Holderness, NH, United States
Holderness, NH, United States

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Fustini M.,University of Bologna | Palmonari A.,University of Bologna | Canestrari G.,University of Bologna | Bonfante E.,University of Bologna | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2017

The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of 2 alfalfa hays differing in undigested neutral detergent fiber content and digestibility used as the main forage source in diets fed to high producing cows for Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese production. Diets were designed to have 2 different amounts of undigestible NDF [high (Hu) and low (Lu)], as determined by 240-h in vitro analysis (uNDF240). Alfalfa hay in vitro digestibility [% of amylase- and sodium sulfite-treated NDF with ash correction (aNDFom)] at 24 and 240 h was 40.2 and 31.2% and 53.6 and 45.7% for low- (LD) and high-digestibility (HD) hays, respectively. The 4 experimental diets (Hu-HD, Lu-HD, Hu-LD, and Lu-LD) contained 46.8, 36.8, 38.8, and 30.1% of alfalfa hay, respectively, 8.6% wheat straw, and 35.3% corn (50% flake and 50% meal; DM basis). Soy hulls and soybean meal were used to replace hay to balance protein and energy among diets. Eight multiparous Holstein cows (average milk production = 46.0 ± 5.2 kg/d, 101 ± 38 d in milk, and 662 ± 42 kg of average body weight) were assigned to a 4 × 4 Latin square design, with 2 wk of adaptation and a 1-wk collection period. Dry matter and water intake, rumination time, ruminal pH, and milk production and composition were measured. Diets and feces were analyzed for NDF on an organic matter basis (aNDFom), acid detergent fiber, acid detergent lignin, and uNDF240 to estimate total-tract fiber digestibility. Dry matter intake and rumination times were higher in HD diets compared with LD diets, regardless of forage amount. Rumination time was constant per unit of dry matter intake but differed when expressed as a function of uNDF240, aNDFom, or physically effective NDF intake. No differences were found among treatments on average ruminal pH, but the amount of time with pH <5.8 was lower in Hu-HD diets. Milk production and components were not different among diets. Total-tract aNDFom and potentially digestible neutral detergent fiber fraction digestibility was higher for the LD diets (88.3 versus 85.8% aNDFom in HD), for which lower feed intakes were also observed. The Hu-HD diet allowed greater dry matter intake, longer rumination time, and higher ruminal pH, suggesting that the limiting factor for dry matter intake is neutral detergent fiber digestibility and its relative rumen retention time. © 2017 American Dairy Science Association.

Chester-Jones H.,University of Minnesota | Heins B.J.,University of Minnesota | Ziegler D.,University of Minnesota | Schimek D.,Hubbard Feeds Inc. | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2017

The objective was to determine the relationships between early-life parameters [including average daily gain (ADG), body weight (BW), milk replacer intake, starter intake, and birth season] and the first-lactation performance of Holstein cows. We collected data from birth years 2004 to 2012 for 2,880 Holstein animals. Calves were received from 3 commercial dairy farms and enrolled in 37 different calf research trials at the University of Minnesota Southern Research and Outreach Center from 3 to 195 d. Upon trial completion, calves were returned to their respective farms. Milk replacer options included varying protein levels and amounts fed, but in the majority of studies, calves were fed a milk replacer containing 20% crude protein and 20% fat at 0.57 kg/calf daily. Most calves (93%) were weaned at 6 wk. Milk replacer dry matter intake, starter intake, ADG, and BW at 6 wk were 21.5 ± 2.2 kg, 17.3 ± 7.3 kg, 0.53 ± 0.13 kg/d, and 62.4 ± 6.8 kg, respectively. Average age at first calving and first-lactation 305-d milk yield were 715 ± 46.5 d and 10,959 ± 1,527 kg, respectively. We conducted separate mixed-model analyses using the REML model-fitting protocol of JMP (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC) to determine the effect of early-life BW or ADG, milk replacer and starter intake, and birth season on first-lactation 305-d milk, fat, and true protein yield. Greater BW and ADG at 6 wk resulted in increased first-lactation milk and milk component yields. Intake of calf starter at 8 wk had a significant positive relationship with first-lactation 305-d yield of milk and milk components. Milk replacer intake, which varied very little in this data set, had no effect on first-lactation 305-d yield of milk and milk components. Calves born in the fall and winter had greater starter intake, BW, and ADG at 8 wk. However, calves born in the summer had a higher 305-d milk yield during their first lactation than those born in the fall and winter. Improvements were modest, and variation was high, suggesting that additional factors not accounted for in these analyses affected first-lactation performance. © 2017 American Dairy Science Association.

von Keyserlingk M.A.G.,University of British Columbia | Martin N.P.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Kebreab E.,University of California at Davis | Knowlton K.F.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2013

The US dairy industry has realized tremendous improvements in efficiencies and milk production since the 1940s. During this time, farm and total cow numbers have decreased and average herd size has increased. This intensification, combined with the shift to a largely urban public, has resulted in increased scrutiny of the dairy industry by social and environmental movements and increased concern regarding the dairy industry's sustainability. In response to these concerns, a group of scientists specializing in animal welfare, nutrient management, greenhouse gas emissions, animal science, agronomy, agricultural engineering, microbiology, and economics undertook a critical review of the US dairy industry. Although the US dairy system was identified as having significant strengths, the consensus was that the current structure of the industry lacks the resilience to adapt to changing social and environmental landscapes. We identified several factors affecting the sustainability of the US dairy industry, including climate change, rapid scientific and technological innovation, globalization, integration of societal values, and multidisciplinary research initiatives. Specific challenges include the westward migration of milk production in the United States (which is at odds with projected reductions in precipitation and associated limitations in water availability for cattle and crops), and the growing divide between industry practices and public perceptions, resulting in less public trust. Addressing these issues will require improved alignment between industry practices and societal values, based upon leadership from within the industry and sustained engagement with other interested participants, including researchers, consumers, and the general public. © 2013 American Dairy Science Association.

Bernard J.K.,University of Georgia | Chandler P.T.,Chandler and Associates | Sniffen C.J.,Fencrest LLC | Chalupa W.,University of Pennsylvania
Professional Animal Scientist | Year: 2014

Thirty Holstein cows (111 ± 18 DIM, 37.9 ± 5.6 kg/d of milk) were used in a crossover design trial with 2 periods of 3 wk each. Treatments included diets supplemented with 0 (CONT) or 37 g (LYS+) of rumen-protected Lys provided by Metabolys (H. J. Baker & Bros. Inc., Westport, CT). Diets were based on corn silage and formulated to provide adequate amounts of rumen-protected Met. No differences were observed in DMI, milk yield, or concentration of fat, lactose, or nonfat solids, but cows fed supplemental LYS+ had a greater concentration of milk protein and tended to have higher yields of milk fat, protein, and energy-corrected milk (ECM) than cows fed CONT. Cows fed LYS+ and producing more than 36 kg/d just before beginning the trial had greater concentrations of milk fat and yield of milk fat and ECM and tended to have higher milk protein concentrations compared with CONT. Cows producing less than 36 kg/d just before beginning the trial tended to have higher concentrations of milk protein when fed LYS+ compared with CONT, but no other differences were observed. The results of this trial with cows after peak lactation suggest feeding supplemental rumen-protected Lys to cows producing more than 36 kg/d can result in improved concentrations of fat and protein and yield of ECM, but cows producing less than 36 kg/d do not respond positively. © 2014 American Registry of Professional Animal Scientists.

Westendorf M.L.,Rutgers University | Wohlt J.E.,Rutgers University | Sniffen C.J.,Fencrest LLC | Ward R.T.,Cumberland Valley Analytical Services Inc.
Professional Animal Scientist | Year: 2014

This study analyzed wet brewers grain samples taken from a large commercial brewery. Samples (n = 48) taken over a 1-yr period averaged 33.1% CP (previous reports indicated CP% near or less than 30%). Low lysine concentrations and high RUP concentrations indicate a need for proper RUP and amino acid (AA) formulation. Samples were also divided and composited into low- and high-CP groups; every 3 samples, starting from the least to the greatest CP, were composited to produce 16 samples representative of the range in CP. These samples were analyzed for DM, CP, ammonia N, and AA concentration. The 8 lowest CP composites averaged 32.2% CP and the 8 highest averaged 34.0% CP. A difference was observed in AA concentrations (analyzed from borate-phosphate buffer residues, which contain insoluble true protein and are useful in determining RUP) between the 2 groups (P < 0.05), but AA profiles were consistent between the 2 CP composite groups. Fiber (NDF) fractions were analyzed both with and without added sulfite. This yielded different results between methods, as samples without added sulfite yielded NDF values greater than current published values; hence, the use of sulfite is recommended for NDF analysis. Fat, starch, sugar, and mineral concentrations were within ranges already published. © 2014 American Registry of Professional Animal Scientists.

van Saun R.J.,Pennsylvania State University | Sniffen C.J.,Fencrest LLC
Veterinary Clinics of North America - Food Animal Practice | Year: 2014

In this article, an overview is presented of nutrient modeling to define energy and protein requirements of the late pregnant cow, and metabolic relationships between fetus and cow as they relate to nutrient utilization and risk for postparturient disease are discussed. Recommendations for formulating dry cow diets are provided, with emphasis on opportunities to minimize variation and risk for postparturient disease events. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

Ferraretto L.F.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Fonseca A.C.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Sniffen C.J.,Fencrest LLC | Formigoni A.,University of Bologna | Shaver R.D.,University of Wisconsin - Madison
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2015

Selection for hybrids with greater starch and NDF digestibility may be beneficial for dairy producers. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of feeding a TMR containing a floury-leafy corn silage hybrid (LFY) compared with a brown midrib corn silage hybrid (BMR) for intake, lactation performance, and total-tract nutrient digestibility in dairy cows. Ninety-six multiparous Holstein cows, 105 ± 31. d in milk at trial initiation, were stratified by DIM and randomly assigned to 12 pens of 8 cows each. Pens were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments, BMR or LFY, in a completely randomized design; a 2-wk covariate period with cows fed a common diet followed by a 14-wk treatment period with cows fed their assigned treatment diet. Starch digestibilities, in situ, in vitro, and in vivo, were greater for LFY compared with BMR; the opposite was observed for NDF digestibility. Cows fed BMR consumed 1.7. kg/d more dry matter than LFY. Although, actual-, energy-, and solids-corrected milk yields were greater for BMR than LFY, feed conversions (kg of milk or component-corrected milk per kg of DMI) did not differ. Fat-corrected milk and milk fat yield were similar, as milk fat content was greater for cows fed LFY (4.05%) than BMR (3.83%). Cows fed BMR had lower milk urea nitrogen concentration, but greater milk protein and lactose yields compared with LFY. Body weight change and condition score were unaffected by treatment. Total-tract starch digestibility was greater for cows fed the LFY corn silage however, dry matter intake and milk and protein yields were greater for cows fed the BMR corn silage. Although total-tract starch digestibility was greater for cows fed the LFY corn silage, feed efficiency was not affected by hybrid type due to greater dry matter intake and milk and protein yields by cows fed the BMR corn silage. © 2015 American Dairy Science Association.

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