutaneous analysis and full-field laser perfusion imaging. There were statistically significant increases in mean flux on day 14 (P = 0.027) in the post-DW arm. Haemoglobin levels increased on day 7 for the post-DW arm compared to without DW (P = 0.088). Differences in melanin levels were higher post-DW on the left arm between randomised groups on day 90 (P = 0.033). Haemoglobin levels in the vascular ring increased significantly from day 7 to 90 (P < 0.001 for post-DW and without DW arms). This study, for the first time, shows that DW increases blood flow and haemoglobin levels in acute healing wounds without affecting wound closure time and may have potential application in enhancing acute cutaneous healing. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S Experimental Dermatology.

Griffin M.,University of Manchester | Iqbal S.A.,University of Manchester | Sebastian A.,University of Manchester | Colthurst J.,Fenzian Ltd | Bayat A.,University of Manchester
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Non-unions pose complications in fracture management that can be treated using electrical stimulation (ES). Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) are essential in fracture healing; however, the effect of different clinical ES waveforms on BMMSCs cellular activities remains unknown. We compared the effects of direct current (DC), capacitive coupling (CC), pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) and degenerate wave (DW) on cellular activities including cytotoxicity, proliferation, cell-kinetics and apoptosis by stimulating human-BMMSCs 3 hours a day, up to 5 days. In addition, migration and invasion were assessed using fluorescence microscopy and by quantifying gene and protein expression. We found that DW had the greatest proliferative and least apoptotic and cytotoxic effects compared to other waveforms. DC, DW and CC stimulations resulted in a higher number of cells in S phase and G 2/M phase as shown by cell cycle analysis. CC and DW caused more cells to invade collagen and showed increased MMP-2 and MT1-MMP expression. DC increased cellular migration in a scratch-wound assay and all ES waveforms enhanced expression of migratory genes with DC having the greatest effect. All ES treated cells showed similar progenitor potential as determined by MSC differentiation assay. All above findings were shown to be statistically significant (p<0.05). We conclude that ES can influence BMMSCs activities, especially DW and CC, which show greater invasion and higher cell proliferation compared to other types of ES. Application of DW or CC to the fracture site may help in the recruitment of BMMSCs to the wound that may enhance rate of bone healing at the fracture site. © 2011 Griffin et al.

Sebastian A.,University of Manchester | Syed F.,University of Manchester | Perry D.,University of Manchester | Balamurugan V.,University of Manchester | And 3 more authors.
Wound Repair and Regeneration | Year: 2011

We previously demonstrated the beneficial effect of a novel electrical stimulation (ES) waveform, degenerate wave (DW) on skin fibroblasts, and now hypothesize that DW can enhance cutaneous wound healing in vivo. Therefore, a punch biopsy was taken from the upper arm of 20 volunteers on day 0 and repeated on day 14 (NSD14). A contralateral upper arm biopsy was taken on day 0 and treated with DW for 14 days prior to a repeat biopsy on day 14 (ESD14). A near-completed inflammatory stage of wound healing in ESD14, compared to NSD14 was demonstrated by up-regulation of interleukin-10 and vasoactive intestinal peptide using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction and down-regulation of CD3 by immunohistochemistry (IHC) (p<0.05). In addition to up-regulation (p<0.05) of mRNA transcripts for re-epithelialization and angiogenesis, IHC showed significant overexpression (p<0.05) of CD31 (15.5%), vascular endothelial growth factor (66%), and Melan A (8.6 cells/0.95mm 2) in ESD14 compared to NSD14 (9.5%, 38% and 4.3 cells/0.95mm 2, respectively). Furthermore, granulation tissue formation (by hematoxylin and eosin staining), and myofibroblastic proliferation demonstrated by alpha-smooth muscle actin (62.7%) plus CD3+ T lymphocytes (8.1%) showed significant up-regulation (p<0.05) in NSD14. In the remodeling stage, mRNA transcripts for fibronectin, collagen IV (by IHC, 14.1%) and mature collagen synthesis (by Herovici staining, 71.44%) were significantly up-regulated (p<0.05) in ESD14. Apoptotic (TUNEL assay) and proliferative cells (Ki67) were significantly up-regulated (p<0.05) in NSD14 (5.34 and 11.9 cells/0.95mm 2) while the proliferation index of ESD14 was similar to normal skin. In summary, cutaneous wounds receiving DW electrical stimulation display accelerated healing seen by reduced inflammation, enhanced angiogenesis and advanced remodeling phase. © 2011 by the Wound Healing Society.

A handheld treatment device is for applying electrical impulses to a living body through the surface of the body, for treating a variety of clinical conditions. The device comprises first and second electrodes for contact with the skin; a waveform generator for repeatedly generating an AC waveform for applying electrical impulses through the electrodes to the skin; a detector for detecting changes in the skin impedance and for generating output signals representing the skin impedance; means responsive to the output signals from the detector for monitoring the responsivity of the skin; and indicator means for generating a first indication when a predetermined level of responsivity is reached and a second indication when a pre-determined treatment has been administered. The device is characterised by a treatment patch comprising a flexible sheet having on one surface said first and second electrodes separated by insulation; a pair of leads connected respectively to said first and second electrodes; and a connection arrangement attached to the first and second leads for connecting the electrodes with said waveform generator. Each electrode comprises at least one elongate strip, with the, or each, strip of the first electrode being separated from the, or each adjacent, strip of the second electrode by a, or a respective, line of said insulation.

Embodiments of the present invention relate to a non-invasive stimulatory adjustment of the bodys own self-repair-system using a plurality of electrons. In particular, embodiments of the present invention relate to a plurality of electrons for use in the restoration of a patients health, preferably a human patients health in a number of medical conditions. Moreover, embodiments of the present invention relate to a method of treatment using a plurality of electrons for use in the restoration of a patients health, preferably a human patients health. Moreover, embodiments of the present invention relate to a method of stimulatory adjustment of the bodys own self-repair system using a plurality of electrons.

The present invention provides a treatment device for applying electrical impulses to a living body through the skin, for non-invasively treating a variety of clinical conditions. The device comprises a pair of electrodes for contact with the skin, and a waveform generator for repeatedly generating an AC waveform for applying electrical impulses through the electrodes to the skin. Means responsive to a resistance generated between the electrodes due to skin impedance detect the responsivity of respective zones of a pre-determined area of the body and produce output data representing the responsivity of each said zone. The apparatus also includes means for generating a treatment map (62) of the respective zones on the basis of the output data for the selection of a treatment zone having the greatest responsivity from amongst the respective zones. The waveform generator is thereafter operable for generating the AC waveform for administering a predetermined treatment through the electrodes at the selected zone.

Fenzian Ltd | Date: 2011-03-06

Medical apparatus and instruments for monitoring electrobiofeedback; electronically powered apparatus, namely, transcutanious nerve stimulator and biofeedback device for the treatment of medical conditions and for fitness in general; electronic impulse therapy apparatus, namely, transcutanious nerve stimulator and biofeedback device; electric impulse therapy unit of 15 - 350 Hz frequency for the treatment of medical conditions and for fitness in general, namely, electronic stimulator apparatus for nerve, skin and muscles; parts and fittings for all the aforesaid goods. Medical services; medical diagnostic services; provision of healthcare and medical services; medical consultancy services; healthcare services in the nature of prescribing proper units of electrical dosages for electrobiofeedback apparatus for nerves, skin and muscles for treatment of medical conditions and for fitness in general; medical information; providing medical advice with regard to electrobiofeedback therapy.

PubMed | University Institute of Health Sciences and Fenzian Ltd
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Wounds : a compendium of clinical research and practice | Year: 2015

Fenzian wave (FW) electrical stimulation has been shown to influence cutaneous wound healing. The authors previously published a case series investigating the effect of FW on symptomatic abnormal skin scars (raised dermal scars [RDS]) using spectrophotometric intracutaneous analysis (SIAscopy). In addition, a human volunteer sequential biopsy study in acute cutaneous wounds was conducted, which demonstrated that FW increased vascularity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of FW on symptomatic RDS using full-field laser perfusion imaging (FLPI) to assess changes in dermal blood flow.Eighteen patients with RDS and long-term pain and pruritus participated.Time points analyzed were day 0, weeks 1 and 2, and months 1 and 2. Symptoms were monitored using a subjective numerical rating scale. Additionally, a Manchester Scar Scale and digital photographywere used. Objective noninvasive measures captured quantitative data: SIAscopy to measure melanin, hemoglobin and collagen levels, and FLPI to assess the dermal blood flow.There were statistically significant reductions in pain scores (from day 0 to month 1, P = 0.007) and pruritus scores (from day 0 to week 1, P = 0.007; and day 0 to month 1, P = 0.002). The trend for melanin levels demonstrated an increase from day 0 to week 1, hemoglobin levels showed an increase from day 0 to week 2, and hemoglobin flux increased from day 0 to week 2 (not statistically significant).This report demonstrates that FW electrical stimulation significantly reduces the symptoms of pain and pruritus in patients with RDS. This unique treatment has the potential for management of symptomatic skin scarring. .

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