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Klima C.L.,University of Lethbridge | Alexander T.W.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Selinger L.B.,University of Lethbridge | Read R.R.,University of Calgary | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Microbiological Methods | Year: 2010

Mannheimia haemolytica is an opportunistic pathogen that can cause fibrinonecrotic pneumonia in cattle and is the main bacterial agent implicated in bovine respiratory disease-complex (BRD). Despite its economic importance to the cattle industry, few studies have characterized the genetic nature of M. haemolytica and none have genotyped isolates from feedlots. Identifying and monitoring genetic variants of M. haemolytica is important to understanding the etiology of BRD in cattle. We investigated the capacity of three genotyping techniques (BOX-PCR, (GTG)5-PCR and PFGE analysis of SalI-restricted DNA) to discriminate among 24 reference strains from the family Pasteurellaceae and 40 M. haemolytica isolates collected from feedlot cattle. From cluster analysis of the M. haemolytica isolates, PFGE was revealed as most discriminating, followed by BOX-PCR and then (GTG)5-PCR (Simpson's diversity index > 0.98, 0.82, and 0.72, respectively). Of these methods, PFGE also had the greatest mean repeatability (0.96). The PFGE and BOX-PCR assays grouped all M. haemolytica in a single cluster but only BOX-PCR and (GTG)5-PCR grouped the Mannheimia glucosida and Mannheimia ruminalis strains together. Refinement of genotyping procedures for M. haemolytica could offer new insight into the etiology of this pathogen in BRD. Crown Copyright © 2010.


Gifford C.A.,Oklahoma State University | Holland B.P.,South Dakota State University | Mills R.L.,Oklahoma State University | Mills R.L.,Austin Peay State University | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2012

Inflammation caused by bovine respiratory disease (BRD) continues to be one of the greatest challenges facing beef cattle producers and feedlot managers. Inflammation decreases DMI, ADG, and G:F in feedlot calves, decreasing growth rate and increasing days on feed, which results in economic losses during the feeding period. During the past decade, marketing of feedlot animals has changed from selling cattle on a live basis to a grid-based marketing system. When cattle are marketed on a live basis, the economic effects of BRD stop at increased health cost and decreased feedlot performance, carcass weight, and death loss. However, when cattle are marketed in a grid-based system, inflammation has the potential to also affect carcass cutability and quality. The effects of inflammation on feedlot cattle in regards to performance are well understood; however, specific effects on cattle growth and ultimately carcass merit are not as well described. Recent studies in feedlot cattle have indicated that the incidence of BRD decreases both HCW and marbling; however, mechanisms are not understood. Research in other species has demonstrated that during the acute phase response, pro-inflammatory cytokines promote skeletal muscle catabolism to supply AA and energy substrates for immune tissues. Further, during this early immune response, the liver changes its metabolic priorities to the production of acute phase proteins for use in host defense. Together these dramatic shifts in systemic metabolism may explain the detrimental effects on performance and carcass traits commonly associated with BRD in feedlot calves. Moreover, recent studies relative to human health have revealed complex multilevel interactions between the metabolic and immune systems, and highlighted inflammation as being a significant contributor to major metabolic diseases. The objective of this paper is to review data to help explain the economical and physiological effects of inflammation on cattle growth and carcass merit. © American Society of Animal Science.


Klima C.L.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Klima C.L.,University of Western Ontario | Zaheer R.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Cook S.R.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology | Year: 2014

In this study, we determined the prevalence of bovine respiratory disease (BRD)-associated viral and bacterial pathogens in cattle and characterized the genetic profiles, antimicrobial susceptibilities, and nature of antimicrobial resistance determinants in collected bacteria. Nasopharyngeal swab and lung tissue samples from 68 BRD mortalities in Alberta, Canada (n = 42), Texas (n = 6), and Nebraska (n = 20) were screened using PCR for bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine herpesvirus 1, parainfluenza type 3 virus, Mycoplasma bovis, Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, and Histophilus somni. Excepting bovine herpesvirus 1, all agents were detected. M. haemolytica (91%) and BVDV (69%) were the most prevalent, with cooccurrence in 63% of the cattle. Isolates of M. haemolytica (n = 55), P. multocida (n = 8), and H. somni (n = 10) from lungs were also collected. Among M. haemolytica isolates, a clonal subpopulation (n = 8) was obtained from a Nebraskan feedlot. All three bacterial pathogens exhibited a high rate of antimicrobial resistance, with 45% exhibiting resistance to three or more antimicrobials. M. haemolytica (n = 18), P. multocida (n = 3), and H. somni (n = 3) from Texas and Nebraska possessed integrative conjugative elements (ICE) that conferred resistance for up to seven different antimicrobial classes. ICE were shown to be transferred via conjugation from P. multocida to Escherichia coli and from M. haemolytica and H. somni to P. multocida. ICE-mediated multidrug-resistant profiles of bacterial BRD pathogens could be a major detriment to many of the therapeutic antimicrobial strategies currently used to control BRD. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.


White B.J.,Precision Animal Solutions | White B.J.,Kansas State University | Goehl D.R.,Precision Animal Solutions | Amrine D.E.,Adams Land and Cattle Company | And 3 more authors.
Preventive Veterinary Medicine | Year: 2016

Accurate diagnosis of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in beef cattle is a critical facet of therapeutic programs through promotion of prompt treatment of diseased calves in concert with judicious use of antimicrobials. Despite the known inaccuracies, visual observation (VO) of clinical signs is the conventional diagnostic modality for BRD diagnosis. Objective methods of remotely monitoring cattle wellness could improve diagnostic accuracy; however, little information exists describing the accuracy of this method compared to traditional techniques. The objective of this research is to employ Bayesian methodology to elicit diagnostic characteristics of conventional VO compared to remote early disease identification (REDI) to diagnose BRD. Data from previous literature on the accuracy of VO were combined with trial data consisting of direct comparison between VO and REDI for BRD in two populations. No true gold standard diagnostic test exists for BRD; therefore, estimates of diagnostic characteristics of each test were generated using Bayesian latent class analysis. Results indicate a 90.0% probability that the sensitivity of REDI (median 81.3%; 95% probability interval [PI]: 55.5, 95.8) was higher than VO sensitivity (64.5%; PI: 57.9, 70.8). The specificity of REDI (median 92.9%; PI: 88.2, 96.9) was also higher compared to VO (median 69.1%; PI: 66.3, 71.8). The differences in sensitivity and specificity resulted in REDI exhibiting higher positive and negative predictive values in both high (41.3%) and low (2.6%) prevalence situations. This research illustrates the potential of remote cattle monitoring to augment conventional methods of BRD diagnosis resulting in more accurate identification of diseased cattle. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.


Cernicchiaro N.,Kansas State University | Renter D.G.,Kansas State University | Cull C.A.,Kansas State University | Paddock Z.D.,Kansas State University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Food Protection | Year: 2014

The objectives of this study were to determine whether fecal shedding of non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in feedlot cattle was affected by the use of an E. coli O157:H7 vaccine or a direct-fed microbial (DFM) and whether the shedding of a particular non-O157 STEC serogroup within feces was associated with shedding of O157 or other non-O157 STEC serogroups. A total of 17,148 cattle in 40 pens were randomized to receive one, both, or neither (control) of the two interventions: a vaccine based on the siderophore receptor and porin proteins (E. coli SRP vaccine, two doses) and a DFM product (low-dose Bovamine). Fresh fecal samples (30 samples per pen) were collected weekly from pen floors for four consecutive weeks beginning approximately 56 days after study allocation. DNA extracted from enriched samples was tested for STEC O157 and non-O157 serogroups O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145 and for four major virulence genes (stx1, stx2, eae, and ehxA) using an 11-gene multiplex PCR assay. Generalized linear mixed models were used to analyze the effects of treatments and make within-sample comparisons of the presence of O-serogroup-specific genes. Results of cumulative prevalence measures indicated that O157 (14.6%), O26 (10.5%), and O103 (10.3%) were the most prevalent STEC O serogroups. However, the vaccine, DFM, or both had no significant effect (P > 0.05) on fecal prevalence of the six non-O157 STEC serogroups in feedlot cattle. Withinsample comparisons of the presence of STEC serogroup-specific genes indicated that fecal shedding of E. coli O157 in cattle was associated with an increased probability (P < 0.05) of fecal shedding of STEC O26, O45, O103, and O121. Our study revealed that neither the E. coli O157:H7 vaccine, which reduced STEC O157 fecal shedding, nor the DFM significantly affected fecal shedding of non-O157 STEC serogroups, despite the fact that the most prevalent non-O157 STEC serogroups tended to occur concurrently with O157 STEC strains within fecal samples. Copyright © 2014 International Association for Food Protection.


Cernicchiaro N.,Kansas State University | Cull C.A.,Kansas State University | Paddock Z.D.,Kansas State University | Paddock Z.D.,Feedlot Health Management Services | And 4 more authors.
Foodborne Pathogens and Disease | Year: 2013

The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serogroups and associated virulence genes in feces of commercial feedlot cattle. During March to May 2011, fecal samples were collected from individual cattle (n=960) in 10 cohorts (cattle subpopulations within a feedlot) comprising 17,148 total steers that originated from 48 backgrounding operations in six U.S. states. Fecal samples were enriched in E. coli broth and subjected to two detection protocols: (1) an 11-gene multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) that identifies seven O serogroups (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, O145, and O157) and four virulence genes (stx1, stx2, eae, and ehxA) applied to extracted total DNA ("direct PCR"); and (2) cultural procedures that involve immunomagnetic separation (IMS) with O26, O103, and O111 beads, plating on a nondifferential MacConkey agar, followed by the multiplex PCR of pooled colonies ("culture-based method"). Generalized linear mixed models were used to adjust prevalence estimates for clustering. Based on direct PCR detection, O157 (49.9%) was the most prevalent O serogroup followed by O26 (20.3%), O103 (11.8%), O121 (10.7%), O45 (10.4%), O145 (2.8%), and O111 (0.8%). Cumulative adjusted prevalence estimates were 22.3, 24.6, and 0.01% for O26, O103, and O111 serogroups, respectively, based on culture-based methods. However, prevalence varied significantly by cohort (p-values<0.05) for O26, O121, and O157 based on direct PCR, and for O26, O103, and O111 serogroups based on culture-based methods. Results of this study indicate that all seven STEC serogroups were identified in feedlot cattle feces, with O157, O26, and O103 being the most prevalent serogroups. A substantial proportion of serogroup-positive samples did not harbor Shiga toxin genes; thus, additional elucidation of the potential human health risk is required. Further evaluation of diagnostic methods for non-O157 STEC is needed given their impact on prevalence estimation. © Copyright 2013, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2013.


Paddock Z.D.,Kansas State University | Paddock Z.D.,Feedlot Health Management Services | Renter D.G.,Kansas State University | Cull C.A.,Kansas State University | And 3 more authors.
Foodborne Pathogens and Disease | Year: 2014

Escherichia coli O26 is second only to O157 in causing foodborne, Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) infections. Our objectives were to determine fecal prevalence and characteristics of E. coli O26 in commercial feedlot cattle (17,148) that were enrolled in a study to evaluate an E. coli O157:H7 siderophore receptor and porin (SRP®) vaccine (VAC) and a direct-fed microbial (DFM; 106 colony-forming units [CFU]/animal/day of Lactobacillus acidophilus and 109 CFU/animal/day of Propionibacterium freudenreichii). Cattle were randomly allocated to 40 pens within 10 complete blocks; pens were randomly assigned to control, VAC, DFM, or VAC+DFM treatments. Vaccine was administered on days 0 and 21, and DFM was fed throughout the study. Pen-floor fecal samples (30/pen) were collected weekly for the last 4 study weeks. Samples were enriched in E. coli broth and subjected to a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) designed to detect O26-specific wzx gene and four major virulence genes (stx1, stx2, eae, and ehxA) and to a culture-based procedure that involved immunomagnetic separation and plating on MacConkey agar. Ten presumptive E. coli colonies were randomly picked, pooled, and tested by the multiplex PCR. Pooled colonies positive for O26 serogroup were streaked on sorbose MacConkey agar, and 10 randomly picked colonies per sample were tested individually by the multiplex PCR. The overall prevalence of E. coli O26 was higher (p<0.001) by the culture-based method compared to the PCR assay (22.7 versus 10.5%). The interventions (VAC and or DFM) had no impact on fecal shedding of O26. Serogroup O26 was recovered in pure culture from 23.9% (260 of 1089) of O26 PCR-positive pooled colonies. Only 7 of the 260 isolates were positive for the stx gene and 90.1% of the isolates possessed an eaeβ gene that codes for intimin subtype β, but not the bfpA gene, which codes for bundle-forming pilus. Therefore, the majority of the O26 recovered from feedlot cattle feces was atypical enteropathogenic E. coli, and not STEC. © Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.


Brandt R.T.,Brandt Nutrition Systems LLC and Midwest PMS | Corbin M.J.,Zoetis Inc. | Quinn M.J.,Feedlot Health Management Services
Professional Animal Scientist | Year: 2016

A total of 2,576 steers allotted to 24 pens were used to evaluate 2 forms of ractopamine, Optaflexx (Elanco Animal Health, Greenfield, IN) or Actogain 45 (Zoetis, Florham Park, NJ) brands of ractopamine hydrochloride, on steer performance and carcass traits (12 pens; 1,288 steers per treatment). Both test articles were fed at a rate of 16.4 g/t (DM basis) to target a consumption of 210 mg per head for an average (range 28 to 31) of 30 d. Total gain, daily gain, and feed efficiency tended (P < 0.10) to favor Actogain 45 on a live basis. However, there were no significant differences (P ≥ 0.32) between treatments for carcass-adjusted total gain, daily gain, or feed efficiency. Furthermore, there were no differences for estimated total carcass gain or rate of carcass gain (P ≥ 0.34). Finally, there were no differences (P ≥ 0.29) in HCW or any carcass USDA YG or QG variables. There was no evidence of lameness or locomotion impairment in any steer during the course of this study or at time of slaughter. It was concluded there were no differences between Optaflexx and Actogain 45 on performance or carcass traits of steers when fed at a rate of 16.4 g/t (DM basis) for the final 30 d on feed. © 2016 American Registry of Professional Animal Scientists.


PubMed | Kansas State University, Precision Animal Solutions, Feedlot Health Management Services and Adams Land and Cattle Company
Type: | Journal: Preventive veterinary medicine | Year: 2016

Accurate diagnosis of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in beef cattle is a critical facet of therapeutic programs through promotion of prompt treatment of diseased calves in concert with judicious use of antimicrobials. Despite the known inaccuracies, visual observation (VO) of clinical signs is the conventional diagnostic modality for BRD diagnosis. Objective methods of remotely monitoring cattle wellness could improve diagnostic accuracy; however, little information exists describing the accuracy of this method compared to traditional techniques. The objective of this research is to employ Bayesian methodology to elicit diagnostic characteristics of conventional VO compared to remote early disease identification (REDI) to diagnose BRD. Data from previous literature on the accuracy of VO were combined with trial data consisting of direct comparison between VO and REDI for BRD in two populations. No true gold standard diagnostic test exists for BRD; therefore, estimates of diagnostic characteristics of each test were generated using Bayesian latent class analysis. Results indicate a 90.0% probability that the sensitivity of REDI (median 81.3%; 95% probability interval [PI]: 55.5, 95.8) was higher than VO sensitivity (64.5%; PI: 57.9, 70.8). The specificity of REDI (median 92.9%; PI: 88.2, 96.9) was also higher compared to VO (median 69.1%; PI: 66.3, 71.8). The differences in sensitivity and specificity resulted in REDI exhibiting higher positive and negative predictive values in both high (41.3%) and low (2.6%) prevalence situations. This research illustrates the potential of remote cattle monitoring to augment conventional methods of BRD diagnosis resulting in more accurate identification of diseased cattle.


PubMed | University of Calgary, Feedlot Health Management Services and University of Montréal
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of veterinary internal medicine | Year: 2015

A computer-aided lung auscultation (CALA) system was recently developed to diagnose bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in feedlot cattle.To determine, in a case-control study, the level of agreement between CALA and veterinary lung auscultation and to evaluate the sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of CALA to diagnose BRD in feedlot cattle.A total of 561 Angus cross-steers (initial body weight = 246 45 kg) were observed during the first 50 day after entry to a feedlot.Case-control study. Steers with visual signs of BRD identified by pen checkers were examined by a veterinarian, including lung auscultation using a conventional stethoscope and CALA that produced a lung score from 1 (normal) to 5 (chronic). For each steer examined for BRD, 1 apparently healthy steer was selected as control and similarly examined. Agreement between CALA and veterinary auscultation was assessed by kappa statistic. CALAs Se and Sp were estimated using Bayesian latent class analysis.Of the 561 steers, 35 were identified with visual signs of BRD and 35 were selected as controls. Comparison of veterinary auscultation and CALA (using a CALA score 2 as a cut off) revealed a substantial agreement (kappa = 0.77). Using latent class analysis, CALA had a relatively high Se (92.9%; 95% credible interval [CI] = 0.71-0.99) and Sp (89.6%; 95% CI = 0.64-0.99) for diagnosing BRD compared with pen checking.CALA had good diagnostic accuracy (albeit with a relatively wide CI). Its use in feedlots could increase the proportion of cattle accurately diagnosed with BRD.

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