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Santa Maria, Brazil

The Universidade Federal de Santa Maria is a Brazilian public university located in Santa Maria, in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, funded by the federal government of Brazil. It was founded in 1960, by Professor José Mariano da Rocha Filho.UFSM's presence in the municipality of Santa Maria is one of the reasons why the city is sometimes called "university city" or "culture city". Santa Maria is located in western Rio Grande do Sul, approximately 290 km far from the capital city of the state, Porto Alegre. Set in the heart of the pampas of Brazil, the city thrives with gaúcho culture.UFSM is a public, free university, and students do not pay any tuition fees. It is the oldest federal university not located in a Brazilian state capital city, and the largest in number of undergraduate courses offered in Rio Grande do Sul state. Wikipedia.


Riffel R.A.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Storchi-Bergmann T.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society | Year: 2011

We present stellar and gaseous kinematics of the inner ≈350-pc radius of the Seyfert galaxy Mrk1066 derived from J and Kl bands data obtained with the Gemini's Near-Infrared Integral Field Spectrograph (NIFS) at a spatial resolution of ≈35pc. The stellar velocity field is dominated by rotation in the galaxy plane but shows an S-shape distortion along the galaxy minor axis which seems to be due to an oval structure seen in an optical continuum image. Along this oval, between 170 and 280pc from the nucleus we find a partial ring of low σ* (≈50kms-1) attributed to an intermediate-age stellar population. The velocity dispersion of the stellar bulge (σ*≈ 90kms-1) implies a supermassive black hole mass of ≈5.4 × 106M⊙. From measurements of the emission-line fluxes and profiles ([Pii]λ 1.1886μm, [Feii]λ 1.2570μm, Paβ and H2λ 2.1218μm), we have constructed maps for the gas centroid velocity, velocity dispersion as well as channel maps. The velocity fields for all emission lines are dominated by a similar rotation pattern to that observed for the stars, but are distorted by the presence of two structures: (i) a compact rotating disc with radius r≈ 70pc; (ii) outflows along the radio jet which is oriented approximately along the galaxy major axis. The compact rotating disc is more conspicuous in the H2 emitting gas, which presents the smallest σ values (≤70kms-1) and most clear rotation pattern, supporting a location in the galaxy plane. We estimate a gas mass for the disc of ∼107M⊙. The H2 kinematics further suggests that the nuclear disc is being fed by gas coming from the outer regions. The outflow is more conspicuous in the [Feii] emitting gas, which presents the highest σ values (up to 150kms-1) and the highest blue and redshifts of up to 500kms-1, while the highest stellar rotation velocity is only ≈130kms-1. We estimate a mass-outflow rate in ionized gas of ≈6 × 10-2M⊙yr-1. The derived kinematics for the emitting gas is similar to that observed in previous studies supporting that the H2 is a tracer of the active galactic nucleus feeding and the [Feii] of its feedback. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 RAS. Source


Riffel R.A.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Storchi-Bergmann T.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society | Year: 2011

We have mapped the stellar and gaseous kinematics, as well as the emission-line flux distributions and ratios, from the inner ≈450pc radius of the Seyfert 2 galaxy Mrk1157, using two-dimensional near-infrared J- and K l-band spectra obtained with the Gemini Near-Infrared Integral-Field Spectrograph instrument at a spatial resolution of ≈35pc and velocity resolution of ≈40kms -1. The stellar velocity field shows a rotation pattern, with a discrete S-shaped zero velocity curve - a signature of a nuclear bar. The presence of a bar is also supported by the residual map between the observed rotation field and a model of circular orbits in a Plummer potential. The stellar velocity dispersion (σ *) map presents a partial ring of low-σ * values (50-60kms -1) at 250pc from the nucleus surrounded by higher σ * values from the galaxy bulge. We propose that this ring has origin in kinematically colder regions with recent star formation. The stellar velocity dispersion of the bulge (100kms -1) implies in a black hole mass of M BH= 8.3 +3.2 - 2.2× 10 6M ⊙. Emission-line flux distributions are most extended along the position angle PA = 27°/153°, reaching at least 450pc from the nucleus and following the orientation observed in previous optical emission-line [Oiii] imaging and radio jets. The molecular hydrogen gas has an excitation temperature T exc≈ 2300K and its emission is dominated by thermal processes, mainly due to X-ray heating by the active nucleus, with a possible small contribution from shocks produced by the radio jet. The [Feii] excitation has a larger contribution from shocks produced by the radio jet, as evidenced by the line-ratio maps and velocity dispersion maps, which show spatial correlation with the radio structures. The coronal lines are resolved, extending up to ≈150pc and are also slightly more extended along PA = 27°/153°. The gaseous kinematics show two components: one due to the gas located in the galaxy plane, in similar rotation to that of the stars, and another in outflow, which is oriented close to the plane of the sky, thus extending to high latitudes, as the galaxy plane is inclined by ≈45° relative to the plane of the sky. The gas rotating in the plane dominates the H 2 and Paβ emission, while the gas in outflow is observed predominantly in [Feii] emission. The [Feii] emission is originated in gas being pushed by the radio jet, which destroys dust grains, releasing Fe. From the outflow velocities and implied geometry, we estimate a mass-outflow rate of for the ionized gas and a kinetic power for the outflow of. The distinct flux distributions and kinematics of the H 2- and [Feii]-emitting gas, with the former more restricted to the plane of the galaxy and the latter tracing the outflows related to radio jets, are a common characteristic of six Seyfert galaxies (ESO428-G14, NGC4051, 7582 and4151, Mrk1066, and now Mrk1157) we have studied so far using similar two-dimensional observations and other two (Circinus and NGC2110) using long-slit observations. We conclude that the H 2 emission surrounding the nucleus in the galaxy plane is a tracer of the gas feeding to the active nucleus, while the [Feii] emission is a tracer of its feedback. © 2011 The Authors Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society © 2011 RAS. Source


Ardenghi T.M.,Federal University of Santa Maria
Oral health & preventive dentistry | Year: 2012

To assess the age the of the first dental visit and the association of self-perceived oral health, socioeconomic and clinical indicators with healthcare utilisation in Brazilian preschool children. An epidemiological survey with 455 5- to 59-month-old children was conducted on National Children's Vaccination Day in Santa Maria, RS, Brazil. Data about age and reasons for the first dental visit, healthcare utilisation, socioeconomic status and self-perceived oral health were collected by means of a parental semi-structured questionnaire. Calibrated examiners evaluated the prevalence of dental caries (WHO) and dental trauma. The assessment of the association used Poisson regression models (prevalence ratio; 95% confidence interval [CI]). A total of 24.2% (95% CI: 20.3% to 28.4%) of the study sample had already had a first dental visit. Older children, those with dental caries and dental trauma and whose mothers had a higher level of education were more likely to have gone to the dentist. Children of low socioeconomic status were more likely to have visited public than private healthcare services. The reasons for the first dental visit were associated with clinical indicators of the sample. The distribution of utilisation of the types of oral healthcare services (public or private) varied across the socioeconomic groups. Non-white children with dental caries and dental trauma tended to visit a dentist only for treatment reasons. Socioeconomic and clinical indicators are associated with the use of dental services, indicating the need for strategies to promote public health and reorientation of services that facilitate dental access for preschool children. Source


Toni C.,Federal University of Santa Maria
Journal of applied toxicology : JAT | Year: 2010

Cyprinus carpio were exposed under field conditions to 20.87 microg l(-1) of commercial herbicide bispyribac-sodium (Nominee, SC), during 7, 21 and 72 days. Enzymatic parameters such as catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities, as well as thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and protein carbonyl contents were studied in different tissues. After 7 days of exposure, GST activity decreased. At the same period, brain AChE activity increased, but a reduction of activity was observed in muscle tissue. Brain TBARS levels increased at 7 days. After 21 days of exposure liver CAT levels and muscle AChE activities decreased. In the same period, liver protein carbonyl and muscle TBARS increased. After 72 days of exposure in the field, AChE activity was reduced in both brain and muscle. Protein carbonyl contents in liver and brain TBARS levels increased. Muscle AChE activity, TBARS and protein carbonyl can be used as biomarkers of exposure to the herbicide bispyribac-sodium. This study demonstrates effects of exposure to bispyribac-sodium under rice field conditions on oxidative stress parameters in tissues of Cyprinus carpio. (c) 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source


Goncalves P.B.,Federal University of Santa Maria
Journal of ovarian research | Year: 2014

BACKGROUND: Estradiol (E2) receptors mediate E2 effects on cell proliferation and apoptosis under normal and pathological conditions. However, the mechanisms involved in E2 signaling are not completely understood. The objectives in this study were to evaluate the expression of estrogen receptors (ESRs) during follicular selection in cattle, and the effect of intrafollicular injection of fulvestrant (an antagonist of ESRs) on follicular development and transcript abundance in granulosa cells.METHODS: Granulosa cells were obtained from the two largest follicles around follicular deviation, after FSH treatment and after intrafollicular injection of fulvestrant. Ovarian follicular dynamics monitored by ultrasonography and quantitative real time PCR were used to validate the in vivo model and investigate the effects of FSH supplementation or ESR blockade on mRNA expression of estradiol-related genes.RESULTS: ESR1 and ESR2 were expressed in granulosa cells of both dominant (F1) and subordinate (F2) follicles, but their transcripts levels were higher in F1 than F2 after follicular deviation. FSH treatment maintained mRNA levels of both ESR1 and ESR2 in F2 follicles at similar levels observed in F1 follicles. Intrafollicular injection of 100 μM fulvestrant inhibited follicular growth and decreased CYP19A1 mRNA levels. Transcript levels for both ESR1 and ESR2 were not affected by fulvestrant injection. Analyses of FSH-regulated genes revealed that ESRs inhibition in the dominant follicle decreased the transcript levels of the GJA1 but not those of PRKAR2B, MRO or LRP11 genes.CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that: both ESR1 and ESR2 are regulated during follicular deviation and dominance in cattle and in response to FSH treatment, and ESRs are required for normal gene expression and development of the dominant follicle. Furthermore, we have validated an in vivo model to study estrogen signaling during follicular development that allows paracrine signaling between different follicular cells in a physiological endocrine environment. Source

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