Fenker M.,fem Forschungsinstitut Edelmetalle and Metallchemie |
Balzer M.,fem Forschungsinstitut Edelmetalle and Metallchemie |
Kappl H.,fem Forschungsinstitut Edelmetalle and Metallchemie
Surface and Coatings Technology | Year: 2014
This work gives a review on published results on the corrosion behavior of hard coatings deposited on steel substrates by mainly physical vapor deposition (PVD) or in some cases by plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition (PACVD). Corrosion investigations of our own lab have been added at several sites to complete missing knowledge or to introduce new non-published data. A detailed discussion of thin film growth, microstructure and the kind of defects inherent in hard coatings has been given. Then the influence of coating thickness and some processing parameters on the corrosion resistance of coated steel is demonstrated. After this incipient part, the corrosion behavior of hard nitride coatings, multilayer coatings, alloyed or modified nitride coatings, insulating nitride, oxide or oxynitride coatings and duplex treated steel is being presented. Own investigations and published results show that single layered, conducting nitride coatings can protect steel to some extent only if very thick coatings (≥ 10. μm) are applied or if energetic deposition methods (e.g. ion-assisted deposition) are used. Distinct improvements of the corrosion behavior of hard coatings can be obtained by a proper multilayer structure deposited by deposition methods allowing energetic condensation, i.e. possessing a high ion-to-atom flux ratio. Alloying TiN by a sacrificial element, like magnesium, is also capable of significantly improving the corrosion resistance of low alloyed steel. Amazing improvements have also been reported for insulating coatings like AlN, oxynitride coatings or oxide coatings. However, the most significant improvement seems to be the application of duplex treatments. Plasma nitriding + PVD coating or PVD coating + atomic layer deposition (ALD) prolonged the time to red rust in neutral salt spray test for >. 2. days up to one week, respectively. The only disadvantage of the duplex treatments is the higher cost. Recently, mapping by a confocal microscope of TiN coating surfaces before and after salt spray testing showed that open porosities in micro- and macro-scale growth defects mainly govern the corrosion behavior of hard coatings on steel. The coating microstructure - i.e. the submicron-scale morphology - seems to play only a secondary role in the corrosion behavior. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.
Thermo-mechanical and hydrochemical separation of indium tin oxide from electronic display scrap [Thermisch-mechanische Anreicherung von Indiumzinnoxid aus Displayeinheiten gebrauchter Flachbildschirme]
Bihlmaier A.,FEM Forschungsinstitut Edelmetalle and Metallchemie |
Volker M.,FEM Forschungsinstitut Edelmetalle and Metallchemie
World of Metallurgy - ERZMETALL | Year: 2011
A thermo-mechanical processing of TFT-display-scrap is described, yielding glass-culets and an indium enriched fraction. Feasibility of indium-fraction-processing in thermo-metallurgical copper- or lead-smelters was assayed by adopted dokimastic melt-extraction procedures. Wet extraction with diluted sulphuric acid was investigated as an alternative.
Friedrich J.,Fem Forschungsinstitut Edelmetalle and Metallchemie
Materialwissenschaft und Werkstofftechnik | Year: 2012
The occurrence of defects like pustules in varnish finishings results in economic problems in the industrial practice of powder coating of galvanized steel parts. The mechanism for the formation of pustules was investigated in a set of scientific integrating methods and a general theory was developed. Metallographic microscopy with its analytic tools as well as wet chemistry research were applied, further glow discharge spectroscopy (GDOS) and mass spectrometry. With mass spectrometry the outgassings from a hot dip zinc probe were identified: it is mainly water with 82% by volume, followed by carbon dioxide (10%) and hydrogen (8%), which together are responsible for the formation of the pustules. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.