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Ting N.-C.,Malaysian Palm Oil Board | Ting N.-C.,University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus | Jansen J.,Wageningen University | Mayes S.,University of Nottingham | And 9 more authors.
BMC Genomics | Year: 2014

Background: Oil palm is an important perennial oil crop with an extremely long selection cycle of 10 to 12 years. As such, any tool that speeds up its genetic improvement process, such as marker-assisted breeding is invaluable. Previously, genetic linkage maps based on AFLP, RFLP and SSR markers were developed and QTLs for fatty acid composition and yield components identified. High density genetic maps of crosses of different genetic backgrounds are indispensable tools for investigating oil palm genetics. They are also useful for comparative mapping analyses to identify markers closely linked to traits of interest.Results: A 4.5 K customized oil palm SNP array was developed using the Illumina Infinium platform. The SNPs and 252 SSRs were genotyped on two mapping populations, an intraspecific cross with 87 palms and an interspecific cross with 108 palms. Parental maps with 16 linkage groups (LGs), were constructed for the three fruit forms of E. guineensis (dura, pisifera and tenera). Map resolution was further increased by integrating the dura and pisifera maps into an intraspecific integrated map with 1,331 markers spanning 1,867 cM. We also report the first map of a Colombian E. oleifera, comprising 10 LGs with 65 markers spanning 471 cM. Although not very dense due to the high level of homozygosity in E. oleifera, the LGs were successfully integrated with the LGs of the tenera map. Direct comparison between the parental maps identified 603 transferable markers polymorphic in at least two of the parents. Further analysis revealed a high degree of marker transferability covering 1,075 cM, between the intra- and interspecific integrated maps. The interspecific cross displayed higher segregation distortion than the intraspecific cross. However, inclusion of distorted markers in the genetic maps did not disrupt the marker order and no map expansion was observed.Conclusions: The high density SNP and SSR-based genetic maps reported in this paper have greatly improved marker density and genome coverage in comparison with the first reference map based on AFLP and SSR markers. Therefore, it is foreseen that they will be more useful for fine mapping of QTLs and whole genome association mapping studies in oil palm. © 2014 Ting et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Foan C.C.,University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus | Lee Y.W.,Lot L3 l 1 Enterprise | Tan J.S.,FELDA Agricultural Services Sdn Bhd | Alwee S.S.R.S.,FELDA Agricultural Services Sdn Bhd
Asia-Pacific Journal of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology | Year: 2012

One of the key approaches for disease prevention in oil palm is to develop a disease resistant variety; this can be achieved through tagging of resistance genes in oil palm. In this study, a total of three putative resistance gene homologues (RGHs) have been isolated from oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) using primers targeted at the conserved motifs of the nucleotide binding site (NBS) domain. Comparison of the isolated RGH sequences with the NCBI GenBank database showed that one of the homologues had high identity to the disease resistance like proteins in coconut (90%) and tomato (87%). Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the RGHs clustered with R genes found in Arabidopsis. The findings will be useful for studying of resistant genes in oil palm.

Hoe T.K.,Felda Agricultural Services Sdn. Bhd. | Palaniappan S.,Felda Agricultural Services Sdn. Bhd.
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2013

Durian is the most important fruit crop in Malaysia due to its high demand in both domestic and export markets in surrounding ASEAN countries. Durian cultivation takes up the largest area in Malaysia, contributing almost one-quarter of local fresh fruit produce. The sustainability of durian production is very much related to the type of durian material planted. In 1992, FELDA Agricultural Services Sdn. Bhd. initiated a durian germplasm collection at its PusatPerkhidmatan PertanianTunRazak in Jerantut, Pahang. Some 34 durian clones were collected and field planted to evaluate their performance and potential for future commercial planting. Results over 10 years showed that the durian clones were able to achieve 20% annual increment in stem diameter and canopy width after 7 years of planting although this rate subsequently declined. Evaluation of disease tolerance indicated that the majority of clones were susceptible to moderately susceptible to Rhizoctonia leaf blight disease and only few clones were tolerant to Phytophthora patch canker disease. The majority of the clones fruited 7 years after planting with the fruiting season occurring in June to August and October to December. Amongst the superior clones that produced excellent fruit quality and eating acceptance were 'D 24', 'D 96', 'MDUR 78' ('D 188'), 'Botak' ('D 172'), 'Tikkar' ('D 160'), 'Batang Melaka', 'MDUR 79' ('D 189') and 'Monthong' ('D 159'). © 2013 ISHS.

Then K.H.,Felda Agricultural Services Sdn. Bhd.
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2013

Red Pitaya (Hylocerus polyrhizus) is a new fruit crop in Malaysia that was introduced in the early of 2000's. Due to its high content in vitamins, antioxidants properties and attractive appearance it is highly demanded in the domestic market. The market price of Red Pitaya is based on the fruit size, where a fruit weighing more than 450 g is categorized as grade A fruit, which lead to better market price. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of foliar fertilizer on Red Pitaya fruit weight and quality by spraying the branches and aerial roots. Four types of foliar fertilizers; Box-Fruit (1% v/v), Box-MBF (1% v/v), potassium nitrate (1% w/w) and monopotassium phosphate (1% w/w) were used. The fertilizers were sprayed at weekly intervals and the yield performance was recorded after three months of treatment's application. Fourteen batches of fruits were harvested during this study. The results showed that treated plants were not significantly different from untreated plants in fruit production and total yield, except for the plants treated with Box-MBF which recorded lower yield. The Box-Fruit treated plants however produced heavier fruits with an average of 342.0 g than the untreated plants with an average of 279.9 g/fruit. Meanwhile, potassium nitrate treated plants showed slightly heavier fruit as compared to untreated plants at 295.3 g but this was not significantly different. Both Box-Fruit and potassium nitrate fertilizers improved the fruit quality of Red Pitaya by producing 22.1% and 16.2% grade A fruits respectively compared to the untreated plants which only produced 10.4% of the grade A fruit.

Then K.H.,Felda Agricultural Services Sdn. Bhd. | Palaniappan S.,Felda Agricultural Services Sdn. Bhd.
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2011

Black leaf streak, caused by Mycosphaerella fijiensis, is the most destructive leaf disease of 'Pisang Berangan' (AAA) in Malaysia. It leads to significant decline in yield and fruit quality due to reduction of photosynthetic sites in the functional leaves. Several fungicides, such as benomyl, tridemorph, mancozeb and propiconazole, were evaluated for their potential to control the disease in 'Pisang Berangan'. Propiconazole was effective in reducing the disease, with treated plants having an average of 15.6 functional leaves as compared to 8.0 functional leaves in untreated plants at 4 months after treatment. Spraying propiconazole alone, or alternating with benomyl or mancozeb at monthly intervals, resulted in an increase in bunch weight from 15.7 kg per bunch for untreated plants to 21.3 kg following treatment with one or more fungicides. Spraying benomyl alone also improved the bunch weight to 18.4 kg. Generally, effective black leaf streak control with the above fungicides resulted in yield improvements of about 17.2-36.0% and increases in incomes of 23.6-46.6%.

Cik Mohd Rizuan Z.A.,FELDA Agricultural Services Sdn Bhd | Abu Hassan A.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | Hasber S.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | Noor Hisham H.,FELDA Agricultural Services Sdn Bhd
Journal of Oil Palm Research | Year: 2014

Zero burning concepts during oil palm - to - oil palm replanting has provided ample breeding and foraging sites for the Oryctes rhinoceros beetles. This study investigated the impact of the different techniques of residue management in oil palm replanting to the abundance of O. rhinoceros. Two types of breeding sites, zero and partial burning were selected and the beetle populations were determined between three to 18 months after felling and chipping (MAF). At the sixth MAF, different stages of O. rhinoceros were collected from chipped trunks. The results showed that a high population of O. rhinoceros was detected at the 13th MAF; no beetles were detected at the third, fourth and fifth MAF from both types of breeding sites. The third instar larvae were recorded as the dominant stage detected during the study. The females were found to be more abundant than the males, indicating better food quality and a potential for higher infestation for the coming months. There was no significant differences on the population of O. rhinoceros in both sites. The beetles population tended to increase with MAF. The results of this study suggested that the partial burning of chipped trunks did not decrease the population of O. rhinoceros apart from polluting the environment.

Then K.H.,Felda Agricultural Services Sdn. Bhd.
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2014

Red pitaya (Hylocerus polyrhizus) is a non-seasonal perennial fruit crop that produces fruits all year round. However, it normally flowers only one to three rounds per month in Malaysian weather conditions. A study was carried out to improve the flowering of red pitaya by foliar fertilizer spraying. Four types of foliar fertilizers, such as Box-Flower® (1% v/v), Folar-K® (0.1% v/v), potassium nitrate (1% w/w) and mono-potassium phosphate (1% w/w) were used in this study. The fertilizers were sprayed on the branches and aerial roots in weekly interval. Total flower produced and yield was recorded after three months of treatments. The cumulative flowering records in the first year showed that only Box-Flower® was able to increase the total flowers by 20.8% as compared to untreated plants. Second year flowering records showed greater improvement by all the treatments and significantly increased the total flowers produced to 65.3% by Box-Flower®, 55.6% by potassium nitrate, 50.3% by Folar-K® and 43.6% by mono-potassium phosphate. Cumulative flowering records over two years showed Box-Flower®, potassium nitrate and Folar-K® sprayed were able to induce highest flowering by 38.0, 33.2 and 27.7% respectively, followed by mono-potassium phosphate treatment which induced 18.7% more flowers as compared to untreated plants.

Then K.H.,Felda Agricultural Services Sdn. Bhd.
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2014

A fertilizer trial was carried out to investigate the effect of compost application in improving the yield of red pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) under various inorganic fertilizer rates. Pitaya was introduced to Malaysia for commercial planting in the early 2000s. Red pitaya was the major species being cultivated and it grew well under local weather conditions and started to produce fruits within a year. Two compost rates at 6 and 12 kg/plant/year were applied under three N:P:K:Mg mixture fertilizer (9.6:4.8:17.6:2.4) rates at 0, 1.2 and 1.8 kg/pillar/year. Two years of yield data were recorded starting at six months after treatment. The cumulative yield data showed the treatments with highest compost application rate of 12 kg/plillar/year in combination with 1.2 and 1.8 kg mixture fertilizer/pillar/year produced higher yields at 24.5 and 24.2 kg/pillar respectively. The treatment with 6 kg compost/pillar/year with same amount of mixture fertilizer only produced 20.7 and 20.8 kg/pillar. Application of compost alone at 12 kg/pillar/year was able to sustain the total fruit production and average fruit weight as compared to additional application with mixture fertilizer. However, application of 6 kg compost/plant/year alone was insufficient to supply ade×uate nutrient to the plants and caused decrease of yield, total fruit produced and average fruit weight.

Fadilah N.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | Mohamad-Saleh J.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | Halim Z.A.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | Ibrahim H.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | Ali S.S.S.,Felda Agricultural Services Sdn Bhd
Sensors (Switzerland) | Year: 2012

Ripeness classification of oil palm fresh fruit bunches (FFBs) during harvesting is important to ensure that they are harvested during optimum stage for maximum oil production. This paper presents the application of color vision for automated ripeness classification of oil palm FFB. Images of oil palm FFBs of type DxP Yangambi were collected and analyzed using digital image processing techniques. Then the color features were extracted from those images and used as the inputs for Artificial Neural Network (ANN) learning. The performance of the ANN for ripeness classification of oil palm FFB was investigated using two methods: training ANN with full features and training ANN with reduced features based on the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) data reduction technique. Results showed that compared with using full features in ANN, using the ANN trained with reduced features can improve the classification accuracy by 1.66% and is more effective in developing an automated ripeness classifier for oil palm FFB. The developed ripeness classifier can act as a sensor in determining the correct oil palm FFB ripeness category © 2012 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

Toh C.,University Putra Malaysia | Namasivayam P.,University Putra Malaysia | Ling H.C.,University Putra Malaysia | Alwee S.S.R.S.,Felda Agricultural Services Sdn. Bhd.
Pertanika Journal of Tropical Agricultural Science | Year: 2015

The formation of callus and somatic embryos remains one of the major bottlenecks in oil palm tissue culture. Unlike other crops, oil palm tissue culture is a very slow process. In the present study, EgGST (GenBank accession no. AIC33066.1), an oil palm gene coding for a putative glutathione S-transferase protein, has been characterized molecularly. The full length cDNA sequence of EgGST isolated from oil palm cultured leaf explants at the 6th week is 1002 bp in length, with an Open Reading Frame (ORF) of 651 bp. The deduced EgGST encodes a 216-amino-acid protein with a predicted molecular mass of 23.68 kD and a pI value of 6.16. Its protein sequence shares 63% identity with the glutathione s-transferase gstf2 from Oryza sativa Indica Group (GenBank accession no. ABR25713.1) and contains thioredoxin fold and chloride channel domain. Real-time RT-PCR results showed that the EgGST transcript was differentially expressed across a time series of fortnightly-cultured leaf explants and had a higher transcript levels in nodular callus (NC) compared to friable callus (FC) for oil palm ortet of clone 4178. EgGST was also found to be preferentially expressed in all tissue culture derived materials except for oil palm cell suspension culture (CSC), whereas there were almost negligible expressions in all the non-tissue culture derived materials, except for root. Hence, it can be suggested that EgGST transcript may possibly be regulated differently at different stages of tissue culture and various tissues. Interestingly, EgGST also displayed a tissue-specific expression pattern via RNA in situ hybridization. To our knowledge, this is the first reported study on the analysis of the localization of target mRNA transcript of EgGST in different oil palm tissues. We postulated that EgGST might play significant roles at different stages of oil palm callogenesis, and could potentially be a candidate marker for oil palm callogenesis. © Universiti Putra Malaysia Press.

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