Smith R.L.,FEMA Expert Panel |
Waddell W.J.,FEMA Expert Panel |
Waddell W.J.,University of Louisville |
Cohen S.M.,University of Nebraska Medical Center |
And 10 more authors.
Food Technology | Year: 2011
Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association (FEMA) provides an update on recent progress in the consideration of flavoring ingredients generally recognized as safe (GRAS) under the Food Additives Amendment. The Panel re-evaluated all relevant metabolic and toxicity data for these flavor ingredients within the context of their increased use levels in chewing gum. Pyridine was reaffirmed as GRAS (GRASr) in 2010 based upon its efficient detoxification in humans; its low level of flavor use; the lack of genotoxic and mutagenic potential. The substance 2-hexyl- 4-acetoxytetrahydrofuran was removed from the GRAS list. The FEMA Expert Panel concludes that the neutral, hydrated, and salt forms of GRAS substances that are physiologically equivalent are assigned the same GRAS number. The same GRAS number would also be applied to the sodium, potassium, calcium, ferrous, ferric, ammonium, and quaternary ammonium salts derived from FEMA GRAS amines, carboxylates, sulfonates, sulfamates, or sulfates.