Fehr and Peers

Walnut Creek, CA, United States

Fehr and Peers

Walnut Creek, CA, United States
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Milam R.T.,Fehr and Peers | Birnbaum M.,Caltrans | Ganson C.,California Governors Office of Planning and Research | Handy S.,University of California at Davis | Walters J.,Fehr and Peers
Transportation Research Record | Year: 2017

Several studies have rigorously documented the induced travel effect, in which added highway capacity leads to added vehicle travel. Despite the evidence, transportation planning practice does not fully account for this phenomenon, with the result that estimates of the potential congestionreducing benefits of added highway capacity may be overstated and estimates of potential environmental impacts understated. In 2015, the California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) sponsored a review of applicable induced vehicle travel research that could inform transportation analysis guidance in response to new laws in California such as Senate Bill 743 (S.B. 743), which prohibits the use of vehicle level of service (LOS) and similar measures as the sole basis for determining significant transportation impacts under the California Environmental Quality Act. Instead, vehicle miles traveled was selected to replace LOS under S.B. 743, and along with the new metric there will be a requirement to account for induced travel effects in analysis of roadway capacity expansion projects. The Caltrans review revealed an inconsistent lexicon in academic research and among practitioners, questions about research applicability, limitations in the sensitivity of travel forecasting models, and confusion about the appropriate use of induced vehicle travel elasticities from research. This paper summarizes the Caltrans review and shares the findings to advance understanding of induced vehicle travel effects and suggest steps for additional research.


Ewing R.,University of Utah | Greenwald M.,Lane Council of Governments | Greenwald M.,Urban Design 4 Health Inc. | Zhang M.,University of Texas at Austin | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Urban Planning and Development | Year: 2011

Current methods of traffic impact analysis, which rely on rates and adjustments from the Institute of Transportation Engineers, are believed to understate the traffic benefits of mixed-use developments (MXDs), leading to higher exactions and development fees than necessary and discouraging otherwise desirable developments. The purpose of this study is to create new methodology for more accurately predicting the traffic impacts of MXDs. Standard protocols were used to identify and generate data sets for MXDs in six large and diverse metropolitan regions. Data from household travel surveys and geographic information system (GIS) databases were pooled for these MXDs, and travel and built environmental variables were consistently defined across regions. Hierarchical modeling was used to estimate models for internal capture of trips within MXDs, walking and transit use on external trips, and trip length for external automobile trips. MXDs with diverse activities on-site are shown to capture a large share of trips internally, reducing their traffic impacts relative to conventional suburban developments. Smaller MXDs in walkable areas with good transit access generate significant shares of walk and transit trips, thus also mitigating traffic impacts. Centrally located MXDs, small and large, generate shorter vehicle trips, which reduces their impacts relative to outlying developments. © 2011 American Society of Civil Engineers.


Luo A.,Fehr and Peers | Wang Z.,China Sustainable Transportation Center | Wang J.,China Sustainable Transportation Center | Rashid S.,Fehr and Peers | Calthorpe P.,Calthorpe Associates
IET Conference Publications | Year: 2011

One way couplets have been implemented as alternatives to big urban roads for better traffic progression in many western countries. While in many Chinese cities, the dominant superblock development pattern has created numerous giant urban streets which are major pedestrian and bike barriers. Simulation and analysis illustrate the significant benefits of implementing one-way couplet streets and reducing block sizes in new development or redevelopment areas within Chinese cities. Results indicate that one-way couplets with fine-grain grid can achieve operational and safety benefits for both vehicular traffic, pedestrian and bike users compared to giant two-way streets with superblocks. An operation analysis comparing conventional superblocks to couplets through a case study in the Chenggong New Town area of Kunming, China is presented.


Dau-Ngo T.,Port of Long Beach | Gonzalez I.,Parsons Brinckerhoff | Hilde L.,Fehr and Peers | Jim M.,Parsons Brinckerhoff
Green Streets, Highways, and Development 2013: Advancing the Practice - Proceedings of the 2nd Green Streets, Highways, and Development Conference | Year: 2013

While transportation management plans (TMPs) are commonly developed to address work-zone safety and mobility needs of the traveling public during construction of highway projects, TMPs have yet to be firmly ingrained in the transit planning process. Coordinating and streamlining TMP strategies for both types of transportation projects is increasingly critical given the overlapping needs to maintain the operations of existing transportation systems during construction activities and the growing trend toward sustainability in transportation, including reducing traffic congestion and related air quality impacts. Beyond their traditional application, TMPs can serve as a means for accommodating the construction of transportation improvements while supporting the shift to more sustainable travel patterns once a project is in operation. This paper discusses the process for developing TMPs, while integrating strong sustainability principles. Topics that are addressed include 1) current national and regional TMP guidelines; 2) harnessing the use of the Internet, social media, and mobile-based applications as part of the overall approach to informing the traveling public of construction-related transportation impacts and alternative means of travel; and 3) balancing cost-effective TMP strategies with promoting alternative transportation modes during construction and after a project opens. Proposed recommendations include how to integrate sustainability elements into TMP strategies, how to leverage TMPs to engage the public in minimizing transportation impacts during construction, and how to approach developing TMPs, especially for transit projects. © 2013 American Society of Civil Engineers.


Stanek P.E. D.,Fehr and Peers
Institute of Transportation Engineers Annual Meeting and Exhibit 2012 | Year: 2012

Several analysis methods have been proposed to analyze the vehicular capacity of roundabouts. Some are deterministic equations based on regression equations of observed capacity or observed gap acceptance. Others are stochastic models that simulate driver behavior. Some are equations that can be applied manually or using spreadsheets. Others require computer software to implement. Given these differences, it may not be apparent which method is the best to use for a particular case. When comparing capacity analysis methods, it would be useful to know how the various methods perform over a range of approach and conflicting volumes. This paper reports on the approach capacity for a single-lane roundabout based on the maximum entering and conflicting circulating volumes for several analysis methods. In Roundabouts: An Informational Guide (FHWA, 2000), Figure 4-3 shows a capacity chart according to the recommended capacity equations. Similar capacity charts were prepared for six additional methods: HCM 2000, HCM 2010, SIDRA INTERSECTION, SimTraffic, VISSIM, and Paramics. When applying an analysis methodology, the procedure should be calibrated and validated to field measurements in the study area - particularly for simulation models, which have many adjustable parameters. However, for the comparison presented in this paper, the default parameters were used so that a baseline comparison could be provided. For a particular range of conflicting and entering volumes, some analysis methods predicted higher capacity than others. For different ranges on volumes, other analysis methods were higher. Given this variation, the use of more than one analysis method is suggested so that the analyst will have a higher confidence in the final design recommendation.


Tian G.,University of Utah | Ewing R.,University of Utah | White A.,University of Utah | Hamidi S.,University of Utah | And 3 more authors.
Transportation Research Record | Year: 2015

Current methods of traffic impact analysis, which rely on rates and adjustments from ITE, are believed to understate the traffic benefits of mixed-use developments (MXDs) and therefore to lead to higher exactions and development fees than necessary and to discourage otherwise desirable developments. The purpose of this study was to improve methodology for predicting the traffic impacts of MXDs. Standard protocols were used to identify and generate data sets for MXDs in 13 large and diverse metropolitan regions. Data from household travel surveys and geographic information system databases were pooled for these MXDs, and travel and built-environment variables were consistently defined across regions. Hierarchical modeling was used to estimate models for internal capture of trips within MXDs and for walking, biking, and transit use on external trips. MXDs with diverse activities on site were shown to capture a large share of trips internally, so that the traffic impacts of the MXDs were reduced relative to conventional suburban developments. Smaller MXDs in walkable areas with good transit access generated significant shares of walk, bike, and transit trips and thus also mitigated traffic impacts.


Foletta N.,Fehr and Peers | Nielson C.,Fehr and Peers | Patton J.,City of Oakland | Parks J.,City of Oakland | Rees R.,Fehr and Peers
Transportation Research Record | Year: 2015

In 2013, the City of Oakland, California, implemented a green shared lane (i.e., super sharrow) treatment, which consisted of a continuous band of green color on the pavement in conjunction with shared lane markings (i.e., sharrows) as an experimental traffic control device. The implementation was an attempt to improve traffic operations on a multilane urban roadway frequented by cyclists but for which geometric constraints prevented installation of dedicated bicycle lanes. The purpose of the experiment was to promote (a) safe and legal lane positioning by cyclists and (b) safe and legal passing by motorists. Through statistical analysis, the effects of the green band (i.e., green shared lane) on user behavior were isolated for comparison with the effects of no bikeway striping and standard sharrows. The key findings were (a) the green shared lane led cyclists to ride farther from parked cars (i.e., outside of the door zone) than they did with standard sharrows; (b) standard sharrows and the green sharrow lane led motorists to shift more often from the right to the left travel lane than they did with no bikeway striping; (c) the average passing distance for motorists who overtook cyclists did not change significantly; (d) the percentage of motorists who left 3 ft or more when they passed decreased with the presence of the green sharrow lane; and (e) the green shared lane had no negative operational effect on auto operations, auto speed, or transit speed.


Carter P.,Fehr and Peers | Martin F.,Fehr and Peers | Nunez M.,Fehr and Peers | Peters S.,Fehr and Peers | And 3 more authors.
Transportation Research Record | Year: 2013

An increasing number of jurisdictions across the United States are exploring level of service (LOS) for multiple travel modes, in part as a result of the release of the Highway Capacity Manual 2010 (HCM 2010), as well as an increased focus on complete streets policies. One of the most important questions being asked by these jurisdictions is whether new multimodal LOS methods are sensitive enough to inform transportation investments, mitigate impacts, and prioritize future projects. For this paper, transportation professionals (public, private, and academic) were surveyed about the inputs believed to have the greatest effect on pedestrian, bicycle, transit, and auto LOS or the inputs thought to have the greatest likelihood of being changed (e.g., to mitigate an impact or to improve existing conditions). Sensitivity testing was then performed at locations in four cities to measure how the HCM 2010 multimodal LOS scores responded as these inputs were incrementally increased or decreased. Although many inputs performed as expected, the testing also found model responses that were of a questionable direction or magnitude. The results of this study are informative for agencies that are considering adopting the HCM 2010 multimodal LOS for mitigation, resource allocation, and strategic decision making. The results also provide a starting point for additional research needed to enhance multimodal LOS methods.


Rixey R.,Fehr and Peers
Transportation Research Record | Year: 2013

This study investigated the effects on bikesharing ridership levels of demographic and built environment characteristics near bikesharing stations in three operational U.S. systems. Although earlier studies focused on the analysis of a single system, the increasing availability of station-level ridership data has created the opportunity to compare experiences across systems. In this study, particular attention was paid to data quality and consistency issues raised by a multicity analysis. This project also expanded on earlier studies with the inclusion of the network effects of the size and spatial distribution of the bikesharing station network, which contributed to a more robust regression model for the prediction of station ridership. The regression analysis identified a number of variables that had statistically significant correlations with station-level bikesharing ridership: population density; retail job density; bike, walk, and transit commuters; median income; education; presence of bikeways; nonwhite population (negative association); days of precipitation (negative association); and proximity to a network of other bikesharing stations. Proximity to a greater number of other bikesharing stations exhibited a strong positive correlation with ridership in a variety of model specifications. This finding suggested that, with the other demographic and built environment variables controlled for, access to a comprehensive network of stations was a critical factor to support ridership. Compared with earlier models, this model is more widely applicable to a diverse range of communities and can help those interested in the adoption of bikesharing systems to predict potential levels of ridership and to identify station locations that serve the greatest number of riders.


Foletta N.,Fehr and Peers | Vanderkwaak N.,Fehr and Peers | Grandy B.,Fehr and Peers
Transportation Research Record | Year: 2013

Some streetcar lines, which were designed to serve as urban circulators, have been completed in the past 15 years in the United States. Many more lines are in either the implementation or planning stage. Much literature on the forecasting of fixed-guideway ridership focuses on light rail or regional rail lines that primarily serve commute markets, which are far different from the travel markets served by these new streetcar lines. The research reported in this paper sought to improve the understanding of the factors that influenced urban streetcar ridership. Extensive data on ridership, station area characteristics, route configuration, transit network connectivity, and special generators were collected for modern streetcar lines in Portland, Oregon, and in Seattle and Tacoma, Washington. Regression models were used to measure the influence of different variables on ridership. Three models for urban streetcar ridership, with adjusted R-squared values that ranged from .74 to .76, are presented. Variables found to have a statistically significant influence on streetcar ridership included feeder rail, retail and residential accessibility, distance to closest station, free stations, start-of-line stations, and special generators (e.g., hotels, colleges, hospitals and entertainment centers).

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