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Duhamel N.,University of Auckland | Martin D.,New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research | Larcher R.,Fem Iasma Fondazione Edmund Machinery Instituto Agrario Of San Michele Alladige | Fedrizzi B.,University of Auckland | Barker D.,University of Auckland
Tetrahedron Letters | Year: 2016

Sesquiterpenes are an important class of molecules, with roles ranging from pollination and signalling to defense mechanisms. Despite their apparent importance, the limited number of commercial standards has hindered their study and precise quantification. Herein, we report the syntheses of fourteen labelled sesquiterpenes with a high level of deuterium incorporation (>95%) for applications in MS-based studies. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd


Bertoldi D.,Fem Iasma Fondazione Edmund Machinery Instituto Agrario Of San Michele Alladige | Bontempo L.,Fem Iasma Fondazione Edmund Machinery Instituto Agrario Of San Michele Alladige | Larcher R.,Fem Iasma Fondazione Edmund Machinery Instituto Agrario Of San Michele Alladige | Nicolini G.,Fem Iasma Fondazione Edmund Machinery Instituto Agrario Of San Michele Alladige | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Food Composition and Analysis | Year: 2011

As part of the European TRACE project (Tracing Food commodities in Europe, VI FP, Contract N. 006942), this paper provides a wide-ranging survey of the chemical composition of 571 mineral waters bottled and marketed in 23 European countries, and discusses 39 compositional parameters (specific electric conductivity, pH, hardness, total alkalinity, ammonia, chloride, fluoride, nitrate, nitrite, sulphate, Ca, K, Mg, Na, Al, B, Ba, Cd, Ce, Co, Cs, Cu, La, Li, Lu, Mn, Mo, Nd, Ni, Pb, Rb, Se, Sm, Sr, Tl, U, V, Yb, Zn) mainly referring to legal limits and nutritional implications. According to European legislation 58.1% of samples could be defined as 'suitable for a low-sodium diet' while 8.1% could be defined as 'containing sodium', 13.7% could be labelled as 'containing magnesium', 10.2% as 'containing fluoride', 4.9% as 'containing chloride', 13.5% as 'containing sulphate' and 17.5% as 'containing calcium'. 2.8% of samples did not conform with European Community limits for at least one parameter (Se, NO2 -, Mn, Ni, Ba, F and NO3 -). About 9% of samples had boron, nitrate or nitrite levels above the legal limit existing in individual European countries. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.


Bertoldi D.,Fem Iasma Fondazione Edmund Machinery Instituto Agrario Of San Michele Alladige | Larcher R.,Fem Iasma Fondazione Edmund Machinery Instituto Agrario Of San Michele Alladige | Bertamini M.,Fem Iasma Fondazione Edmund Machinery Instituto Agrario Of San Michele Alladige | Otto S.,CNR Institute of Neuroscience | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2011

This paper describes the accumulation pattern of 42 mineral elements in Vitis vinifera L. berries during development and ripening and their distribution in berry skin, seeds, and flesh around harvest time. Grape berries were sampled in two different vineyards with alkaline soil and analyzed using a ICP-MS. Although elemental amounts were significantly different in the grapes from the two vineyards, the accumulation pattern and percentage distribution in different parts of the berries were generally quite similar. Ba, Eu, Sr, Ca, Mg, Mn, and Zn accumulate prior to veraison. Al, Ce, Dy, Er, Ga, Gd, Ho, La, Nd, Pr, Sm, Sn, Zr, Th, Tm, U, Y, and Yb accumulate mainly prior to veraison but also during ripening. Ag, As, B, Cd, Cs, Cu, Fe, Ge, Hg, K, Li, Na, P, Rb, Sb, Se, and Tl accumulate progressively during growth and ripening. With regard to distribution, Ba, Ca, Eu, Fe, Mn, P, Sr, and Zn accumulate mainly in the seeds, Al, B, Ga, Sn, and the rare earths analyzed, except for Eu, accumulate mainly in the skin, and Ag, As, Cd, Cs, Cu, Ge, Hg, K, Li, Mg, Na, Rb, Sb, Se, Th, Tl, U, and Zr accumulate mainly in the flesh. A joint representation of the accumulation and distribution patterns for the elements in the berry is also given. © 2011 American Chemical Society.


Roman Villegas T.,Fem Iasma Fondazione Edmund Machinery Instituto Agrario Of San Michele Alladige | Tonidandel L.,Fem Iasma Fondazione Edmund Machinery Instituto Agrario Of San Michele Alladige | Fedrizzi B.,University of Auckland | Larcher R.,Fem Iasma Fondazione Edmund Machinery Instituto Agrario Of San Michele Alladige | Nicolini G.,Fem Iasma Fondazione Edmund Machinery Instituto Agrario Of San Michele Alladige
Food Chemistry | Year: 2016

Grape pomace is a winemaking by-product that can be used to extract oenological tannins. Recently, some grape skin tannins were shown to contain very high amounts of two polyfunctional thiol precursors (3-S-glutathionylhexan-1-ol, 3-S-cysteinylhexan-1-ol) whose free forms are responsible for appreciated tropical-like flavours. This study shows that an oxidative treatment (no SO2) of white grape pomace and the presence of grape leaves and stems can increase the content of the above mentioned precursors. Moreover, it shows significant differences between Sauvignon Blanc, Gewuerztraminer and Mueller-Thurgau grape pomace for the 3-mercaptohexan-1-ol precursors and 4-S-cysteinyl-4-methylpentan-2-one. The grape cultivar is crucial, but the technological ability of enhancing the level of the volatile thiol precursors simply by treating the grape marc in different ways is a promising and powerful tool for the production of potentially flavouring tannins intended for food and beverage industry. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Duhamel N.,University of Auckland | Piano F.,University of Auckland | Piano F.,University of Milan | Davidson S.J.,University of Auckland | And 3 more authors.
Tetrahedron Letters | Year: 2015

The synthesis of the low molecular weight sulfonic acids, 2-methyl-4-oxopentane-2-sulfonic acid, 1-hydroxyhexane-3-sulfonic acid, 1-oxohexane-3-sulfonic acid and 1-hydroxyhexane-1,3-disulfonic acid from trans-2-hexenal and ethyl hex-2-enoate is reported. These sulfonic acids are putative precursors to the important wine aroma thiols, 3-mercaptohexan-1-ol, 3-mercaptohexyl acetate and 4-mercapto-4-methylpentan-2-one. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | University of Auckland and Fem Iasma Fondazione Edmund Machinery Instituto Agrario Of San Michele Alladige
Type: | Journal: Food chemistry | Year: 2016

Grape pomace is a winemaking by-product that can be used to extract oenological tannins. Recently, some grape skin tannins were shown to contain very high amounts of two polyfunctional thiol precursors (3-S-glutathionylhexan-1-ol, 3-S-cysteinylhexan-1-ol) whose free forms are responsible for appreciated tropical-like flavours. This study shows that an oxidative treatment (no SO2) of white grape pomace and the presence of grape leaves and stems can increase the content of the above mentioned precursors. Moreover, it shows significant differences between Sauvignon Blanc, Gewuerztraminer and Mueller-Thurgau grape pomace for the 3-mercaptohexan-1-ol precursors and 4-S-cysteinyl-4-methylpentan-2-one. The grape cultivar is crucial, but the technological ability of enhancing the level of the volatile thiol precursors simply by treating the grape marc in different ways is a promising and powerful tool for the production of potentially flavouring tannins intended for food and beverage industry.

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