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Trondheim, Norway

Hallenstvedt E.,Felleskjopet Forutvikling | Hallenstvedt E.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences | Kjos N.P.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences | Rehnberg A.C.,Norwegian Meat Research Center | And 2 more authors.
Meat Science

A total of 72 crossbred [(Norwegian Landrace × Yorkshire) × Duroc] male and female growing-finishing pigs were restrictedly fed diets containing fish oil to study the fatty acid composition of Musculus longissimus dorsi and sensory quality of belly and neck. Six diets were used: two low-fat diets with or without 0.5% fish oil added, and four medium-fat diets with palm kernel oil to fish oil in ratios given as % inclusion: 4.1:0.0, 3.9:0.3, 3.6:0.5 and 3.4:0.7. Feeding fish oil gave a dose-dependent response between fatty acids in the diets and in the M. longissimus dorsi and increased the level of very long chain n-3 fatty acids, especially the C22:5n-3 (DPA). A more efficient n-3 fatty acids deposition was obtained when given as a medium-fat diet rather than the low-fat diet. Female pigs had a significant higher percentage of monounsaturated fatty acids and C18:1 than males suggesting a gender related difference in the delta-9-desaturase activity. No significant differences were found in sensory attributes for short-term stored neck and belly. For pigs fed the highest level of fish oil (0.7%) long-term stored (12 months at -80 °C, 6 months at -20 °C) belly showed a slight increase in fish oil flavour. After warmed-over treatment, fish oil odour and flavour as well as rancid flavour were increased in this group. The results suggest levels of dietary fish oil up to 0.5% produce a healthier meat fatty acid composition, without negative effects on sensory attributes, even in long-termed stored belly. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Erdal R.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences | Erdal R.,University of Bristol | Richardson I.,University of Bristol | Ljokjel K.,Felleskjopet Forutvikling | Haug A.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences
British Poultry Science

1. An experiment was conducted with 98 male and 98 female broiler chickens (Ross 308) to study the effect of growth rate, induced by different dietary means, sex and live weight (1500 g and 2000 g) at slaughter on production parameters, bone strength and sensorial characteristics of the breast meat.2. The birds were divided into four groups and individually fed a standard commercial diet, a high energy diet or low energy diet from d 11 to slaughter at between d 28 and 39. Three groups were fed ad libitum and a further group was fed a restricted amount of the high energy feed. Half of the birds in each group were slaughtered at approximately 1500 g and the other half at 2000 g live weight.3. The diets resulted in different growth rates. The chickens fed the high energy and the commercial diet had the highest growth rate at both live weights at slaughter. The restricted fed chickens had lower bone strength than the chickens fed the low energy diet.4. Breast meat from male broilers was juicer, more tender and less hard than breast meat from females. Chickens slaughtered at 2000 g live weight were juicer than those slaughtered at 1500 g. Chickens given the high energy feed ad libitum and restricted had different growth rates, but the sensory parameter related to texture showed no difference.5. It was concluded that an increased slaughter weight might improve meat quality due to improved juiciness. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source

Opheim M.,Felleskjopet Forutvikling | Opheim M.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences | Slizyte R.,Sintef | Sterten H.,Felleskjopet Forutvikling | And 3 more authors.
Process Biochemistry

This study evaluates the composition, nutritional value, and potential bioactive peptides in hydrolysates obtained from different Atlantic salmon rest raw materials. The effect of enzymes (endogenous enzymes, Protamex, and papain plus bromelain), pretreatments, and industrial-compared to laboratory-scale production was evaluated. Proximal composition of the hydrolysates reflected the composition of the starting material. Removal of oil by slight warming (40 °C) before hydrolysis of viscera did not influence amino acid composition, nutritional value, or peptide analysis. However, excessive heating (70 °C) of viscera before hydrolysis reduced protein content, nutritional value, free amino acids, and the degree of hydrolysis (DH) compared to other viscera hydrolysates produced with papain plus bromelain with active endogenous enzymes. Hydrolysis of viscera with only endogenous enzymes was similar to hydrolysis with Protamex or papain plus bromelain concerning proximal and total amino acid composition, DH, nutritional value, and number of different bioactive motifs in the hydrolysates. However, the number of different peptides and the total number of bioactive motifs was higher when using papain plus bromelain compared to Protamex with viscera-containing starting material. Differences between laboratory- and industrial-scales of production of hydrolysates appear to be mainly due to lower efficiency in the hydrolysis, separating processes, and storage conditions. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Sterten H.,Felleskjopet Forutvikling | Sterten H.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences | Oksbjerg N.,University of Aarhus | Froystein T.,Norwegian Meat and Poultry Research Center | And 2 more authors.
Meat Science

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of pre-slaughter fasting time, sex and feeding regime on the development of energy metabolism and pH in M. longissimus dorsi (LD) post-mortem in pigs. Two hundred and seventy pigs of the commercial Norwegian crossbreed Noroc (LYLD) were used involving two sexes (gilts and castrates), two feeding regimes (restricted and ad libitum) and four different fasting treatments: (F4) 4 h fasting, (F175) 17.5 h fasting on the farm, (FO175) 17.5 h fasting overnight at the abattoir, and (FO265) 26.5 h fasting overnight at the abattoir. Additionally the pigs experienced two different abattoir lairage times as fasting treatment F4 and F175 had a lairage time of 1.5 h, while fasting treatment FO175 and FO265 had a lairage time of 23.0 h. A short fasting time of 4 h led to a delayed degradation of glycogen, slow decline in pH and a lower ultimate pH45 h post-mortem (pHu) in the LD compared with a fasting time of 26.5 h which resulted in a rapid breakdown of glycogen and pH decline early post-mortem and a high pHu. Proglycogen was degraded in favour of macroglycogen under anaerobic conditions post-mortem. Feeding the animals in the morning before delivery if slaughtered the same day, results in low pH reduction rate and a low pHu compared with pigs fasted overnight either on farm or at the abattoir. Aiming a higher pHu in LD it should be recommended not to feed the pigs in the morning at the day of slaughter. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Lundblad K.K.,Felleskjopet Forutvikling | Lundblad K.K.,Kansas State University | Lundblad K.K.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences | Hancock J.D.,Kansas State University | And 7 more authors.
Animal Feed Science and Technology

An experiment was designed to determine the effect of hydrothermal treatment (HT) on the coefficient of apparent ileal digestibilities (CAID) of crude protein (CP), amino acids (AA), starch and phosphorous (P) in growing pigs (initial body weight (BW) of 29.5 ± 2.4. kg) fitted with a T-cannula in distal ileum. The mash, based on wheat, fishmeal and soybean meal, was subjected to four HT, giving diets: (1) unconditioned mash as control; (2) low-temperature steam conditioning before pelleting (SC-Low); (3) high-temperature steam conditioning before pelleting (SP-High); (4) expander conditioning before pelleting (EXP); and (5) extruder processing (EXT). The diets were fed to five growing pigs allotted to treatments in a 5 × 5 Latin square design. The HT (average of four HT diets) increased CAID of starch (P=0.001), but did not affect that of DM, CP or P. The CAID for total indispensible AA was improved by HT processing (P=0.041), as were the CAID for Arg (P=0.018), Ile (P=0.044), Lys (P=0.006) and Thr (P=0.013), when compared to the control. For Lys, CAID was greater (P=0.006) for pigs fed the HT diets compared to the control and for the average of EXP and EXT compared to the average of SC-Low and SC-High. For dispensable AA, CAID were not affected by the treatments. In conclusion, HT increased ileal digestibility of starch, total IAA, Arg, Ile, Lys and Thr compared to a control diet fed as mash in growing pigs, with expander conditioning and extruder processing of particular merit for Lys. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source

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