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Petah Tikva, Israel

Shechner T.,Tel Aviv University | Shechner T.,Feinberg Child Study Center
Israel Journal of Psychiatry and Related Sciences | Year: 2010

The present paper reviews the theoretical and empirical literature on children and adolescents with gender variant behaviors. The organizational framework underlying this review is one that presents gender behavior in children and adolescents as a continuum rather than as a dichotomy of normal versus abnormal categories. Seven domains are reviewed in relation to gender variant behavior in general, and to Gender Identity Disorder (GID) in particular: theories of normative gender development, phenomenology prevalence, assessment, developmental trajectories, comorbidity and treatment.

Lipsicas C.B.,Feinberg Child Study Center | Lipsicas C.B.,National Health Research Institute | Makinen I.H.,National Health Research Institute | Makinen I.H.,University of Stockholm
Canadian Journal of Psychiatry | Year: 2010

Little research has focused on the relation of immigration and suicidal behaviour in youth. Nevertheless, the impact of migration on the mental health of youth is an issue of increasing societal importance. This review aimed to present studies on the prevalence of suicidal behaviour in immigrant youth in various countries and to provide possible explanations for suicidal behaviour in immigrant youth, especially regarding acculturation. Methods: The review included a literature search to locate articles on the subject of suicidal behaviour in immigrant youth in the context of acculturation. Results: Studies on suicidal behaviour in culturally diverse youth are few and most of the existing research does not differentiate ethnic minorities from immigrants. Studies on epidemiology and on specific risk factors were found regarding various immigrant youth including Hispanics in the United States, Asians in North America and Europe, as well as comparative studies between different immigrant groups in specific countries. Conclusions: The relation between immigration status and suicidal behaviours in youth appears to vary by ethnicity and country of settlement. Time spent in the new country as well as intergenerational communication and conflicts with parents have, in many of the studies, been related to suicidality in immigrant youth. Summing up, there is a clear and urgent need to further pursue the work in this field, to develop targeted public health interventions as well as psychosocial treatment for preventing suicide in these youth.

Farbstein I.,Ziv Hospital | Mansbach-Kleinfeld I.,Mental Health Services | Levinson D.,Mental Health Services | Goodman R.,Kings College London | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines | Year: 2010

Background: The development of epidemiological instruments has enabled the assessment of mental disorders in youth in countries that plan policy according to evidence-based principles. The Israel Survey of Mental Health among Adolescents (ISMEHA) was conducted in 2004-2005 in a representative sample of 957 adolescents aged 14-17 and their mothers. Methods: The aims of this study were to estimate prevalence rates of internalizing and externalizing mental disorders and their socio-demographic and health correlates. Disorders were ascertained with the Development and Well-Being Assessment inventory and verified by child psychiatrists. Results: The prevalence rates were 11.7%, 8.1% and 4.8% for any disorder, internalizing disorders and externalizing disorders, respectively. Distinct risk factors were associated with the different types of disorders: internalizing disorders were associated with female gender, chronic medical conditions and being cared for by a welfare agency. Risk factors for externalizing disorders were male gender, having divorced or single parents, being an only child or having only one sibling. Learning disability was associated with both types of disorders. Conclusions: The risk and protective factors related to internalizing and externalizing disorders are interpreted within the framework of family composition in this multicultural society. © 2009 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

Horesh N.,Bar - Ilan University | Apter A.,Feinberg Child Study Center | Apter A.,Bar - Ilan University | Apter A.,Tel Aviv University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Affective Disorders | Year: 2011

Background: A large body of evidence supports the importance of genetic risk factors in bipolar disorder (BPD), but less is known about the role of stressful life events (SLE). This study assessed the role of SLE in childhood, adulthood and one year prior to first episodes of both depression and mania in BPD. Methods: Three groups of 50 matched subjects each were assessed: patients with BPD, with borderline personality disorder (BLPD) and healthy controls. Structured clinical interviews were used for diagnoses. The Coddington Life Events Schedule and the Israel Psychiatric Epidemiology Research Interview Life Event Scale measured life events and were confirmed with a semi-structured interview for subjective experience for each SLE. Results: In BPD, the total number of SLE was lower during childhood and higher in the year preceding the first depression compared to controls and the proportion of loss-related events in childhood was higher. In the year preceding the first depressive episode, BPD subjects had more total, negative uncontrolled and independent but not positive SLE. In the year preceding the first episode of mania, the total number of uncontrolled, negative SLE were higher in BPD, whereas positive and separation-related SLE were not. After the first episode, BPD subjects had less SLE than controls. Conclusions: Negative and loss-related SLE are common in BPD subjects, occur in the year preceding the first episodes of depression and mania and are less common in childhood or after the onset of the disorder. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Gvion Y.,Bar - Ilan University | Apter A.,Feinberg Child Study Center | Apter A.,Tel Aviv University
Public Health Reviews | Year: 2012

Suicidal behavior is a major public health problem. As it has for decades, suicide remains one of the leading causes of death in the western world. This paper reviews the literature and the latest developments on the research and knowledge of suicide behavior and death from suicide. The keywords: suicide, psychopathology, mental pain, impulsivity, aggression and communication difficulties were entered into databases: PubMed, PsychLit and ProQuest. Significant articles were scrutinized for relevant information. According to WHO estimates for the year 2020, approximately 1.53 million people will die from suicide, and ten to 20 times more people will attempt suicide worldwide. These estimates represent on average one death every 20 seconds and one attempt every one to two seconds. Although of low predictive value, the presence of psychopathology is probably the single most important predictor of suicide. Accordingly, approximately 90 percent of suicide cases meet criteria for a psychiatric disorder, particularly major depression, substance use disorders, cluster B personality disorders and schizophrenia. Other more transient factors that reflect an imminent risk of suicide crisis and therefore require immediate intervention include unbearable mental pain and related experiences of depression and hopelessness. Problems with help-seeking, social communication and self-disclosure also pose a suicide risk, as do personality traits of aggression and impulsivity. All these factors are highly correlated with suicidal behavior across psychiatric samples and nosological borders. Although suicidal behavior has been well studied, empirically and clinically, the definition of the different subtypes and phenotypes of suicidal behaviors and mechanisms underlying some of the risk factors (such as aggression, impulsivity, suicide intent) remain unclear. Reducing the increasing trend of suicide rates among the most vulnerable populations will require further research. Hopefully this review will contribute to the understanding of this phenomenon and to the development of preventive initiatives.

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