Feedlot Health Management Services Ltd.

Okotoks, Canada

Feedlot Health Management Services Ltd.

Okotoks, Canada

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Benedict K.M.,Veterinary Teaching Hospital | Gow S.P.,University of Saskatchewan | Reid-Smith R.J.,University of Guelph | Booker C.W.,Feedlot Health Management Services Ltd | And 2 more authors.
Epidemiology and Infection | Year: 2014

The study objective was to use Bayesian latent class analysis to evaluate the accuracy of susceptibility test results obtained from disk diffusion and broth microdilution using bacteria recovered from beef feedlot cattle. Isolates of Escherichia coli and Mannheimia haemolytica were tested for susceptibility to ampicillin, ceftiofur, streptomycin, sulfisoxazole, tetracycline, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Results showed that neither testing method was always or even generally superior to the other. Specificity (ability to correctly classify non-resistant isolates) was extremely high for both testing methods, but sensitivity (ability to correctly classify resistant isolates) was lower, variable in the drugs evaluated, and variable between the two bacterial species. Predictive values estimated using Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo models showed that the ability to predict true susceptibility status was equivalent for test results obtained with the two testing methods for some drugs, but for others there were marked differences between results obtained from disk diffusion and broth microdilution tests. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2014.

PubMed | University of Calgary, University of Saskatchewan, University of Lethbridge, Feedlot Health Management Services Ltd. and Colorado State University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2015

The objectives of this study were to estimate the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and to investigate the associations between exposures to antimicrobial drugs (AMDs) and AMR in fecal non-type specific Escherichia coli (NTSEC) recovered from a large population of feedlot cattle. Two-stage random sampling was used to select individually identified cattle for enrollment, which were sampled at arrival and then a second time later in the feeding period. Advanced regression techniques were used to estimate resistance prevalences, and to investigate associations between AMD exposures in enrolled cattle and penmates and AMR identified in NTSEC recovered from the second sample set. Resistance was most commonly detected to tetracycline, streptomycin, and sulfisoxazole, and was rarely identified for critically important AMDs. All cattle were exposed to AMDs in feed, and 45% were treated parenterally. While resistance prevalence generally increased during the feeding period, most AMD exposures were not significantly associated with AMR outcomes. Exposures of enrolled cattle to tetracycline were associated with increased resistance to tetracycline and trimethoprim sulfa, while beta-lactam exposures were associated with decreased likelihood of detecting streptomycin resistance. Pen-level AMD exposure measures were not associated with resistance outcomes. These findings suggest that tetracycline treatment of feedlot cattle can be associated with modest increases in risk for recovery of resistant NTSEC, but the numerous treatments with an advanced macrolide (tulathromycin) were not associated with detectable increases in resistance in NTSEC. All cattle were exposed to in-feed treatments of tetracycline and this could limit the ability to identify the full impact of these exposures, but these exposures varied for enrolled cattle varied, providing an opportunity to evaluate a dose response. While AMD exposures were not associated with detectably increased risks for resistance to critically important AMDs, rare resistance outcomes and infrequent exposure to other important AMDs (e.g., cephalosporins) limited our ability to rigorously investigate questions regarding factors that can influence resistance to these important AMDs.

PubMed | University of Lethbridge, University of Saskatchewan, Feedlot Health Management Services Ltd., Public Health Agency of Canada and Colorado State University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Epidemiology and infection | Year: 2016

A number of sophisticated modelling approaches are available to investigate potential associations between antimicrobial use (AMU) and resistance (AMR) in animal health settings. All have their advantages and disadvantages, making it unclear as to which model is most appropriate. We used advanced regression modelling to investigate AMU-AMR associations in faecal non-type-specific Escherichia coli (NTSEC) isolates recovered from 275 pens of feedlot cattle. Ten modelling strategies were employed to investigate AMU associations with resistance to chloramphenicol, ampicillin, sulfisoxazole, tetracycline and streptomycin. Goodness-of-fit statistics did not show a consistent advantage for any one model type. Three AMU-AMR associations were significant in all models. Recent parenteral tetracycline use increased the odds of finding tetracycline-resistant NTSEC [odds ratios (OR) 11-32]; recent parenteral sulfonamide use increased the odds of finding sulfisoxazole-resistant NTSEC (OR 14-25); and recent parenteral macrolide use decreased the odds of recovering ampicillin-resistant NTSEC (OR 003-02). Other results varied markedly depending on the modelling approach, emphasizing the importance of exploring and reporting multiple modelling methods based on a balanced consideration of important factors such as study design, mathematical appropriateness, research question and target audience.

Costa M.C.,University of Guelph | Reid-Smith R.,Public Health Agency of Canada | Gow S.,Feedlot Health Management Services Ltd. | Hannon S.J.,Feedlot Health Management Services Ltd. | And 5 more authors.
BMC Veterinary Research | Year: 2012

Background: The presence of indistinguishable strains of Clostridium difficile in humans, food animals and food, as well as the apparent emergence of the food-animal-associated ribotype 078/toxinotype V as a cause of community-associated C. difficile infection have created concerns about the potential for foodborne infection. While studies have reported C. difficile in calves, studies of cattle closer to the age of harvest are required. Four commercial feedlots in Alberta (Canada) were enrolled for this study. Fecal samples were collected at the time of arrival and after acclimation (< 62, 62-71 or > 71 days on feed). Selective culture for Clostridium difficile was performed, and isolates were characterized by ribotyping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. A logistic regression model was built to investigate the effect of exposure to antimicrobial drugs on the presence of C. difficile.Results: Clostridium difficile was isolated from 18 of 539 animals at the time of feedlot arrival (CI = 2.3-6.1) and from 18 of 335 cattle at mid-feeding period (CI = 2.9-13.1). Overall, there was no significant difference in the prevalence of C. difficile shedding on arrival versus mid-feeding period (P = 0.47). No association between shedding of the bacterium and antimicrobial administration was found (P = 0.33). All the isolates recovered were ribotype 078, a toxinotype V strain with genes encoding toxins A, B and CDT. In addition, all strains were classified as NAP7 by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and had the characteristic 39 base pairs deletion and upstream truncating mutation on the tcdC gene.Conclusions: It is apparent that C. difficile is carried in the intestinal tracts of a small percentage of feedlot cattle arriving and later in the feeding period and that ribotype 078/NAP7 is the dominant strain in these animals. Herd management practices associated with C. difficile shedding were not identified, however further studies of the potential role of antimicrobials on C. difficile acquisition and shedding are required. © 2012 Costa et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Weese J.S.,University of Guelph | Hannon S.J.,Feedlot Health Management Services Ltd. | Booker C.W.,Feedlot Health Management Services Ltd. | Gow S.,University of Saskatchewan | And 3 more authors.
Zoonoses and Public Health | Year: 2012

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an important human pathogen and recent evidence has implicated food animals in the epidemiology of human infections in some regions. While the role of food in MRSA transmission and human health relevance are unclear, MRSA can be found in retail meat products internationally, including beef, yet there has been minimal investigation of MRSA in beef cattle. This study involved screening feedlot cattle for nasal and gastrointestinal colonization with MRSA shortly before the time of slaughter. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus was not isolated from any of 491 nasal swabs and 488 faecal samples. This finding is in contrast to studies that have isolated MRSA from retail beef in Canada, performed in the same laboratory using comparable culture techniques. The reason for this discrepancy is unclear but it demonstrates that further study of MRSA in livestock as well as slaughter, processing and retail environments is needed to elucidate the epidemiology of MRSA contamination of meat. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

Stanford K.,Agriculture Center | Hannon S.,Feedlot Health Management Services Ltd | Booker C.W.,Feedlot Health Management Services Ltd | Jim G.K.,Feedlot Health Management Services Ltd
Foodborne Pathogens and Disease | Year: 2014

To evaluate the efficacy of a type-III secreted proteins vaccine and a Lactobacillus-acidophilus-based direct-fed microbial (DFM) for controlling Escherichia coli O157:H7, cattle (n=864) were allocated to the following groups: DFM, finishing diets containing 109 colony-forming units (CFU)/animal/day L. acidophilus and Propionibacterium freudenreichii; VAC, finishing diets and 2mL intramuscular injection of vaccine at allocation and 28 days later; or CON, finishing diets only. Cattle within replicates were stratified by initial levels of E. coli O157:H7 and randomized to experimental groups, with 30 pens allocated on June 15, 2011 (AS1), 18 pens allocated on June 28, 2011 (AS2), and 18 cattle per pen. Rectal fecal samples and perineal swabs were collected at 28-day intervals until shipment to slaughter (103-145 days on trial). Numbers of cattle with enumerable E. coli O157:H7 (≥1.6 CFU/g feces) were reduced in AS1 and AS2 by VAC (p=0.008), although interventions had no impact on numbers of E. coli O157:H7 shed. For AS1, VAC reduced prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 in feces (p=0.03) and perineal swabs (p=0.04) in the feeding period but not at shipment to slaughter. For AS2, prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 was not reduced in either feces or perineal swabs by VAC at any time. For AS1, DFM reduced prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 in perineal swabs (p=0.01) during the feeding period. For AS2, DFM increased E. coli O157:H7 detection in feces (p=0.03) and perineal swabs (p=0.01) at shipment to slaughter. Seventy-five percent of AS1 E. coli O157:H7 isolates had only stx1, while 87% of AS2 isolates had stx1 and stx2 genes. Of the two interventions, VAC shows the most potential for pre-harvest control of E. coli O157:H7, but due to variable efficacy of both DFM and VAC, additional product development is necessary to ensure more consistent pre-harvest control of E. coli O157:H7. © 2014 Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

Stephens T.P.,Agriculture Center | Stanford K.,Agriculture Center | Rode L.M.,Sage | Booker C.W.,Feedlot Health Management Services Ltd. | And 6 more authors.
Animal Feed Science and Technology | Year: 2010

Feedlot steers (n = 288) were blocked by weight and fed a diet containing a direct-fed microbial (8 × 109 CFU Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain BP-31702; 5 × 108 CFU Lactobacillus acidophilus strain BT-1386/animal/day; DFM) or were not fed DFM (control). Steers in each treatment were housed in separate pens, with 12 animals per pen and 12 pens per cohort. Compared to controls, animals in the DFM cohort tended to have improved feed conversion (P=0.06) when expressed on a carcass weight basis although rate of gain, carcass yield and quality grades were similar. Fifteen freshly voided fecal pat (FP) samples per pen (10 g/pat; 150 g/pen) were subsampled prior to administration of the DFM (background; d-2) and on 3 different occasions after DFM administration (d 30, 57, and 85). Fecal grab (FG), hock swab (HS; 100 cm2-area), and perineum swabs (PS; 100 cm2-area) were taken from each animal prior to shipment for slaughter (d 119 and 140). Perineum swabs were 4.76 and 2.04 times more likely (P=0.01) to have Escherichia coli O157 present when compared to HS and FG, respectively. In the present study, PS was more sensitive than FG or HS at detecting E. coli O157 in feedlot cattle, but no differences between DFM and control cohorts were observed in E. coli O157 in post-treatment samples. Although feed conversion on a carcass weight basis tended to be improved by feeding the DFM, additional large-scale commercial feedlot studies will be necessary to determine cost-effectiveness, dose-dependency, and efficacy of this DFM product for enhancing growth and possibly mitigating E. coli O157 in feedlot cattle. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

PubMed | Texas Tech University, Feedlot Health Management Services Ltd and Colorado State University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of veterinary internal medicine | Year: 2016

Anecdotal reports suggest the incidence of right-sided congestive heart failure (RHF) in feedlot cattle is increasing; however, the rate of occurrence and risk factors are largely unknown.The purposes of this study were to evaluate the risk of RHF over time and among feedlots, to characterize some of the risk factors for RHF, and to investigate how risk factors may affect the timing of RHF occurrence.The population at risk consisted of 1.56 million cattle that were placed in 10 Canadian feedlots during the years 2000, 2004, 2008, and 2012, and 5 US feedlots during the year 2012.A retrospective observational study was conducted. Variables, including year of feedlot entry, were evaluated for association with RHF using zero-inflated negative binomial and logistic regression models. Factors affecting time to RHF were evaluated using Cox proportional hazard regression analyzes. Death from digestive disorders (DD) served as a control.The risk of RHF in Canadian feedlots doubled from the year 2000 to the year 2012 (P = .003). For every 10,000 cattle entering US feedlots in 2012, 11 cattle died from RHF and 45 cattle died from DD. The median time to RHF was 19 weeks. Cattle treated for bovine respiratory disease were 3 times more likely to die from RHF, and they died earlier in the feeding period.A doubling of the incidence of RHF over a short time period is concerning, particularly for US feedlots situated at moderate altitudes in the High Plains.

Rademacher R.D.,Feedlot Health Management Services Ltd | Warr B.N.,Feedlot Health Management Services Ltd | Booker C.W.,Feedlot Health Management Services Ltd
Veterinary Clinics of North America - Food Animal Practice | Year: 2015

Pregnant heifers in the feedlot pose many economic and management issues to the producer. Heifers that enter the feedlot pregnant will have increased costs associated with them regardless of the management strategy implemented. It is imperative that practitioners be aware of management concerns associated with pregnant heifers in order to provide sound recommendations for their clients. The purpose of this article is to provide the bovine practitioner with a summary of current literature and present common options for managing pregnant heifers in a feedlot setting. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.

Schleppe J.B.,University of Calgary | Lachapelle G.,University of Calgary | Booker C.W.,Feedlot Health Management Services Ltd. | Pittman T.,Feedlot Health Management Services Ltd.
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture | Year: 2010

A Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) based ear tag was designed developed and tested for use on cattle in feedlots. Previous research by others has primarily used GNSS collars; however the widespread use of a Position, Velocity and Time (PVT) system onboard cattle in the feedlot requires a less obtrusive system with easier application and lower costs. The ear tag is already widely used for cattle identification and it seemed a natural extension to develop a PVT solution around it. This paper describes the development of one of the first GNSS ear tags for cattle. An alpha GNSS ear tag weighting 227 g was developed in 2004 with a run-time of 1 week while reporting animal position and velocity every minute in real-time using a low-power proprietary wireless link. Feedlot testing showed that a 227 g tag could not be tolerated by the cattle for prolonged periods. In 2005 a 125 g beta ear tag was designed and tested with a run-time of 4 days. While the beta tag's run-time was below expectations due to problems with the battery and power regulator, it did show that a GNSS ear tag could be worn by cattle for periods of up to 4 weeks. Described is the alpha and beta tag design along with the challenges faced putting these systems together and getting them to work on cattle in the feedlot. Future research may benefit from not having to repeat lessons learned during our development of the first GNSS based cattle ear tags. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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