Federation des Laboratoires

Toulon, France

Federation des Laboratoires

Toulon, France
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Gaillard T.,Federation des Laboratoires | Briolant S.,Institute Of Recherche Biomedicale Des Armees | Briolant S.,Aix - Marseille University | Madamet M.,Institute Of Recherche Biomedicale Des Armees | And 5 more authors.
Malaria Journal | Year: 2017

Anti-malarial drug resistance to chloroquine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine has spread from Southeast Asia to Africa. Furthermore, the recent emergence of resistance to artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) in Southeast Asia highlights the need to identify new anti-malarial drugs. Doxycycline is recommended for malaria chemoprophylaxis for travel in endemic areas, or in combination with the use of quinine for malaria treatment when ACT is unavailable or when the treatment of severe malaria with artesunate fails. However, doxycycline is not used in young children under 8 years of age due to its contraindication due to the risk of yellow tooth discolouration and dental enamel hypoplasia. Doxycycline was developed after tetracycline and was labelled with the same side-effects as the earlier tetracyclines. However, recent studies report little or no effects of doxycycline on tooth staining or dental enamel hypoplasia in children under 8 years of age. In the United States, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have recommended the use of doxycycline for the treatment of acute and chronic Q fever and tick-borne rickettsial diseases in young children. It is time to rehabilitate doxycycline and to recommend it for malaria treatment in children under 8 years of age. © 2017 The Author(s).


Pougnet R.,University of Western Brittany | Sapin J.,Federation des Laboratoires | De Parscau L.,Service de Pediatrie | Pougnet L.,Federation des Laboratoires
Annales de Biologie Clinique | Year: 2017

Streptococcus pneumoniae infections in children are most often lung infections or meningitis. Urinary tract infections are much rarer.We present the case of a urinary tract infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae. The clinical picture was classical. The urine culture showed the presence of Streptococcus pneumoniae in urine (104 UFC/mL; with 2×104 leucocytes/mL). The literature mentions a few cases of such infections. In some studies, the prevalence of Streptococcus pneumoniae in urine of children is less than 1%. Those children mostly present abnormalities of urinary tract. In our case, urinary ultrasound scan have shown the presence of an ectopic kidney in this child. The discussion between the clinician and the biologist has contributed to the discovery of this renal anomaly. © Copyright 2017 John Libbey Eurotext.


Pascual A.,Institute Of Recherche Biomedicale Des Armees | Pascual A.,Center National Of Reference Du Paludisme | Parola P.,Institut Universitaire de France | Benoit-Vical F.,Toulouse University Hospital Center | And 14 more authors.
Malaria Journal | Year: 2012

Background: The aim of the present work was to assess i) ex vivo activity of pyronaridine (PND) and piperaquine (PPQ), as new components of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT), to define susceptibility baseline, ii) their activities compared to other partner drugs, namely monodesethylamodiaquine (MDAQ), lumefantrine (LMF), mefloquine (MQ), artesunate (AS) and dihydroartemisinin (DHA) against 181 Plasmodium falciparum isolates from African countries, India and Thailand, and iii) in vitro cross-resistance with other quinoline drugs, chloroquine (CQ) or quinine (QN). Methods. The susceptibility of the 181 P. falciparum isolates to the nine anti-malarial drugs was assessed using the standard 42-hours 3H-hypoxanthine uptake inhibition method. Results: The IC 50values for PND ranged from 0.55 to 80.0 nM (geometric mean = 19.9 nM) and from 11.8 to 217.3 nM for PPQ (geometric mean = 66.8 nM). A significant positive correlation was shown between responses to PPQ and PND responses (rho = 0.46) and between PPQ and MDAQ (rho = 0.30). No significant correlation was shown between PPQ IC 50and responses to other anti-malarial drugs. A significant positive correlation was shown between responses to PND and MDAQ (rho = 0.37), PND and LMF (rho = 0.28), PND and QN (rho = 0.24), PND and AS (rho = 0.19), PND and DHA (rho = 0.18) and PND and CQ (rho = 0.16). All these coefficients of correlation are too low to suggest cross-resistance between PPQ or PND and the other drugs. Conclusions: In this study, the excellent anti-malarial activity of PPQ and PND was confirmed. The absence of cross-resistance with quinolines and artemisinin derivatives is consistent with the efficacy of the combinations of PPQ and DHA or PND and AS in areas where parasites are resistant to conventional anti-malarial drugs. © 2012 Pascual et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Gaillard T.,Institute Of Recherche Biomedicale Des Armees | Gaillard T.,Federation des Laboratoires | Fall B.,Federations des Laboratoires | Tall A.,Institute Pasteur Of Dakar | And 12 more authors.
Clinical Microbiology and Infection | Year: 2012

The objective of this study was to validate the use of pftetQ and pfmdt genes as molecular markers of decreased in vitro susceptibility to doxycycline in 113 Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Dakar, Senegal. The results show that copy numbers of pftetQ and pfmdt, estimated by TaqMan real-time PCR, are not significantly associated with reduced susceptibility to doxycycline in vitro; however, the number of samples with a high doxycycline IC 50 was likely to be too low to derive statistically significant results. Thus, no definitive conclusions could be drawn. The markers should be further tested by analysing more isolates. © 2012 The Authors. Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2012 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.


PubMed | Federation des Laboratoires and Institute Of Recherche Biomedicale Des Armees
Type: Review | Journal: Malaria journal | Year: 2016

Malaria, a parasite vector-borne disease, is one of the most significant health threats in tropical regions, despite the availability of individual chemoprophylaxis. Malaria chemoprophylaxis and chemotherapy remain a major area of research, and new drug molecules are constantly being developed before drug-resistant parasites strains emerge. The use of anti-malarial drugs is challenged by contra-indications, the level of resistance of Plasmodium falciparum in endemic areas, clinical tolerance and financial cost. New therapeutic approaches are currently needed to fight against this disease. Some antibiotics that have shown potential effects on malaria parasite have been recently studied in vitro or in vivo intensively. Two families, tetracyclines and macrolides and their derivatives have been particularly studied in recent years. However, other less well-known have been tested or are being used for malaria treatment. Some of these belong to older families, such as quinolones, co-trimoxazole or fusidic acid, while others are new drug molecules such as tigecycline. These emerging antibiotics could be used to prevent malaria in the future. In this review, the authors overview the use of antibiotics for malaria treatment.


Mokhtari C.,Center National Of Reference Des Hepatites E | Marchadier E.,Center National Of Reference Des Hepatites E | Haim-Boukobza S.,Center National Of Reference Des Hepatites E | Haim-Boukobza S.,University Paris - Sud | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Virology | Year: 2013

Background: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an increasing cause of acute viral hepatitis in developed countries. Serological testing alone may fail to diagnose acute infection, especially in immunocompromised patients, which justifies the use of molecular assays for diagnosis. Few studies have compared accuracy of HEV RNA detection assays. Objectives: The performances of five real-time PCR procedures for HEV RNA detection were compared. Study design: First, RNA quantification of hepatitis E diluted standards of 3a and 3b genotypes were performed. Secondly, forty-seven clinical samples of patients with known acute HEV infection were tested using five hepatitis E RNA detection methods of assigned letters A, B, C, D and E. Results: Standards of HEV 3a genotype were detected in 100% of replicates with 2500. UI/ml of sensitivity by using A, B and C assays. Standards of HEV 3b genotype were more accurately detected with a sensitivity of 25. UI/ml in 100% of replicates using C assay and were detected in 100% of replicates with 2500. UI/ml of sensitivity by using A, B and E assays. Overall, B assay detected all of 250. UI/ml dilution and occasionally the 25. UI/ml dilution on both subtypes. The detection rates of clinical samples were 100%, 100% 97%, 97% and 83% for the respective A, B, C, D and E assay. Assays A and B were well correlated, independently of the subtype. However, discrepancies were observed when these techniques were compared to C, D and E assays according to the different subtypes. Conclusion: A and B assays appear reliable for HEV RNA detection. These assays target the ORF2/3 overlapping region, described as more conserved than ORF2. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


PubMed | Federation des laboratoires, University of Monastir and Service de dermatologie
Type: Case Reports | Journal: Medecine et sante tropicales | Year: 2014

We report a case of edema of the right forearm with pruriginous papules and eosinophilia in the blood. The patient had lived in a forested area of Cameroon. The clinical, laboratory, and geographical findings led to a diagnosis of onchocerciasis, despite the absence of microfilaments on skin biopsy samples. The patient was successfully treated with ivermectin and doxycycline.


PubMed | Federation des laboratoires
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Annales de biologie clinique | Year: 2013

To prepare the French Accreditation Committee (COFRAC) visit for initial certification of our medical laboratory, our direction evaluated its quality management system (QMS) and all its technical activities. This evaluation was performed owing an internal audit. This audit was outsourced. Auditors had an expertise in audit, a whole knowledge of biological standards and were independent. Several nonconformities were identified at that time, including a lack of control of several steps of the internal audit process. Hence, necessary corrective actions were taken in order to meet the requirements of standards, in particular, the formalization of all stages, from the audit program, to the implementation, review and follow-up of the corrective actions taken, and also the implementation of the resources needed to carry out audits in a pre-established timing. To ensure an optimum control of each step, the main concepts of risk management were applied: process approach, root cause analysis, effects and criticality analysis (FMECA). After a critical analysis of our practices, this methodology allowed us to define our internal audit process, then to formalize it and to follow it up, with a whole documentary system.


PubMed | Federation des laboratoires
Type: Case Reports | Journal: Journal francais d'ophtalmologie | Year: 2013

We describe the management of a female patient who developed an uncomplicated unilateral purulent conjunctivitis with no other clinical signs. The typical clinical presentation and Gram stain of the discharge suggested gonococcal conjunctivitis, allowing treatment to be initiated. Indeed, a strain of Neisseria gonorrhoeae resistant to penicillin and tetracycline was isolated. In collaboration with the patients primary care physician, management included lavage of the infected eye, systemic antibiotic treatment with erythromycin and topical antibiotic treatment with azithromycin, followed by local steroid treatment in response to persistent hyperemia, which was discontinued and replaced by azithromycin again because of recurrent discharge. Eleven days after the first consultation, a complete cure was achieved without sequelae, and a final check to rule out a residual gonococcal carrier state is planned. Gonococcal conjunctivitis, a diagnostic and therapeutic emergency, is a potentially blinding sexually transmitted disease with which general practitioners and ophthalmologists are not well aquainted. Although rare in developed countries, its incidence is rising in parallel with the global recrudescence of gonococcal infections. This case of gonococcal conjunctivitis is discussed as a review of the clinical and biological elements necessary for diagnosis and therapeutic management, which must occur as early as possible, taking into account rapidly increasing gonococcal resistance to antimicrobial therapies, so as to interrupt spread of the disease.


The authors report the results of molecular biology techniques for the early diagnosis of cases (invasion phase) of schistosomiasis during two epidemics occurring during French military projects in the Central African Republic and Madagascar. The use of these techniques in real time for subjects not residing in the endemic area significantly improves the sensitivity of screening. The attack rates of these episodes, according to a case definition that took positive specific PCR results into account, were 59% and 26%. These results are a concrete illustration of the proverb that "yaws begin where the trail stops".

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