Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

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Yoshizaki T.,Kyushu Institute of Technology | Shirai Y.,Kyushu Institute of Technology | Hassan M.A.,University Putra Malaysia | Baharuddin A.S.,University Putra Malaysia | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Cleaner Production | Year: 2013

This paper proposes a new approach for integrated technology of biogas energy and compost production for a palm oil mill. This study evaluated the economic viability based on the changes of materials flow and energy balance when a palm oil mill introduces this approach. A palm oil mill processing 54 tonnes fresh fruit bunch (FFB) per hour has the potential to produce 8.2 GWh per year of electricity using biogas captured during anaerobic treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME). Compost production using shredded empty fruit bunch (EFB) and POME anaerobic sludge obtained from the anaerobic digester is equivalent of 579 tonnes, 151 tonnes and 761 tonnes per year of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium respectively. The integrated technology is a more attractive solution compared to the case when the palm oil mill installs either biogas energy or compost technology individually. The result of economic analysis suggests that this integrated approach is the most economically effective in comparison to the other two cases. Interestingly, even without Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), the integrated technology can still be economically viable, which can be a good solution for sustainable palm oil industry management in the near future. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Yoshizaki T.,Kyushu Institute of Technology | Shirai Y.,Kyushu Institute of Technology | Hassan M.A.,University Putra Malaysia | Baharuddin A.S.,University Putra Malaysia | And 3 more authors.
Environment, Development and Sustainability | Year: 2012

This article is a case study to compare the economic viabilities of biogas generation and compost projects in a palm oil mill in Malaysia with and without clean development mechanism (CDM). Biogas is captured from anaerobic ponds or digester tanks treating palm oil mill effluent (POME) and converted to green renewable electricity for grid connection, while compost is produced from the shredded empty fruit bunch and raw untreated POME. The both technologies were compared by considering the changes of the materials flow and energy balances. A palm oil mill with a capacity of 54 t fresh fruit bunch per hour has the potential to produce either 6. 9 GWh of electricity from biogas or fertilizer equivalent to 488 t of nitrogen, 76 t of phosphorus and 1,065 t of potassium per year. The economic analysis for 10 years project term analysis indicated that CDM gave a significant impact and ensured economic viability for both projects with 25 % of internal rate of return (IRR), RM 12. 39 million of net present value (NPV) and 3. 5 years of payback period (PBP) for biogas project, whereas 31 % of IRR, RM 10. 87 million of NPV and 2. 9 years of PBP for compost project, respectively. In addition, sensitivity analysis indicated that the profitability of both projects will vary depending on the economic situation, such as electricity price which is based on the government policy, whereas compost price that depend on fertilizer market price with 43 % NPV change in 20 % range of fertilizer value. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Sahad N.,University Technology of MARA | Som A.M.,University Technology of MARA | Baharuddin A.S.,University Putra Malaysia | Mokhtar N.,University Putra Malaysia | And 2 more authors.
BioResources | Year: 2014

A characterization study on oil palm decanter cakes (OPDC) was performed to gain an in-depth understanding of the material's characteristics to aid in potential residual oil recovery. The OPDC was characterized by a high moisture content, high biodegradability, high organic content, and a nutrient-rich composition. Microscopic observation showed that the oil attachments in OPDC, and a vast majority of the droplets, were less than 50 μm in size. Furthermore, contact angle measurement revealed the hydrophilic and oleophilic characteristics of OPDC. Specifically, the contact angles of water and crude palm oil (CPO) with OPDC were both less than 45° with absorption rates of 0.0265 ± 0.003 μL/s and 0.1042 ± 0.05 μL/s, respectively. The OPDC is a fibrous material, and the surface area and pore size measured were 7.103 m2/g and 481.7 Å, respectively. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermogravimetric (TG) analysis results showed the functional groups and degradation properties of OPDC, respectively.

Yunos N.S.H.M.,University Putra Malaysia | Baharuddin A.S.,University Putra Malaysia | Md Yunos K.F.,University Putra Malaysia | Hafid H.S.,University Putra Malaysia | And 4 more authors.
BioResources | Year: 2015

Abundant oil palm empty fruit bunches (OPEFB) generated from the palm oil mill industry create huge problems for the environment and the palm oil mill itself. Despite the importance of determining the amount of oil left in the OPEFB, little research of that nature has been reported. This study describes the oil content and physicochemical characteristics of OPEFB fibers, detection of oil attachment on the fiber's surface using sudan red dye, contact angle values, and also the quality of the residual oil. The OPEFB fibers, which are normally used as mulch for the palm oil mill, have been found to be a rich source of lignocellulosic materials, especially cellulose, which constitutes 33.70 to 35.10% for a press-shredded fiber. Residual oil (3 to 7% on dry basis) extracted from the OPEFB exhibits good quality parameters such as deterioration of bleachability index (DOBI), free fatty acid (FFA), and peroxide value (PV). The DOBI values were still in the acceptable range, which is from 1.94 to 2.43, while the PV results are within the range of about 1.84 to 2.80 meq/kg. The major fatty acids of the residual fiber oil were palmitic and oleic acids, at 39.77% to 39.89% and 39.55% to 42.60%, respectively. There were no significant changes in the macronutrients and quality of the OPEFB residual oil. Therefore, the residual oil from the OPEFB should be recovered and reused as a raw material for industrial applications, boosting the oil extraction rate (OER) in the palm oil industry.

Ani F.N.,University of Technology Malaysia | Salema A.A.,University of Technology Malaysia | Hassan I.,Felda Palm Industries Sdn Bhd
Applied Mechanics and Materials | Year: 2014

Pyrolysis is one of the effective ways to convert biomass into energy and value added products. Till date, no comparative study has been done on the characteristic of bio-oils of oil palm shell (OPS) and empty fruit bunch (EFB) from various fast pyrolysis techniques. This includes fluidized bed, fixed bed, rotating cone, microwave and others. Thus, the main objective of this paper was to analyze the characteristics of OPS and EFB bio-oils obtained from these processing techniques. Temperature was found to be the key parameter for the quality of bio-oils. Besides the various pyrolysis techniques, the lignocellulosic constituents of oil palm biomass also influence the chemical composition of the bio-oils. Overall, chemical analysis of OPS and EFB bio-oil through GC-MS has shown variation in the amount of phenol and its derivatives. © (2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

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