Felda Biotechnology Center

Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia

Felda Biotechnology Center

Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia
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Habib S.H.,University Putra Malaysia | Ooi S.-E.,Malaysian Palm Oil Board | Novak O.,Palacky University | Tarkowska D.,Palacky University | And 5 more authors.
Plant Growth Regulation | Year: 2012

Comparative mineral and hormonal analyses were made on tissue culture derived truncated leaf syndrome and wild type oil palm seedlings. Mineral analysis confirmed that Boron, Zinc and chlorophyll levels were significantly lower in truncated leaf syndrome leaves than those of wild type. Hormonal analysis also revealed various cytokinin derivatives such as trans-zeatin, trans-zeatin riboside, trans-zeatin O-glucoside and trans-zeatin riboside 5′mono phosphate were significantly higher in truncated leaf syndrome leaves compared to wild type leaves. Brassinolide level was also significantly higher in truncated leaf syndrome leaves than those of the wild type. These observations suggest that the truncated leaf syndrome abnormality could be associated to high cytokinin and brassinosteroid production which affects the uptake of Boron and Zinc. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Roowi S.H.,Felda Biotechnology Center | Ho C.-L.,University Putra Malaysia | Alwee S.S.R.S.,Felda Biotechnology Center | Abdullah M.O.,Malaysian Palm Oil Board | Napis S.,University Putra Malaysia
Molecular Biotechnology | Year: 2010

Oil palm suspension cultures were initiated by transferring the gel-like friable embryogenic tissue onto liquid medium supplemented with auxins. In this study, transcripts that were differentially expressed in oil palm suspension cells cultured at different auxin concentrations were examined using suppression subtractive hybridization. Total RNA was first isolated from oil palm suspension cells proliferated in liquid medium with different hormone concentrations for 6 months. Four different hormone combinations: T1 (0.1 mg/l 2,4-D and 1.0 mg/l NAA), T2 (0.4 mg/l 2,4-D and 1.0 mg/l NAA), T3 (1.0 mg/l NAA), and T4 (0.4 mg/l 2,4-D) were used for the treatments. The first and second subtractions were performed using samples T1 and T2 in forward and reverse order. The other two subtractions were forward and reverse subtractions of T3 and T4, respectively. Reverse northern analyses showed that 14.13% of these clones were preferentially expressed in T1, 13.70% in T2, 14.75% in T3, and 15.70% in T4. Among the 294 cDNA clones that were sequenced, 61 contigs (assembled from 165 sequences) and 129 singletons were obtained. Among the 61 contigs, 10 contigs consist of sequences from treatment T1, 8 contigs were from treatment T2, 10 contigs were contains sequences of treatment T3 and 13 contigs contains sequences of treatment T4. Northern analyses of five transcripts that were shown to be differentially expressed in the oil palm suspension cells by reverse northern analysis revealed that transcripts 16A1 (a putative lignostilbene-α,β-dioxygenase, EgLSD) and 16H12 (a putative ethylene responsive 6, EgER6) were differentially expressed in oil palm suspension cells treated with different levels of auxin. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Habib S.H.,University Putra Malaysia | Syed-Alwee S.S.R.,Felda Biotechnology Center | Ho C.-L.,University Putra Malaysia | Ong-Abdullah M.,Malaysian Palm Oil Board | And 2 more authors.
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum | Year: 2012

A comparative phenotypic and morpho-histological study was carried out on tissue culture-derived truncated leaf syndrome (TLS) and wild-type oil palm seedlings to investigate their phenotypic and morpho-histological differences. On the basis of the percentage of TLS occurence in a clone, the TLS seedlings were categorized into three groups: severe (70-100%), moderate (40-69%) and mild (<40%). Wild and TLS seedlings differ in terms of growth, vigor, leaf size and shape, root number, volume, length as well as the size of shoot apical meristem (SAM). Differences were also found in fresh weight of leaf, root and SAM of TLS in comparison to wild-type seedlings. Depressed and wavy leaf surface, sunken and distorted stomata and coalesced epidermal cells were observed by scanning electron microscopy in TLS seedlings. The size, shape and number of stomata were also different in the TLS leaf compared to the wild type. Longer epidermal cells, depressed epidermal layer, larger sub-epidermal cells and loosely arranged less mesophyll cells were observed in TLS leaf than in wild type. Undifferentiated vascular bundle was found in TLS leaves where metaxylem and phloem were absent and root tips were impaired. The size and leaf primordial arrangement of SAM were remarkably different in TLS compared to wild-type seedlings suggesting that these alterations might be due to smaller SAM. Therefore, further detailed genetic analysis on TLS SAM is needed for clear understanding of TLS occurrence. © 2011 Franciszek Górski Institute of Plant Physiology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kraków.


Danial M.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | Keng C.L.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | Alwee S.S.R.S.,Felda Biotechnology Center | Mahmood M.,University Putra Malaysia | Subramaniam S.,Universiti Sains Malaysia
Journal of Medicinal Plants Research | Year: 2011

Bacterial chemotaxis is considered the first step in the interaction between motile bacteria and plant cells. Chemotaxis initiates the process of bacterial infection towards the plant cells and thus conferring beneficial attributes to the host. In this study, 5 wild strains and 2 disarmed strains of Agrobacterium rhizogenes were tested for chemotaxis assay using the swarm agar plate method. As expected, strong positive chemotactic response was observed in most of the tested bacteria strains and all the tested strains of Agrobacterium rhizogenes showed positive chemotactic response towards the tested root and somatic embryos of the valuable medicinal plant, Eurycoma longifolia. Therefore, induction of hairy roots is possible in Eurycoma longifolia. Generating hairy roots in Eurycoma longifolia will be highly beneficial mainly to the pharmaceutical industry as this medicinal plant possesses the capacity to produce many secondary metabolites which is proposed to increase sexual virility properties and to have anti cancer properties. © 2011 Academic Journals.


Gantait S.,University Putra Malaysia | Sinniah U.R.,University Putra Malaysia | Suranthran P.,University Putra Malaysia | Suranthran P.,Felda Biotechnology Center | And 2 more authors.
Protoplasma | Year: 2014

In the present study, polyembryoids of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) were cryopreserved with successful revival of 68 % for the first time using the droplet vitrification technique. Excised polyembryoids (3–5-mm diameter) from 3-month-old in vitro cultures were pre-cultured for 12 h in liquid Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 0.5 M sucrose. The polyembryoids were osmoprotected in loading solution [10 % (w/v) dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) plus 0.7 M sucrose] for 30 min at room temperature and then placed on aluminium strips where they were individually drenched in chilled droplets of vitrification solution (PVS2) [30 % (w/v) glycerol plus 15 % (w/v) ethylene glycol (EG) plus 15 % (w/v) DMSO plus 0.4 M sucrose] for 10 min. The aluminium strips were enclosed in cryovials which were then plunged quickly into liquid nitrogen and kept there for 1 h. The polyembryoids were then thawed and unloaded (using 1.2 M sucrose solution) with subsequent transfer to regeneration medium and stored in zero irradiance. Following for 10 days of storage, polyembryoids were cultured under 16 h photoperiod of 50 μmol m−2 s−1 photosynthetic photon flux density, at 23 ± 1 °C. Post-thaw growth recovery of 68 % was recorded within 2 weeks of culture, and new shoot development was observed at 4 weeks of growth. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that successful regeneration of cryopreserved polyembryoids was related to maintenance of cellular integrity, presumably through PVS2 exposure for 10 min. The present study demonstrated that cryopreservation by droplet vitrification enhanced the regeneration percentages of oil palm in comparison with the conventional vitrification method previously reported. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Wien.


Suranthran P.,University Putra Malaysia | Gantait S.,University Putra Malaysia | Sinniah U.R.,University Putra Malaysia | Subramaniam S.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | And 2 more authors.
Plant Growth Regulation | Year: 2012

The present study evaluates the effect of six loading solutions and five vitrification solutions (VS) and their time of exposure on the survival of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) polyembryoids in liquid nitrogen (LN). In vitro grown polyembryoids of oil palm were successfully cryopreserved by vitrification with 45% survival. Individual polyembryoids, isolated from 2-month old culture, were precultured in liquid Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 0.5 M sucrose for 12 h and treated with a mixture of 10% (w/v) dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) plus 0.7 M sucrose for 30 min. Polyembryoids were then subjected to plant vitrification solution-2 (PVS2) (30% (w/v) glycerol plus 15% (w/v) EG plus 15% (w/v) DMSO plus 0.4 M sucrose) exposure for 5 min at 26 ± 2°C and subsequently plunged into LN. Thawed polyembryoids resumed growth within 8 days of culture and shoot development was recorded at 25 days of growth. Scanning electron micrograph revealed that successful regeneration of cryopreserved polyembryoids was due to stabilization of cellular integrity through optimum VS exposure. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Habib S.H.,University Putra Malaysia | Ho C.-L.,University Putra Malaysia | Syed-Alwee S.S.R.,Felda Biotechnology Center | Namasivayam P.,University Putra Malaysia
Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture | Year: 2015

Truncated leaf syndrome (TLS) is a vegetative somaclonal variant of oil palm that is regenerated from cultured somatic cells. Until now, there are no molecular clues associated to this abnormality. Forward and reverse suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH) libraries were constructed to isolate the differentially expressed genes from the shoot apical meristem (SAM) of severe TLS plantlets. From the suppressive SSH libraries, 278 and 132 transcripts were up-regulated and down-regulated respectively in severe TLS SAM. The annotated 54 and 24 % unique gene sequences from the forward and reverse libraries had significant matches with known proteins and were further classified based on their putative functions. Real time RT-PCR indicated that six transcripts, namely a putative finger transcription factor, a Ring H2 Finger Protein, a putative far-red impaired response protein, a Pescadillo N-terminus family protein, a TLD family protein and a maternal effect embryo arrest 14 protein from the forward library were expressed at higher levels in the severe and moderate TLS SAM and at a lower level in the mild TLS SAM compared to the calibrator (normal SAM). Four transcripts that are hypothetical protein-1, hypothetical protein-2, catalase and cation transporter from the reverse library exhibited lower expression levels in the severe and moderate TLS shoot apical meristem compared to the calibrator (normal SAM). The present findings provide a basic molecular knowledge on some of the genes associated to the TLS syndrome in oil palm. However, it is unclear whether upregulation or downregulation of these genes are a consequence of TLS or the cause of TLS. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Danial M.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | Keng C.L.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | Alwee S.S.R.S.,Felda Biotechnology Center | Subramaniam S.,Universiti Sains Malaysia
Journal of Medicinal Plants Research | Year: 2011

Seed morphology and histology analysis of Eurycoma longifolia by light microscopes revealed seeds structures of this important medicinal plant at different growing stages. The seed structures of E. longifolia consist of main regions such as epidermis, hypodermis, storage parenchyma and procambium. The cotyledon of E. longifolia develops into a complex and reticulate vascular system. The seed development phases and the development of the vascular system on the progression of germination provide the insight of the actual and accurate information on the E. longifolia cotyledon development period. This information is essential for using the seed as the source of inoculums for the production of the hairy root cultures. Seeds being the storage organ may facilitate the generation of the hairy roots, as it evidently has the essential features like tracheas, which are the main site of infection for Agrobacterium rhizogenes. ©2011 Academic Journals.


Balakrishnan B.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | Alwee S.S.R.S.,Felda Biotechnology Center | Keng C.L.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | Subramaniam S.,Universiti Sains Malaysia
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2014

Histological analysis conducted on somatic embryos of Eurycoma longifolia shows the developmental structures that are remarkably similar to seeds found in the wild. The primary components of a growing somatic embryo are its shoot and root apical meristems indicated by dense layers of rapidly growing cells. The increased understanding of In vitro culture systems and anatomical changes provide information into cellular processes that govern genetic transformation of E. longifolia with Agrobacterium rhizogenes. The presence of meristematic regions on cultured somatic embryos suggests that they are suitable for genetic transformation as genetic elements could be transported to these regions where growth and differentiation are centered. This allows the successful integration and expression of transferred DNA in the host organism, leading the way for an efficient A. rhizogenes-mediated transformation protocol.


Oil palm suspension cultures were initiated by transferring the gel-like friable embryogenic tissue onto liquid medium supplemented with auxins. In this study, transcripts that were differentially expressed in oil palm suspension cells cultured at different auxin concentrations were examined using suppression subtractive hybridization. Total RNA was first isolated from oil palm suspension cells proliferated in liquid medium with different hormone concentrations for 6 months. Four different hormone combinations: T1 (0.1 mg/l 2,4-D and 1.0 mg/l NAA), T2 (0.4 mg/l 2,4-D and 1.0 mg/l NAA), T3 (1.0 mg/l NAA), and T4 (0.4 mg/l 2,4-D) were used for the treatments. The first and second subtractions were performed using samples T1 and T2 in forward and reverse order. The other two subtractions were forward and reverse subtractions of T3 and T4, respectively. Reverse northern analyses showed that 14.13% of these clones were preferentially expressed in T1, 13.70% in T2, 14.75% in T3, and 15.70% in T4. Among the 294 cDNA clones that were sequenced, 61 contigs (assembled from 165 sequences) and 129 singletons were obtained. Among the 61 contigs, 10 contigs consist of sequences from treatment T1, 8 contigs were from treatment T2, 10 contigs were contains sequences of treatment T3 and 13 contigs contains sequences of treatment T4. Northern analyses of five transcripts that were shown to be differentially expressed in the oil palm suspension cells by reverse northern analysis revealed that transcripts 16A1 (a putative lignostilbene-alpha,beta-dioxygenase, EgLSD) and 16H12 (a putative ethylene responsive 6, EgER6) were differentially expressed in oil palm suspension cells treated with different levels of auxin.

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