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Al-Betar M.A.,Al - Balqa Applied University | Awadallah M.A.,University of Palestine | Khader A.T.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | Bolaji A.L.,Federal University, Wukari
Applied Soft Computing Journal | Year: 2016

This paper proposes a tournament-based harmony search (THS) algorithm for economic load dispatch (ELD) problem. The THS is an efficient modified version of the harmony search (HS) algorithm where the random selection process in the memory consideration operator is replaced by the tournament selection process to activate the natural selection of the survival-of-the-fittest principle and thus improve the convergence properties of HS. The performance THS is evaluated with ELD problem using five different test systems: 3-units generator system; two versions of 13-units generator system; 40-units generator system; and large-scaled 80-units generator system. The effect of tournament size (t) on the performance of THS is studied. A comparative evaluation between THS and other existing methods reported in the literature are carried out. The simulation results show that the THS algorithm is capable of achieving better quality solutions than many of the well-popular optimization methods. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Ogwueleka F.N.,Federal University, Wukari | Misra S.,Atilim University | Ogwueleka T.C.,University Of Abuja | Fernandez-Sanz L.,University of Alcalá
Acta Polytechnica Hungarica | Year: 2014

Road traffic accidents (RTA) are one of the major root causes of the unnatural loses of human beings all over the world. Although the rates of RTAs are decreasing in most developed countries, this is not the case in developing countries. The increase in the number of vehicles and inefficient drivers on the road, as well as to the poor conditions and maintenance of the roads, are responsible for this crisis in developing countries. In this paper, we produce a design of an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model for the analysis and prediction of accident rates in a developing country. We apply the most recent (1998 to 2010) data to our model. In the design, the number of vehicles, accidents, and population were selected and used as model parameters. The sigmoid and linear functions were used as activation functions with the feed forward-back propagation algorithm. The performance evaluation of the model signified that the ANN model is better than other statistical methods in use.

Bolaji A.L.,Federal University, Wukari | Al-Betar M.A.,Al - Balqa Applied University | Awadallah M.A.,University of Palestine | Khader A.T.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | Abualigah L.M.,Universiti Sains Malaysia
Applied Soft Computing Journal | Year: 2016

Krill Herd (KH) algorithm is a class of nature-inspired algorithm, which simulates the herding behavior of krill individuals. It has been successfully utilized to tackle many optimization problems in different domains and found to be very efficient. As a result, the studies has expanded significantly in the last 3 years. This paper presents the extensive (not exhaustive) review of KH algorithm in the area of applications, modifications, and hybridizations across these fields. The description of how KH algorithm was used in the approaches for solving these kinds of problems and further research directions are also discussed. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

Ugbogu O.C.,Federal University, Wukari | Ogbonna C.E.,Abia State University
36th WEDC International Conference: Delivering Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Services in an Uncertain Environment | Year: 2013

The microbial quality of two man-made lakes that serve as sources of water to a rural community was investigated. Quantitative examination of microorganisms revealed a total heterotrophic bacterial count range of 2.0 - 5.0 × 104cfu/ml and 2.2 - 6.0 × 104cfu/ml for Lake 1 and Lake 2 respectively for the months sampled. Total coliform count ranged from 1.5 - 2.6 × 104cfu/ml and 1.8- 3.0 × 104cfu/ml for Lake 1 and Lake 2 respectively. Salmonella and Shigella species occurred more in the water samples during the rainy season than dry season. The microbial quality of the lakes show that the water is not suitable for drinking and other domestic purposes and poses a public health risk to children and other groups that use it for recreational purposes.

PubMed | Federal University, Wukari and Abia State University
Type: | Journal: SpringerPlus | Year: 2015

Pawpaw, banana and watermelon are tropical fruits with short shelf-lives under the prevailing temperatures and humid conditions in tropical countries like Nigeria. Production of wine from these fruits could help reduce the level of post-harvest loss and increase variety of wines. Pawpaw, banana and watermelon were used to produce mixed fruit wines using Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolated from palm wine. Exactly 609 and 406g each of the fruits in two-mixed and three-mixed fruit fermentation respectively were crushed using laboratory blender, mixed with distilled water (1:1 w/v), and heated for 30min with subsequent addition of sugar (0.656kg). The fruit musts were subjected to primary (aerobic) and secondary (anaerobic) fermentation for 4 and 21days respectively. During fermentation, aliquots were removed from the fermentation tank for analysis. During primary fermentation, consistent increases in alcohol contents (ranging from 0.0 to 15.0%) and total acidities (ranging from 0.20 to 0.80%) were observed with gradual decrease in specific gravities (ranging from 1.060 to 0.9800) and pH (ranging from 4.80 to 2.90). Temperature ranged from 27C to 29C. The alcoholic content of the final wines were 17.500.02% (pawpaw and watermelon), 16.000.02% (pawpaw and banana), 18.500.02% (banana and watermelon wine) and 18.000.02% (pawpaw, banana and watermelon). The alcoholic content of the wines did not differ significantly (p>0.05). The pH of all the wines were acidic and ranged from 2.50.01 to 3.80.01 (p>0.05). The acid concentration (residual and volatile acidity) were within the acceptable limit and ranged from 0.350.02 to 0.880.01% (p>0.05). Sensory evaluation (P>0.05) rated the wines acceptability as pawpaw and banana wine > pawpaw and watermelon > pawpaw, watermelon and banana > banana and watermelon wine. This study has shown that acceptable mixed fruit wines could be produced from the fruits with S. cerevisiae from palm wine.

Oladoja N.A.,Adekunle Ajasin University | Adelagun R.O.A.,Federal University, Wukari | Ahmad A.L.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | Unuabonah E.I.,Redeemer's University | Bello H.A.,Adekunle Ajasin University
Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces | Year: 2014

A novel adsorbent, magnetic, macro-reticulated cross-linked chitosan (MRC) was synthesised for the removal of tetracycline (TC) from water using a source of biogenic waste (gastropod shells) as a pore-forming agent. The insertion of crosslinks into the chitosan frame was confirmed by FTIR analysis, while the stability of the MRC was demonstrated via a stability test performed in an acidic solution. The enhanced porosity of the MRC was confirmed by the evaluation of its porosity, a swelling test and the determination of its specific surface area. The time-concentration profile of the sorption of TC onto the MRC demonstrated that equilibrium was attained relatively quickly (120min), and the data obtained fitted a pseudo second order (r2>0.99) kinetic equation better than a pseudo first order or reversible first order kinetic equation. The optimisation of process variables indicated that the sorption of TC onto the MRC was favoured at a low solution pH and that the presence of organics (simulated by the addition of humic acid) negatively impacted the magnitude of TC removal. The area of coverage of TC on the MRC (2.51m2/g) was low compared to the specific surface area of the MRC (47.95m2/g). The value of the calculated energy of adsorption of TC onto the MRC was 100kJ/mol, which is far above the range of 1-16kJ/mol stipulated for physical adsorption. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Aremu M.O.,Federal University, Wukari | Ibrahim H.,Federal University, Lafia | Aremu S.O.,Makurdi University Of Agriculture
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2016

A comprehensive study was conducted on oils from raw and boiled black variety of tigernut (Cyperus esculentus L), in order to evaluate their potential uses. The quality of the extracted oils was assessed in terms of acid value, iodine value, saponification value, peroxide value, specific gravity, flash point, kinematic viscosity and unsaponifiable matter with the mean range values of 9.03-9.12 mg KOH/g,57.30-92.60mg of 1/100 g, 179.40-180.30 mg KOH/g, 6.90-7.50 meqO2/kg, 0.90-0.91 g/cm, 275.00-282.00°C,8.30-8.42mm2/s at 100°C and 0.50-0.82%, respectively. The major fatty acids of the tigernut oil were oleic acid (32.14-50.85%)> linoleic acid (24.08-46.71)> palmitic acid (12.96-15.84%)> stearic acid (4.35-4.60%). Palmitoleic, eicosenoic, erucic, nervonic, elaidic, eicosadienoic, docosadienoic, α-linolenic, γ-linolenic, dihomo- γ -linolenic, eicosatrienoic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids were present in small quantities with none of them recording up to 1.0% in either of the samples while lauric and myristic acids in the boiled sample were not at the detectable range of GC. The boiling process reduced the content of lauric, myristic, arachidic, behenic, palmitoleic, pentacosylic and oleic acids by 100, 100, 98.72, 99.21, 99.76, 1.47 and 36.79%, respectively. Unsaturated fatty acids predominated in all the samples with an adequate amount of essential fatty acid (linoleic acid). Generally, the boiling method showed deviations in fatty acid components from the raw sample. Phosphatidylethanolamine had the highest content (223.08 mg/100 g) in raw tigernut while the lowest was lysophosphatidylcholine (3.83 mg/100 g) also in the raw sample. However, the total phytosterols were of low values with range of 1,59e-3 to 9.74e-3 mg/100 g except that of stigmasterol and sitosterol. The high percentage PUFA and the low sterols particularly cholesterol may make processed black variety of tigernut a good food source on health wise basis. © Asian Network for Scientific Information, 2016.

Oladoja N.A.,Adekunle Ajasin University | Adesina A.O.,Adekunle Ajasin University | Adelagun R.O.A.,Federal University, Wukari
Ecological Engineering | Year: 2014

Gastropod shell (GS), whose distribution is worldwide and mineralogical assemblage is aragonite, was packed in a glass column and evaluated for phosphate capture and recovery from aqua system. The column reactor was operated in a batch-continuous mode, considered as a close approximation to a practical water treatment system, for 30 days. The time-concentration profile parameters were derived at different influent phosphate concentrations and hydraulic residence time (HRT) to determine the performance efficiency of the reactor column. The mechanism of phosphate removal was investigated and phosphate fractionation protocol was employed to elucidate the form and pattern of phosphate distribution in the spent reactor. Variations in influent phosphate concentration and HRT had minimal influence on the time-concentration profile parameters and the performance efficiency of the column reactor within the process variables studied. The first order rate constant (k1) showed that increase in the HRT of the influent in the SS column reactor does not enhance the phosphate removal. The value of the saturation index (SI) obtained over the 30 days period were all positive and the thermodynamic parameter (δG) was <0 which is an indication of supersaturation, the significant role of precipitation as a mechanism of phosphate removal in the reactor and spontaneity of the precipitation reaction. The order of distribution of each fraction of P, relative to the total phosphorus (T-P) in the phosphate laden SS, is as follows: dicalcium phosphate (Ca2-P) (42.5%)>ten-calcium phosphate (Ca10-P) (40.50%)>octacalcium phosphate (Ca8-P) (16.65%)>occluded phosphate (O-P) (0.35%). The simple appraisal of the fertilizer value of the spent reactor showed that it would preferentially serve as a soil conditioner cum fertilizer in acidic soil. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Onogwu G.O.,Federal University, Wukari
Agricultural Economics (Czech Republic) | Year: 2014

The trade liberalization processes of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) are implemented through such interventions like free international trade, common external tariff wall, the consolidation or freezing of custom duties and non-tariff barriers to the intra-trade among others. However, the extent to which these efforts have translated to the intra-industry trade in the prepared foodstuff products has not been investigated yet. The objectives of this study are to assess the intra-industry trade theory in cereal and miscellaneous edible preparations; to evaluate the growth rates of simultaneous exports and imports in these prepared foodstuff sub-sections; to evaluate the extent of the intra-industry trade in the sub sections, and to determine the effects of the Nigeria's and partners' characteristics on the intra-industry trade. The results revealed that the intra-industry trade in cereal preparations are positively and significantly influenced by the partners' gross national income (GNI) per capita and the partners' foreign direct investment (FDI), but they are negatively influenced by the Nigeria's household final consumption expenditure. Also, the intra-industry trade in miscellaneous edible preparations is influenced positively by the partners' GNI per capita and the partners' households' final consumption expenditures, while the Nigeria's foreign direct investment and the value added by manufacturing negatively influence the intra-industry trade in the product sub-sections within the ECOWAS sub-region. Both exports and imports growth rates of these products fluctuate, but more in the imports of miscellaneous edible preparations. Cost saving options in transportation, the use of efficient machines during the production, processing and packaging are recommended.

Ameh A.O.,Ahmadu Bello University | Abutu D.,Federal University, Wukari | Isa M.T.,Ahmadu Bello University | Rabiu U.,Ahmadu Bello University
Leonardo Electronic Journal of Practices and Technologies | Year: 2014

Shrimp exoskeleton was demineralized using lactic acid and the kinetics of the demineralisation was studied. The residual concentration of calcium after acid treatment was used as a measure of the degree of demineralisation. Kinetic data was obtained using five acid concentrations (0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1M) and the obtained kinetic data was fitted to the shrinking core model. For all concentrations, the best predictive model was determined to be ash layer diffusion controlled mechanism.

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