Feed and Food Science and Nutrition Institute

Piacenza, Italy

Feed and Food Science and Nutrition Institute

Piacenza, Italy
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Mol H.G.J.,Wageningen University | MacDonald S.J.,Fera Science Ltd. | Anagnostopoulos C.,Benaki Phytopathological Institute | Spanjer M.,Netherlands Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority | And 2 more authors.
World Mycotoxin Journal | Year: 2016

Based on the EFSA proposal 'Survey on sterigmatocystin in food' (GP/EFSA/CONTAM/2013/02), this study provides a survey on the occurrence of this mycotoxin. A total of 1,259 samples of cereal grains (429), cereal products (713), beer (53) and nuts (64) were analysed for the presence of sterigmatocystin (STC). Samples were mainly collected at processing plants, storage facilities, wholesale and retail between August 2013 and November 2014, in nine European countries, mostly Greece, Italy, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. The products originated from 27 European countries and 18 other countries. All samples were analysed by methods based on liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. The limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.5 μg/kg and the limit of detection (LOD) was in the range 0.05-0.15 μg/kg (0.005-0.01 μg/l for beer). Overall, STC was identified in 10% of the samples; it was not detected in either beer or nut samples. More than 50% of the contaminated samples contained levels between LOD and LOQ; in the other cases, levels were between 0.5-6 μg/kg with one exception (33 μg/kg in oats). In cereal grains, rice and oats seemed the cereals most prone to STC contamination (100% unprocessed rice, 22% oats grains); however the number of rice samples was limited (n=28) and the samples were collected almost exclusively in Italy and Greece. In cereal products, levels were lower than in cereal grains. The highest incidence was in processed rice (21%) and breakfast cereals (19%), while for the other cereal products this was between 5-7%. In the contaminated cereal products, rice and oats were often present as ingredients. © 2016 Wageningen Academic Publishers.


Somorin Y.M.,Abeokuta Federal University of Agriculture | Bertuzzi T.,Feed and Food Science and Nutrition Institute | Battilani P.,Entomology and Plant Pathology Institute | Pietri A.,Feed and Food Science and Nutrition Institute
Food Control | Year: 2012

The natural occurrence of aflatoxins (AFs) and fumonisins (FBs) in yam flour samples (n=100) obtained in south-western Nigeria was evaluated. AFs were determined by HPLC with fluorescence detection and FBs by HPLC coupled with mass spectrometry. Aflatoxin B 1 (AFB 1) and aflatoxin G 1 (AFG 1) were found in 57% and 21% of flours from white yam with concentrations ranging from <0.02 (limit of detection, LOD) to 3.2μgkg -1 (mean=0.4μgkg -1) and from <0.05 to 3.5μgkg -1, respectively. AFB 1 was the only aflatoxin detected in samples from water yam, contaminating 32% of the samples with values ranging from


Bertuzzi T.,Feed and Food Science and Nutrition Institute | Rastelli S.,Feed and Food Science and Nutrition Institute | Mulazzi A.,Feed and Food Science and Nutrition Institute | Pietri A.,Feed and Food Science and Nutrition Institute
Food Analytical Methods | Year: 2012

The extraction procedure for aflatoxin determination in maize is based on a methanol-water (8 + 2 v/v) or an acetone-water (85 + 15 v/v) mixture. Initially, the extraction efficiency of two solvents was evaluated for each aflatoxin. Different results were obtained for highly contaminated maize: significantly higher levels of aflatoxin B 1 were obtained by acetone-water, on the contrary higher levels of aflatoxin G 2 were achieved by methanol-water. Then, acetone-water mixtures in different proportions (7 + 3, 6 + 4 and 5 + 5 v/v) were tested to improve the extraction of aflatoxin G 2. Applying these extraction mixtures, the values both of aflatoxin B 1 and of other aflatoxins were generally higher compared to those obtained by acetone-water 85 + 15; moreover, acetone-water (6 + 4) and (7 + 3) showed the best extraction efficiency for all aflatoxins. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Pietri A.,Feed and Food Science and Nutrition Institute | Mulazzi A.,Feed and Food Science and Nutrition Institute | Piva G.,Feed and Food Science and Nutrition Institute | Bertuzzi T.,Feed and Food Science and Nutrition Institute
Food Control | Year: 2016

The fate of AFM1 during production of a long maturing cheese (Parmesan cheese) was assessed. Different levels of AFM1 contamination and of the fat/casein (F/C) ratio of milk were considered, in order to evaluate if these factors can influence the enrichment factor (EF) of AFM1 in cheese. For this purpose, 24 cheese-makings were carried out using naturally contaminated milk at 3 different AFM1 levels and at 2 F/C ratios. AFM1 analysis was performed by HPLC in raw milk, cream, cauldron milk, liquid cattle rennet, whey, curd and cheese at 3, 9, 16 and 24 months of ageing. The mass balances of the cheese-making processes were close to 100%; in whey, AFM1 concentration was about 40% less than the concentration in cauldron milk. The EF in curd was between 4.0 and 5.2, with an average value of 4.7 ± 0.4; this factor was not significantly affected by either AFM1 contamination level or F/C ratio. During maturation, AFM1 concentration and consequently EF increased from curd to 16 ageing months; successively, AFM1 slightly decreased at 24 months and consequently the EF. At 3, 9, 16 months of maturation, the EF was significantly higher for cheeses prepared using milk with low F/C than those with high F/C milk; on the contrary, EF was not significantly influenced by the AFM1 contamination level. In cheeses, EF values were between 4.7 and 6.3; from these results, the maximum admissible level for AFM1 in Parmesan cheese should be about 0.275 μg kg-1. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Bertuzzi T.,Feed and Food Science and Nutrition Institute | Agosti B.,Feed and Food Science and Nutrition Institute | Gualla A.,Feed and Food Science and Nutrition Institute | Pietri A.,Feed and Food Science and Nutrition Institute
Chromatographia | Year: 2010

A simple, rapid and sensitive LC-MS method utilizing electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI-MS-MS) has been developed to determine sanguinarine and chelerythrine in feed samples. Chromatographic separation was performed on a hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography column using acetonitrile-25 mM ammonium formate buffer pH 3.2 (80 + 20 v/v) as mobile phase. Under these LC conditions, the retention times of chelerythrine and sanguinarine were 3.9 and 4.2 min, respectively. The observed fragment ions were 317, 304 and 274 m/z for sanguinarine and 332, 304 and 290 m/z for chelerythrine. The lowest concentration of standard solution injected on column and detected by LC-MS-MS was 0.15 and 0.10 μg L-1 for sanguinarine and chelerythrine. The limits of detection and of quantification values in feed samples were 7.5 and 25 μg kg-1 for sanguinarine, 5 and 15 μg kg-1 for chelerythrine. The recovery of the method as well as the intra-day and inter-day precision were satisfactory. © 2010 Vieweg+Teubner Verlag | Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden GmbH.


Bertuzzi T.,Feed and Food Science and Nutrition Institute | Gualla A.,Feed and Food Science and Nutrition Institute | Morlacchini M.,Research Center for Zootechnics and Environment Cerzoo | Pietri A.,Feed and Food Science and Nutrition Institute
Food Control | Year: 2013

The aim of this study was to evaluate the contribution of direct and indirect contamination on ochratoxin A (OTA) levels in different ripened pork products. A total of 24 Large White pigs were fed naturally OTA contaminated diets (4 different contamination levels, from 0.40 to 171μgkg-1) for 2 weeks. Typical Italian pork products (dry sausage, dry-cured pork neck, dry-cured streaky bacon and dry-cured ham) were prepared using the contaminated tissues and ripened in 3 dry-cured ham manufacturing plants. Plasma, organs, tissues and ripened pork products were analysed for OTA content. As regards the animals fed at a level slightly less than 50μgkg-1, the guidance value recommended by the Commission of European Communities, the OTA levels in muscle and in the ripened products were close to 1μgkg-1 (range of the mean values 0.65-1.62μgkg-1), the guideline value in meat products recommended by the Italian Ministry of Health. Dry sausage and dry-cured pork neck showed significantly higher OTA concentrations than dry-cured ham and dry-cured streaky bacon. OTA was partially degraded during the long ripening time of dry-cured ham. In dry sausage and dry-cured pork neck direct contamination was low and it was not detected in dry-cured streaky bacon; on the contrary, very high OTA levels were detected in several outer dry-cured ham samples (maximum OTA value: 314μgkg-1). These results confirmed that direct contamination should be mainly monitored in dry-cured ham, whereas indirect contamination may eventually be relevant in other ripened pork products. •Indirect and direct contamination with ochratoxin A in the pork product chain was assessed.•Naturally contaminated feed at level close to 50μgkg-1 brings about a contamination in meat products close to 1μgkg-1.•OTA was partially degraded during the long ripening time of dry-cured ham.•Direct contamination can be relevant for dry-cured ham.•Indirect contamination should be mainly monitor for the other ripened pork products. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Pietri A.,Feed and Food Science and Nutrition Institute | Gualla A.,Feed and Food Science and Nutrition Institute | Rastelli S.,Feed and Food Science and Nutrition Institute | Bertuzzi T.,Feed and Food Science and Nutrition Institute
Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment | Year: 2011

The extraction of ochratoxin A from meat products is generally carried out using chlorinated organic solvents, such as chloroform or methyl chloride, acidified with hydrochloric or o-phosphoric acid. In this study, an innovative method was developed to extract ochratoxin A from pork and dry-cured ham samples. The method was based on an enzyme-assisted extraction with pancreatin in phosphate buffer pH 7.5. Pancreatin hydrolyses the proteins, so that ochratoxin A, kept in the ionised form, is easily extracted by the aqueous solution. After purification through an immunoaffinity column, ochratoxin A is determined by HPLC with fluorescence detection. The average recovery values were higher than 90.0% and the relative standard deviations were below 5.5%. The limits of detection and of quantification were 0.06 and 0.12 μg kg -1, respectively. A comparison between the new enzyme-assisted extraction and an established chloroform method was carried out on six naturally contaminated samples of pork and on 40 samples of dry-cured ham. Significantly higher (p < 0.001) values of ochratoxin A were obtained on dry-cured ham samples by the enzyme-assisted method. © 2011 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

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