Interferon-β but not Glatiramer acetate stimulates CXCL10 secretion in primary cultures of thyrocytes: A clue for understanding the different risks of thyroid dysfunctions in patients with multiple sclerosis treated with either of the two drugs
Rotondi M.,University of Pavia |
Stufano F.,University of Pavia |
Lagonigro M.S.,University of Pavia |
La Manna L.,Fondazione Salvatore Maugeri IRCCS |
And 8 more authors.
Journal of Neuroimmunology | Year: 2011
Autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) has been reported in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) receiving interferon-beta (IFN-β), but not in those receiving Glatiramer acetate (GA). CXCL10 is a chemokine playing a pathogenetic role in AITD and MS. Our aim was to evaluate the effects on CXCL10 secretion of IFN-β and GA, alone and in combination with TNF-α, in primary cultures of thyrocytes (PCT). Significant and dose-dependent secretions of CXCL10 were induced by IFN-β but not GA. TNF-α synergistically increased IFN-β induced CXCL10 secretion. These results may provide an explanation for the occurrence of AITD during IFN-β, but not during GA, treatment for MS. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.
Rivadulla C.,University of La Coruna |
Foffani G.,Neurosignals Group |
Oliviero A.,FENNSI Group
Neuromodulation | Year: 2014
Objective The application of transcranial static magnetic field stimulation (tSMS) in humans reduces the excitability of the motor cortex for a few minutes after the end of stimulation. However, when tSMS is applied in humans, the cortex is at least 2 cm away, so most of the strength of the magnetic field will not reach the target. The main objective of the study was to measure the strength and reproducibility of static magnetic fields produced by commercial neodymium magnets. Methods We measured the strength and reproducibility of static magnetic fields produced by four different types of neodymium cylindrical magnets using a magnetic field-to-voltage transducer. Results Magnetic field strength depended on magnet size. At distances <1.5 cm, the magnetic field strength was affected by the presence of central holes (potentially useful for recording electroencephalograms). At distances >1.5 cm, the measurements made on the cylinder axis and 1.5 cm off the axis were comparable. The reproducibility of the results (i.e., the consistency of the field strength across magnets of the same size) was very high. Conclusions These measurements offer a quantitative empirical reference for developing devices useful for tSMS protocols in both humans and animals. © 2013 International Neuromodulation Society.
Rotondi M.,University of Pavia |
Batocchi A.P.,Catholic University |
Coperchini F.,University of Pavia |
Caggiula M.,Neurology Unit |
And 9 more authors.
NeuroImmunoModulation | Year: 2013
Objectives: Experimental evidences indicate that leptin is involved in the neuroinflammatory process sustaining multiple sclerosis (MS). However, the relationship between leptin and body fat, as assessed by body mass index (BMI), in MS was not previously evaluated. It was the aim of this study to compare serum leptin levels between patients with MS and healthy controls and to evaluate the possible relationship between circulating leptin levels and disease severity. Patients and Methods: Eighty-four MS patients and 57 sex-matched healthy volunteers were enrolled. Serum leptin levels were measured in all patients and controls. MS patients were stratified in 3 groups according to their degree of disability as assessed by the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS). Patients were classified as having low (33 patients with an EDSS score <1.5), intermediate (28 patients with an EDSS score from 2 to 3) and high disability (23 patients with an EDSS score ≥3.5). Results: No significant differences in serum leptin levels and BMI were observed between patients and controls. In patients with MS, serum leptin levels were significantly correlated with BMI in those patients with low (R2 = 0.363; p < 0.001) and intermediate disability (R2 = 0.408; p < 0.001), but not in patients with a higher disability score (R2 = 0.064; p = 0.256). Conclusion: BMI, the major determinant of leptin level in physiological conditions, has a minor role in determining the serum levels of leptin in MS patients with a high EDSS score. Future longitudinal studies will be required in order to provide further insights into the regulation of leptin secretion in patients with MS. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Di Lazzaro V.,University Cattolica |
Profice P.,University Cattolica |
Pilato F.,University Cattolica |
Dileone M.,University Cattolica |
And 2 more authors.
Clinical Neurophysiology | Year: 2010
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the human motor cortex can produce long-lasting changes in the excitability of the motor cortex to single pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). rTMS may increase or decrease motor cortical excitability depending critically on the characteristics of the stimulation protocol. However, it is still poorly defined which mechanisms and central motor circuits contribute to these rTMS induced long-lasting excitability changes. We have had the opportunity to perform a series of direct recordings of the corticospinal volley evoked by single pulse TMS from the epidural space of conscious patients with chronically implanted spinal electrodes before and after several protocols of rTMS that increase or decrease brain excitability. These recordings provided insight into the physiological basis of the effects of rTMS and the specific motor cortical circuits involved. © 2009 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology.
Gonzalez-Rosa J.J.,Technical University of Madrid |
Soto-Leon V.,FENNSI Group |
Real P.,Technical University of Madrid |
Carrasco-Lopez C.,FENNSI Group |
And 5 more authors.
Journal of Neuroscience | Year: 2015
Transcranial static magnetic field stimulation (tSMS) was recently introduced as a promising tool to modulate human cerebral excitability in a noninvasive and portable way. However, a demonstration that static magnetic fields can influence human brain activity and behavior is currently lacking, despite evidence that static magnetic fields interfere with neuronal function in animals. Here we show that transcranial application of a static magnetic field (120 –200 mT at 2–3 cm from the magnet surface) over the human occiput produces a focal increase in the power of alpha oscillations in underlying cortex. Critically, this neurophysiological effect of tSMS is paralleled by slowed performance in a visual search task, selectively for the most difficult target detection trials. The typical relationship between prestimulus alpha power over posterior cortical areas and reaction time (RT) to targets during tSMS is altered such that tSMS-dependent increases in alpha power are associated with longer RTs for difficult, but not easy, target detection trials. Our results directly demonstrate that a powerful magnet placed on the scalp modulates normal brain activity and induces behavioral changes in humans. © 2015 the authors.