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Santa Maria, Brazil

The Universidade Federal de Santa Maria is a Brazilian public university located in Santa Maria, in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, funded by the federal government of Brazil. It was founded in 1960, by Professor José Mariano da Rocha Filho.UFSM's presence in the municipality of Santa Maria is one of the reasons why the city is sometimes called "university city" or "culture city". Santa Maria is located in western Rio Grande do Sul, approximately 290 km far from the capital city of the state, Porto Alegre. Set in the heart of the pampas of Brazil, the city thrives with gaúcho culture.UFSM is a public, free university, and students do not pay any tuition fees. It is the oldest federal university not located in a Brazilian state capital city, and the largest in number of undergraduate courses offered in Rio Grande do Sul state. Wikipedia.

Marchesan E.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Senseman S.A.,Texas AgriLife Research Center
Ciencia Rural | Year: 2010

In agriculture, there is a difference between average yield obtained by farmers and crop potential. There is technology available to increase yields, but not all farmers have access to it and/or use this information. This clearly characterizes an extension and technology transference problem. There are several technology transfer systems, but there is no system to fit all conditions. Therefore, it is necessary to create extension solutions according to local conditions. Another rural extension challenge is efficiency, despite continuous funding reductions. One proposal that has resulted from extension reform worldwide has suggested integration between the public and private sectors. The public universities could play the role of training and updating technical assistance of human resources, which is the one of the main aspects that has limited technology transfer. The objective of this study was to identify approaches to promote technology transfer generated in Brazilian public universities to rural areas through literature review. An experimental approach of technology transfer is presented here where a Brazilian university extension Vice-chancellor incorporates professionals from consolidated research groups according to demand. In this way, public universities take part of their social functions, by integrating teaching, research, and extension.

Limberger J.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Leal B.C.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Back D.F.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Dupont J.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Monteiro A.L.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul
Advanced Synthesis and Catalysis | Year: 2012

A system based on copper/1,10-phenanthroline efficiently promotes the coupling between phenols or pyrazole with (E)-bromostilbene. (E)-1-Aryloxy-1,2-diphenylethenes were obtained from the coupling with phenols in good to excellent yields (69-90%). The exception was the reaction involving a phenol containing an electron-withdrawing cyano group that required a longer reaction time and gave only 49% yield. Kinetic studies indicated the participation of the vinyl halide in the rate-determining step. Under the conditions employed, the activation of the vinyl halide via a radical pathway was discarded using a radical scavenger test. By using an ionically-tagged 1,10-phenanthroline derivative as the ligand, various copper-based ions were detected through ESI(+)-MS. These ions suggested that formation of the active species [phenCuOAr(HOAr) 2] precedes the vinyl halide activation. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Meili L.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Daleffe R.V.,Ford Motor Company | Freire J.T.,Federal University of Sao Carlos
Chemical Engineering and Technology | Year: 2012

The fluid dynamic behavior of a vibrofluidized bed operating with Geldart C particles was studied. The experiments were conducted in order to observe the influence of amplitude, frequency, and dimensionless vibration number on the minimum fluidization velocity, pressure drop, and standard deviation obtained. It was noted that the dimensionless vibration number should be used very carefully if it is to be the unique parameter to set the vibrational effect of the bed fluid dynamics. The results clearly indicate that the fluid dynamic behavior of the bed is very dependent on the different combinations of amplitude and frequency for the same dimensionless vibration number. Therefore, the use of the amplitude or frequency of vibration and the dimensionless vibration number is recommended for a better characterization of the vibrational effects on the fluid dynamic behavior of the particle bed. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Fronza M.,Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg | Lamy E.,Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg | Gunther S.,Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg | Heinzmann B.,Federal University of Santa Maria | And 2 more authors.
Phytochemistry | Year: 2012

Abietane diterpenes, especially those containing quinone moieties, are often reported to have cytotoxic effects on cancer cell lines. They deserve greater attention because several cancer chemotherapeutic agents also possess the quinone structural feature. To date, very little is known about their cytotoxic molecular modes of action. In the present study, five diterpenes, 7 alpha-acetoxyroyleanone, horminone, royleanone, 7-ketoroyleanone and sugiol which have been previously isolated from the medicinal plant Peltodon longipes were shown to possess cytotoxic activity against the human pancreatic cancer cell line MIA PaCa-2. 7 alpha-Acetoxyroyleanone, horminone and royleanone were demonstrated to possess alkylating properties using the nucleophile 4-(4-nitrobenzyl)pyridine. However, no clear correlation between the alkylating properties and cytotoxicity of these diterpenes was observed. Furthermore, the relaxation activity of human DNA topoisomerases I and II was found to be influenced by these compounds, with 7-ketoroyleanone and sugiol being the most active. These two diterpenes preferentially inhibited topoisomerase I and exhibited lower IC 50 values than the classical topoisomerase I inhibitor camptothecin. Molecular docking studies revealed possible interactions of diterpenes with topoisomerase I, indicating that these compounds do not form the drug-enzyme-DNA covalent ternary complex as observed with camptothecin. A binding pocket located at the surface of the DNA-interaction site was proposed. Moreover, the ability of the five diterpenes to generate DNA-strand breaks in single cells was confirmed using the alkaline comet assay. As expected, these diterpenes also influenced cell cycle progression and arrested cells in different phases of the cell cycle, primarily the G1/G0 and S-phases. Interestingly, the diterpenes only exhibited a slight ability to induce apoptotic cell death and failed to generate intracellular reactive oxygen species. These results provide additional understanding of the cytotoxic effects of abietane diterpenes. Depending on their functional groups, we propose that abietane diterpenes utilise different mechanisms to induce cell death. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

de Oliveira J.M.S.,Federal University of Santa Maria
Acta Botanica Brasilica | Year: 2015

Although this study aims to develop an improved method for the preservation of reserve lipids in plant tissues for different uses in plant anatomy, it mostly aims to develop an improved method for the identification of lipid reserves where synthesis or storage occurs. The proposed procedures entail only the utilization of (2-hydroxyethyl)-methacrylate (HEMA) as a dehydration agent. One of the procedures is based on the gradual exchange of aqueous HEMA solutions with increasing concentrations. In another procedure, dehydration and infiltration are induced by the presence of silica gel around a modified microcentrifuge tube containing the aqueous HEMA solution with the plant tissues, thus allowing efficient lipid preservation. Both procedures resulted in simultaneous dehydration and infiltration of the endosperm and embryo of Ricinus communis, while eliminating the use of ethyl alcohol, thus providing better lipid preservation. © 2015, Sociedade Botanica do Brasil. All rights reserved.

We studied the foliose lichenized fungi specimens of Physciaceae collected at the Parque Estadual da Serra da Cantareira at the end of the 1990s and currently deposited in the SP herbarium. Samples of eight species belonging to the genera Dirinaria (Tuck.) Clem, Hyperphyscia Mtill. Arg, and Pyxine Fr. were found and analyzed. Descriptions, comments, illustrations and a key of the species found are presented.

Jacques A.,Federal University of Santa Maria | de Almeida Freitas Cardoso M.C.,Centro Universitario Gerontologia Biomedica pela
Revista Neurociencias | Year: 2011

Objective. To survey the possible speech and language sequelae of patients hospitalized for cerebrovascular accidents in the wards of the Parque Belém Hospital, targeted at increasing the knowledge of public health professionals about this issue and, thus, providing assistance in future referrals and treatments for this group, given the importance of the speech-language pathology professional facing these sequelae. Method. A cross-sectional, observational, individual, not comparing and contemporary, assessing the prevalence of speech and language sequelae (dysphagia and language disorders) in patients affected by cerebrovascular accidents, hospitalized at the Parque Belém Hospital in Porto Alegre, from March to May 2007. Results. A total of 26 (100%) patients with cerebrovascular accidents (88.5% ischemic and 11.5% bleeding) were evaluated, and the prevalence of dysphagia in 42.3% and 30.8% with language impairment was found. The variation of the saturation of these patients was also analyzed, and an incidence of desaturation in 57.7% of the patients was seen. Conclusion. Stroke patients present high prevalence of dysphagia and language impairments, that leads to the relevance of the speech-language pathology professional in at least two of its areas of intervention (orofacial motricity - dysphagia; language impairments).

Gazolla M.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Schneider S.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul
Revista de Economia e Sociologia Rural | Year: 2013

This article aims to study the National Programme for Strengthening Family Agriculture (Pronaf) in their credit lines for costing and investment, in order to investigate their relationships and interfaces with the family farm, using it for a study in Rio Grande do Sul (Middle High Uruguay microregion). The question to be answered is: what kind of building that is generating Pronaf with family farmers? To do this, it was used a methodology based on qualitative, using semi-structured interviews and underpinned by arguments with secondary data from various sources and research. It is concluded that the program has a dual logic. On the one hand, it is financing production activities usual for farmers, such as grain and agricultural commodities. On the other hand, there is a process of economic diversification of productive activities, small livestock, crops and basic food for household consumption.

Da Silva Castiglioni D.,Federal University of Santa Maria | De Lima Da Silva J.V.C.,Federal University of Pernambuco | Dos Santos Azevedo D.,Federal University of Pernambuco
Crustaceana | Year: 2011

The study of relative growth was used to determine the dimensions that best demonstrate the morphological sexual maturity of Ucides cordatus from two mangrove areas (Ariquindá and Mamucabas) of the southern coast of the state of Pernambuco, northeast Brazil. The crabs were collected manually, with a capture effort by one person, during low tide in three different areas (each 25 m 2) during a period of one year from April 2008 to March 2009. Crabs of both sexes were measured for the following dimensions: carapace width (CW); carapace length (CL); major cheliped propodus length (CPL); major cheliped propodus height (CPH); abdomen width (AW) and gonopod length (GL). These variables were subjected to an analysis of K-means clustering followed by a bivariate discriminant analysis, which separated the data into two groups: juveniles and adults. After separation of the groups, each age category was grouped into sixteen size classes of CW and the proportion of adults in each size class was calculated, and fitted to a logistic equation. Subsequently, an interpolation was performed to determine the size at which 50% of the males and females were mature. The relationships that best demonstrated the size at maturity were CPL vs. CW for males (Positive allometry; Ariquindá - juveniles b = 1.27, adults b = 1.41; Mamucabas - juveniles b =1.27, adults b = 1.44) and AW vs. CW for females (Positive allometry; Ariquindá - juveniles b = 1.34, adults b = 1.28; Mamucabas - juveniles b = 1.32, adults b = 1.44). The present analysis indicates that, for these same relationships, 50% of males and females are morphologically mature, at, respectively, 38.0 and 35.4 mm CW in Ariquindá, and 37.3 and 32.9 mm CW in Mamucabas. Positive allometry shown in the female abdomen is related to egg incubation, and the excessive growth observed in the male cheliped must be related to reproductive behaviour, including courtship and intra- or inter-specific agonistic interactions with other males. © 2011 Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden.

Ojeda T.,Federal Institute of Education | Freitas A.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Birck K.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Dalmolin E.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | And 3 more authors.
Polymer Degradation and Stability | Year: 2011

High density polyethylene (HDPE), linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE), and isotactic polypropylene (PP) containing antioxidant additives at low or zero levels were extruded and blown moulded as films. An HDPE/LLDPE commercial blend containing a pro-oxidant additive (i.e., an oxo-biodegradable blend) was taken from the market as supermarket bag. These four polyolefin samples were exposed to natural weathering for one year during which their structure and thermal and mechanical properties were monitored. This study shows that the real durability of olefin polymers may be much shorter than centuries, as in less than one year the mechanical properties of all samples decreased virtually to zero, as a consequence of severe oxidative degradation, that resulted in substantial reduction in molar mass accompanied by a significant increase in content of carbonyl groups. PP and the oxo-bio HDPE/LLDPE blend degraded very rapidly, whereas HDPE and LLDPE degraded more slowly, but significantly in a few months. The main factors influencing the degradability were the frequency of tertiary carbon atoms in the chain and the presence of a pro-oxidant additive. The primary (sterically hindered phenol) and secondary (phosphite) antioxidant additives added to PP slowed but did not prevent rapid photo-oxidative degradation, and in HDPE and LLDPE the secondary antioxidant additive had little influence on the rate of abiotic degradation at the concentrations used here. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Bentlin F.R.S.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Pulgati F.H.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Dressler V.L.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Pozebon D.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul
Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society | Year: 2011

Major, minor and trace elements in wines from wine-producing countries in South America (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Uruguay) were determined. Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) combined with pneumatic and/or ultrasonic nebulization were used. The concentrations of 45 elements (Al, Ag, As, Ba, Be, Bi, Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cu, Dy, Er, Eu, Fe, Gd, Ho, K, La, Li, Lu, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Nd, Ni, P, Pb, Pr, Rb, Sb, Sn, Se, Sm, Sr, Tb, Ti, Tl, Tm, U, V, Yb, and Zn) in 53 red wines were determined. By means of multivariate analysis, the wines could be discriminated according to the country of origin, regardless of the type of grape. The discriminant elements were Tl, U, Li, Rb, and Mg. © 2011 Sociedade Brasileira de Química.

Dos Santos C.L.,Centro Universitario Franciscano | Piquini P.,Federal University of Santa Maria
Journal of Applied Physics | Year: 2012

The one-dimensional character of the nanowires (NWs), with large surface to volume ratios, allows one to accommodate internal strains that would not be achieved in composite bulk materials with large mismatches. This opens a vast field to explore new materials with specific properties. One of the ways to efficiently exploit this characteristic feature of the NWs is through composition modulation. Using first principles calculations, we investigate the structural and electronic properties of core/shell modulated [111] zinc-blende InAs/InP NWs with different core/shell ratios and diameters (from 1.0 to 2.0 nm). Basic properties of these systems like the lattice parameter and the band gaps are seen to vary non-linearly with the core/shell ratio. The presence of an external InP shell is shown to improve the electronic mobility when compared with pure InAs NWs by eliminating the pinning of the Fermi level at InAs-derived surface states, while keeping the electron effective mass as low as in pure InAs NWs with similar diameters. We determine a type-I like band alignment, with a valence band offset depending on the core/shell ratio and a vanishing conduction band offset. We discuss the consequences of these results to the p-type conduction in the InAs core due to remote p-type doping at the InP shell region. © 2012 American Institute of Physics.

Bohrer C.T.,Federal University of Santa Maria | De Vargas E.R.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Science and Public Policy | Year: 2014

This paper proposes an in-depth analysis of some of the constraints on case studies conducted at French university hospital services, aiming to better understand R&D in their services. We begin with an analysis of the intangibility of inputs (knowledge and information) and outputs that confirms the difficulty in recognizing innovations based on the social sciences and humanities. This empirical study verified that there was a diversity of actors who contributed to the generation and increase of the stock of knowledge. Concerning R&D funding, it is noted that R&D in services is not always planned in terms of a formal project. Finally, one could argue that advances in research allow the recognition of different relationships at the same time as the boundaries of R&D in services are expanded, allowing a better measurement of its results. © The Author 2014.

Magalhaes W.L.E.,Embrapa Forestry | Magalhaes W.L.E.,State University of Ponta Grossa | Mattos B.D.,Federal University of Pelotas | Missio A.L.,Federal University of Santa Maria
International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation | Year: 2012

Field tests were used to evaluate the durability of fenceposts treated with 6.5 kg of chromated copper arsenate (CCA) per m 3 of wood. Decay was assessed by qualitative visual analysis and by changes in the chemical structure of the wood. Leaching of CCA from treated fencepost was evaluated by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Moreover, extractives and the acid insoluble lignin were quantified. Treated wood was in perfect condition after 6 yr, in contrast to the untreated wood. Percentages of extractives and lignin increased in the untreated decayed wood. Cr and Cu both migrated from wood to soil, but the concentrations were below those allowed by local environmental law. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Dennehy M.,National University of the South | Quinzani O.V.,National University of the South | Mandolesi S.D.,National University of the South | Burrow R.A.,Federal University of Santa Maria
Journal of Molecular Structure | Year: 2011

The effect of bidentated phosphanes upon thiosaccharinate coordination in ternary silver and copper complexes is analyzed. Three solid silver and copper-diphosphanes complexes with thiosaccharinate as counter anion [Ag(tsac)(dppe)(CH3CN)]n (1), [{Cu(tsac)(dppe)} 2(μ-dppe)]·4CH3CN (2) and Ag2(tsac) 2(dppm)3 (3) (tsac: thiosacharinate anion, dppm: bis(diphenylphosphanyl)methane, dppe: bis(diphenylphosphanyl)ethane) were synthesized and fully characterized by means of spectroscopic techniques (FTIR, UV-Visible, and 1H, 31P and 13CNMR). The crystal structures of complexes 1 and 2 were solved applying single crystal X-ray diffraction techniques. Complex 1 shows a 1-D polynuclear arrangement with dppe molecules bridging Ag(I) centers. Complex 2 is built by dinuclear units with two chelating and one bridging dppe molecules. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Stefanello M.,Federal University of Pampa | Grundling H.A.,Federal University of Santa Maria
International Journal of Adaptive Control and Signal Processing | Year: 2016

This paper presents the proofs of robust stability of a discrete-time robust model reference controller combined with variable structure in an adaptive framework. All the proofs of robust stability are derived for the discrete-time case and are similar to those already existing for the conventional non-combined case. The controller is applied to a SISO LTI plant with unmodeled dynamics of multiplicative and additive types. It is shown that the combined controller can arbitrarily improve the convergence of the error while maintaining the robustness if compared with the non-combined case. Simulation results illustrate the performance of the proposed control strategy. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Pezzini D.T.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Koch R.L.,University of Minnesota
Biocontrol Science and Technology | Year: 2015

The invasive soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura, is an important pest in North American soybean production. Predators can play an important role in suppressing A. glycines. However, current A. glycines management practices rely primarily on broad-spectrum insecticides, which can adversely affect natural enemy populations. An alternative is the use of selective insecticides that control the targeted pest species, while having a reduced impact on natural enemies. In greenhouse and laboratory assays, we tested the effects of lambda-cyhalothrin, two rates of flonicamid, which is currently not registered for use in soybean, and a formulated mixture of pyrthrins and azadirachtin on A. glycines and its natural enemies, Chrysoperla rufilabris (Burmeister), Orius insidiosus (Say) and Hippodamia convergens (Guerin-Meneville). All insecticides significantly reduced A. glycines populations. Lambda-cyhalothrin was highly toxic to the natural enemies tested. Flonicamid showed the lowest toxicity to natural enemies, but the high rate did decrease survival of O. insidiosus. The mixture of pyrethrins and azadirachtin was toxic to larvae of C. rufilabris and adult O. insidiosus. Moreover, the mixture of pyrethrins and azadirachtin increased the developmental time of C. rufilabris. These results indicate potential for flonicamid and the mixture of pyrethrins and azadirachtin to increase compatibility between chemical and biological controls. © 2015, Taylor & Francis.

Omololu P.A.,Federal University of Technology Akurre | Rocha J.B.T.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Kade I.J.,Federal University of Technology Akurre
Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology | Year: 2011

The pharmacological essence of the natural addition of rhamnosyl glucoside on quercetin that is commonly found in nature in medicinal plants is rather obscure. The present study therefore sought to compare the antioxidant activities of both compounds by comparing their ability to decolourise DPPH radicals, reduce Fe3+, chelate Fe2+, prevent deoxyribose degradation and inhibit hepatic thiobarbituric acid reactive substances induced by both Fe2+ and sodium nitroprusside. The results show that quercetin is generally a more potent antioxidant than its rhamnosyl glucoside derivative (rutin). However, rutin exerted a more potent iron-chelating ability than quercetin which diminishes in a time dependent fashion suggesting why it exhibited a reduced inhibitory effect on lipid peroxidation and deoxyribose degradation under harsh prooxidant assault than quercetin. Taken together, we speculate that rutin may have been produced initially in plants as a possible defense mechanism for protection and survival under oxidative assaults and where both flavonoids are found to co-exist in nature, there is a possible synergy in their antioxidant actions. © 2010 Elsevier GmbH.

Farina M.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Rocha J.B.T.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Aschner M.,Vanderbilt University
Life Sciences | Year: 2011

Neurological disorders are common, costly, and can cause enduring disability. Although mostly unknown, a few environmental toxicants are recognized causes of neurological disorders and subclinical brain dysfunction. One of the best known neurotoxins is methylmercury (MeHg), a ubiquitous environmental toxicant that leads to long-lasting neurological and developmental deficits in animals and humans. In the aquatic environment, MeHg is accumulated in fish, which represent a major source of human exposure. Although several episodes of MeHg poisoning have contributed to the understanding of the clinical symptoms and histological changes elicited by this neurotoxicant in humans, experimental studies have been pivotal in elucidating the molecular mechanisms that mediate MeHg-induced neurotoxicity. The objective of this mini-review is to summarize data from experimental studies on molecular mechanisms of MeHg-induced neurotoxicity. While the full picture has yet to be unmasked, in vitro approaches based on cultured cells, isolated mitochondria and tissue slices, as well as in vivo studies based mainly on the use of rodents, point to impairment in intracellular calcium homeostasis, alteration of glutamate homeostasis and oxidative stress as important events in MeHg-induced neurotoxicity. The potential relationship among these events is discussed, with particular emphasis on the neurotoxic cycle triggered by MeHg-induced excitotoxicity and oxidative stress. The particular sensitivity of the developing brain to MeHg toxicity, the critical role of selenoproteins and the potential protective role of selenocompounds are also discussed. These concepts provide the biochemical bases to the understanding of MeHg neurotoxicity, contributing to the discovery of endogenous and exogenous molecules that counteract such toxicity and provide efficacious means for ablating this vicious cycle. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

Chagas P.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Caramori P.,Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul | Galdino T.P.,Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul | Barcellos C.D.S.D.,Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul | And 2 more authors.
Atherosclerosis | Year: 2013

Objective: To verify the association between egg consumption and coronary atherosclerotic burden. Design: Observational study. Setting: Cardiac catheterization laboratory. Participants: Adult patients referred for coronary angiography. Measurements: Socio-demographic data (age, education level, and occupation), cardiovascular risk factors (smoking, systemic hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, and family history of coronary artery disease), and egg-eating habits were assessed using a research questionnaire. Egg consumption was divided into three categories: less than one egg a week; one egg a week; and more than one egg a week. Coronary atherosclerotic burden was assessed by a blinded interventional cardiologist using the Friesinger Score (FS) obtained from the coronary angiography. This score varies from 0 to 15 and evaluated each of thethree main coronary arteries separately. For this analysis, the FS was divided into three categories: 0-4, 5-9, and 10-15. Results: The study sample was composed of 382 adult patients; 241 patients (63.3%) were male. The average age was 60.3±10.8 years (range 23-89 years). The egg-eating category was inversely associated with dyslipidemia (p<0.05) but not with the other cardiovascular risk factors. A significant association was found between egg consumption and FS (p<0.05), showing that patients who ate more than one egg a week had a lower coronary atherosclerotic burden. By multivariate analysis, the atherosclerotic burden was independently associated with sex, age, hypertension and egg consumption. Conclusion: In this observational study of patients undergoing coronary angiography, the consumption of more than one egg per week was associated with a lower coronary atherosclerotic burden. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Kalempa D.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Sharipov F.,Federal University of Parana
International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow | Year: 2012

Acoustic waves propagating through a rarefied gas between two plates induced by both oscillation and unsteady heating of one of them are considered on the basis of a model of the linearized Boltzmann equation. The gas flow is considered as fully established so that the dependence of all quantities on time is harmonical. The problem is solved for several values of two main parameters determining its solution, namely, the gas rarefaction defined as the ratio of the distance between the plates to the equivalent free path of gaseous molecules, and the oscillation parameter given as the ratio of the intermolecular collision frequency to the wave frequency. The reciprocal relation for such flows is obtained and verified numerically. An influence of the gas-surface accommodation coefficients on the wave characteristics is analyzed by employing the Cercignani-Lampis scattering kernel to the boundary conditions. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

Paiva R.C.D.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Buarque D.C.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Clarke R.T.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Collischonn W.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Allasia D.G.,Federal University of Santa Maria
Geophysical Research Letters | Year: 2011

Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) data show lower rainfall over large water bodies in the Brazilian Amazon. Mean annual rainfall (P), number of wet days (rainfall > 2 mm) (W) and annual rainfall accumulated over 3-hour time intervals (P3hr) were computed from TRMM 3B42 data for 1998-2009. Reduced rainfall was marked over the Rio Solimes/Amazon, along most Amazon tributaries and over the Balbina reservoir. In a smaller test area, a heuristic argument showed that P and W were reduced by 5% and 6.5% respectively. Allowing for TRMM 3B42 spatial resolution, the reduction may be locally greater. Analyses of diurnal rainfall patterns showed that rainfall is lowest over large rivers during the afternoon, when most rainfall is convective, but at night and early morning the opposite occurs, with increased rainfall over rivers, although this pattern is less marked. Rainfall patterns reported from studies of smaller Amazonian regions therefore exist more widely. Copyright © 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

Bresciani G.,Autonomous University of Chile | da Cruz I.B.M.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Gonzalez-Gallego J.,University of Leon
Advances in Clinical Chemistry | Year: 2015

Oxidative stress is characterized by imbalanced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and antioxidant defenses. Two main antioxidant systems exist. The nonenzymatic system relies on molecules to directly quench ROS and the enzymatic system is composed of specific enzymes that detoxify ROS. Among the latter, the superoxide dismutase (SOD) family is important in oxidative stress modulation. Of these, manganese-dependent SOD (MnSOD) plays a major role due to its mitochondrial location, i.e., the main site of superoxide (O2•-) production. As such, extensive research has focused on its capacity to modulate oxidative stress. Early data demonstrated the relevance of MnSOD as an O2•- scavenger. More recent research has, however, identified a prominent role for MnSOD in carcinogenesis. In addition, SOD downregulation appears associated with health risk in heart and brain. A single nucleotide polymorphism which alters the mitochondria signaling sequence for the cytosolic MnSOD form has been identified. Transport into the mitochondria was differentially affected by allelic presence and a new chapter in MnSOD research thus begun. As a result, an ever-increasing number of diseases appear associated with this allelic variation including metabolic and cardiovascular disease. Although diet and exercise upregulate MnSOD, the relationship between environmental and genetic factors remains unclear. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.

Ardenghi T.M.,Federal University of Santa Maria
Oral health & preventive dentistry | Year: 2012

To assess the age the of the first dental visit and the association of self-perceived oral health, socioeconomic and clinical indicators with healthcare utilisation in Brazilian preschool children. An epidemiological survey with 455 5- to 59-month-old children was conducted on National Children's Vaccination Day in Santa Maria, RS, Brazil. Data about age and reasons for the first dental visit, healthcare utilisation, socioeconomic status and self-perceived oral health were collected by means of a parental semi-structured questionnaire. Calibrated examiners evaluated the prevalence of dental caries (WHO) and dental trauma. The assessment of the association used Poisson regression models (prevalence ratio; 95% confidence interval [CI]). A total of 24.2% (95% CI: 20.3% to 28.4%) of the study sample had already had a first dental visit. Older children, those with dental caries and dental trauma and whose mothers had a higher level of education were more likely to have gone to the dentist. Children of low socioeconomic status were more likely to have visited public than private healthcare services. The reasons for the first dental visit were associated with clinical indicators of the sample. The distribution of utilisation of the types of oral healthcare services (public or private) varied across the socioeconomic groups. Non-white children with dental caries and dental trauma tended to visit a dentist only for treatment reasons. Socioeconomic and clinical indicators are associated with the use of dental services, indicating the need for strategies to promote public health and reorientation of services that facilitate dental access for preschool children.

Straliotto M.R.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Hort M.A.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Fiuza B.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Rocha J.B.T.,Federal University of Santa Maria | And 3 more authors.
Biochimie | Year: 2013

It has been reported that oxidized LDLs (oxLDL) are involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, and that macrophages as well as other cells of the arterial wall can oxidize LDL in vitro, depending on the balance between intracellular prooxidant generation and antioxidant defense efficiency. Because of their potential beneficial role in preventing atherosclerosis and other oxidative stress-related diseases, organoselenium compounds such as diphenyl diselenide (PhSe)2, are receiving increased attention. In the present work, we investigated the mechanisms underlying the protective effect exerted by (PhSe)2 on oxLDL-mediated effects in murine J774 macrophage-like cells. (PhSe)2 pretreatment reduced atherogenic signaling triggered by oxLDL in macrophages in vitro, namely: ROS generation, disturbance of NO homeostasis, activation of matrix metalloproteinase, foam cell formation, and mitochondrial dysfunction. Moreover, the redox signaling effects of (PhSe) 2 presented herein were accompanied by a downregulation of NF-κB-binding activity. The relatively strong performance of (PhSe) 2 makes it an ideal candidate for further, expanded trials as a new generation of antioxidants for preventing atherosclerotic lesion. © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

Erthal F.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Kotzian C.B.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Simoes M.G.,Sao Paulo State University
Palaios | Year: 2011

This study is the first assessment of mollusk fossil assemblages relative to the compositional fidelity of modern mollusk living and death assemblages. It also shows that the sedimentary record can provide information on the original, non-human-impacted, freshwater malacofauna biodiversity, based on Late Pleistocene shells. The fossil mollusk assemblage from the Touro Passo Formation (Pleistocene-Holocene) was compared to living and death assemblages of the Touro Passo River, southern Brazil, revealing little resemblance between fossil and live-dead species composition. Although the living and death assemblages agree closely in richness, species composition, and species relative abundances (both proportional and rank), the fossil assemblage differs significantly from both modern assemblages in most of these measures. The fossil assemblage is dominated by the native endemic corbiculid bivalve Cyanocyclas limosa and the gastropod Heleobia aff. bertoniana. These are absent in the living assemblages, and both living and death assemblages are dominated by the alien Asiatic corbiculid C. fluminea, which is absent in the fossil assemblage. The fossil assemblage also contains, overall, a higher proportional abundance of relatively thick-shelled species, suggesting a genuine bias against the thinner-and smaller-shelled species. Our results suggest that contemporary environmental changes, such as the introduction of some alien freshwater mollusk species, together with post-burial taphonomic processes, are the main factors leading to the poor fidelity of the fossil assemblage studied. Hence, the taxonomic composition of the Late Pleistocene mollusks from the Touro Passo Formation probably would show greater similarity to present-day assemblages wherever the mollusk biodiversity is not disturbed by human activities. © 2011 SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology).

Ramos M.J.S.,Federal University of Santa Maria
2013 IEEE PES Conference on Innovative Smart Grid Technologies, ISGT LA 2013 | Year: 2013

The reconfiguration of distribution networks can be applied as a tool for planning and operation in order to obtain the most appropriate topology for system operation in steady state. As a result, there is the reduction of energy losses, improvement in voltage profile, increasing of confiability, among others. Within the criteria and assumptions adopted to perform the automatic reconfiguration with safety and effectively, it is necessary to ensure the coordination and selectivity of protective equipment involved in the reconfiguration after the switching and the consequent change of system topology. The methodology developed analyzes the coordination and selectivity of distribution networks involved for each possible solution of reconfiguration system, being the analysis of protection an important criteria to decide by the reconfiguration, besides the minimum criterias of network confiability. © 2013 IEEE.

Haag K.L.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Haag K.L.,University of Basel | Marin P.B.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Graichen D.A.S.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | De La Rue M.L.,Federal University of Santa Maria
Parasitology | Year: 2011

Selfing has been considered the most common mode of reproduction in Echinococcus flatworms. However, population genetic studies on the asexual larval stage involving nuclear co-dominant markers have not always revealed significant heterozygote deficiencies - the expected outcome of a regularly and highly inbred population. In this study, we analysed the genetic structure of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato populations from Southern Brazil during their adult (sexual) stage using 1 mitochondrial and 1 nuclear marker (cox 1 and mdh, respectively). We show that parasite genetic differentiation is largest among definitive hosts (domestic dogs) from different farms, suggesting that transmission is mostly maintained within a farm. Moreover, we show that heterozygote deficiencies are not significant, and we suggest that outbreeding is the most common mode of reproduction of the parasite in that region. © 2010 Cambridge University Press.

Lopes P.A.A.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Ribeiro A.L.B.,University Estadual Of Santa Cruz | Rembold S.B.,University Estadual Of Santa Cruz | Rembold S.B.,Federal University of Santa Maria
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society | Year: 2014

We are able to extend the investigation of the colour-morphology-density-radius relations, for bright and faint galaxies, to R > 3 × R200 and to very low density regions, probing the transition region between cluster and field galaxies and finding a smooth variation between these two populations. We investigate the environmental variation of galaxy properties (and their relations), such as colour, spectral type and concentration. Our sample comprises 6415 galaxies that were previously selected as cluster members from 152 systems with z lt; 0.100. This sample is further divided in complete subsamples of 5106 galaxies with Mr lt; M* + 1 (from clusters at z lt; 0.100) and 1309 galaxies with M* + 1 ≤ Mr lt; M* + 3 (from objects at z lt; 0.045). We characterize the environment as a function of the local galaxy density and global cluster related parameters, such as radial distance, substructure, X-ray luminosity and velocity dispersion. For a sample of field galaxies we also trace their environmental dependence using a local galaxy density estimate. Our main findings are the following. (i) The fraction of discs is generally higher than the ones for blue and star-forming galaxies, indicating a faster transformation of colour and star formation compared to structural parameters. (ii) Regarding the distance to the cluster centre we find a small variation in the galaxy populations outside the virial radius. Once within that radius the fractions of each population change fast, decreasing even faster within R ~ 0.3R200. (iii) We also find a small increase in the fraction of blue faint galaxies within R ~ 0.4R200, before decreasing again to the most central bin. (iv) Our results do not indicate a significant dependence on cluster mass, except for the disc fraction in the core of clusters. (v) The relations between galaxy properties also point to no dependence on cluster mass, except for the scatter of the colour-stellar mass relation. Our results corroborate a scenario on which pre-processing in groups leads to a strong evolution in galaxy properties, before they are accreted by large clusters. © 2013 The Authors. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society.

Farret F.A.,Federal University of Santa Maria
Green Energy and Technology | Year: 2013

Photovoltaic electricity (PV) is produced by semiconductor devices capable of directly converting the incident solar energy into DC current with a theoretical efficiency varying from 3 to 31 %. Such efficiencies will depend on the manufacturing technology, incident light spectrum, panel tilt, cell temperature, panel design, surface deposits, shadows, and materials on the solar cell. The photovoltaic electric system is usually constituted by many photovoltaic solar cells arranged in modules or arrays of modules. Many algorithms of control and power electronics arrangements have been proposed in the literature to operate such systems going from interconnections of individual cells to the connection of a single module or groups of them to the grid. Electronically, interconnected panels can be adapted to best suit a given situation like operation under intermittent shadows, network surges, load insertion, and other peculiarities. This chapter includes power electronics, digital controls, sun tracking, and remote monitoring as the basis for the modern PV production of electricity from solar radiation.

Vizzotto J.K.,Federal University of Santa Maria
Proceedings - 2013 Workshop-School on Theoretical Computer Science, WEIT 2013 | Year: 2013

In this article we review the concept of quantum computing and briefly discuss the state-of-art and some actual challenges in the field of software (i.e. programming languages and algorithms) for quantum computing. © 2013 IEEE.

The objective of the present study was to identify the cognitive and health conditions of elderly participants in community center groups in a northern city in Rio Grande do Sul. The study is a descriptive cross-sectional research, performed with 85 elderly participants attending community center groups. Two instruments were used for data collection. One instrument gathered sociodemographic data and included the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Descriptive statistics were used in data analysis. Results indicated a female predominance 79 (92.9%), with 52 participants within the age bracket 60-69 years (61.2%); 46 were widowed (54.1%), 45 had four to seven years of formal education (52.9%) and 53 were living with companions (62.4%). Hypertension and varicose veins, in addition to fall events 34 (40%) stood out among the diseases/conditions determined to affect participants in this study. The MMSE demonstrated that 20 (23.6%) of the elderly people presented with cognitive decline. Results point out the need for guided interventions to maintain functional capacity and autonomy in the elderly.

Riffel R.A.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Vale T.B.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Vale T.B.,Federal University of Fluminense | Storchi-Bergmann T.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | McGregor P.J.,Australian National University
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society | Year: 2014

We present emission-line flux distributions and ratios for the inner ≈200 pc of the narrowline region (NLR) of the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1068, using observations obtained with the Gemini Near-infrared Integral Field Spectrograph (NIFS) in the J, H and K bands at a spatial resolution of ≈10 pc and spectral resolution of ≈5300. The molecular gas emission - traced by the K-band H2 emission lines - outlines an off-centred circumnuclear ring with a radius of ≈100 pc showing thermal excitation. The ionized gas emission lines show flux distributions mostly outlining the previously known [O III] λ5007 ionization bi-cone. But while the flux distributions in the HI and He II emission lines are very similar to that observed in [OIII], the flux distribution in the [Fe II] emission lines is more extended and broader than a cone close to the nucleus, showing a 'double bowl' or 'hourglass' structure. This difference is attributed to the fact that the [Fe II] emission, besides coming from the fully ionized region, comes also from the more extended partially ionized regions, in gas excited mainly by X-rays from the active galactic nucleus. A contribution to the [Fe II] emission from shocks along the bi-cone axis to north-east and south-west of the nucleus is also supported by the enhancement of the [Fe II](1.2570 μm)/[P II](1.1885 μm) and [Fe II](1.2570 μm)/Paβ emission-line ratios at these locations and is attributed to the interaction of the radio jet with the NLR. The mass of ionized gas in the inner 200 pc of NGC 1068 is MHII ≈ 2.2 × 104Mȯ, while the mass of the H2 emitting gas is onlyMH2 ≈ 29Mȯ. Taking into account the dominant contribution of the cold molecular gas, we obtain an estimate of the total molecular gas mass of Mcold ≈ 2× 107Mȯ. © 2014 The Authors. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society.

Toni C.,Federal University of Santa Maria
Journal of applied toxicology : JAT | Year: 2010

Cyprinus carpio were exposed under field conditions to 20.87 microg l(-1) of commercial herbicide bispyribac-sodium (Nominee, SC), during 7, 21 and 72 days. Enzymatic parameters such as catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities, as well as thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and protein carbonyl contents were studied in different tissues. After 7 days of exposure, GST activity decreased. At the same period, brain AChE activity increased, but a reduction of activity was observed in muscle tissue. Brain TBARS levels increased at 7 days. After 21 days of exposure liver CAT levels and muscle AChE activities decreased. In the same period, liver protein carbonyl and muscle TBARS increased. After 72 days of exposure in the field, AChE activity was reduced in both brain and muscle. Protein carbonyl contents in liver and brain TBARS levels increased. Muscle AChE activity, TBARS and protein carbonyl can be used as biomarkers of exposure to the herbicide bispyribac-sodium. This study demonstrates effects of exposure to bispyribac-sodium under rice field conditions on oxidative stress parameters in tissues of Cyprinus carpio. (c) 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Soares K.P.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Pimenta R.S.,Tropical Plantas e Paisagismo | Guimaraes C.A.,Rua Carneiro da Rocha
Ciencia Florestal | Year: 2013

Two new species of Syagrus Mart. (Arecaceae) from Brazil are described and illustrated in this article: first, Syagrus pompeoi K. Soares & R. Pimenta, a species related to Syagrus procumbens Noblick & Lorenzi, from which it differs by having a caespitose habit, by the greater length of the rachis of leaves (33-50 cm), more pinnae on each side (8-15), leaflet almost membranaceous with many transverse ribs visible, as well as longer inflorescence peduncle (10 to 18 cm). The second one, Syagrus santosii K. Soares & C. A. Guim., related to Syagrus schyzophylla (Mart.) Becc., from which it differs by having larger fruit (2.9 to 4.6 x 2.6 to 3.8 cm), with epicarp and mesocarp usually split at the apex when ripe, bigger endocarp (2.7 to 4.2 x 2.4 to 3 cm) with homogeneous endosperm, greater amount of pinnae on each side of the leaf and larger pistillate flowers.

Alberto E.E.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Nascimento V.D.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Braga A.L.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society | Year: 2010

This review covers the past decade of intensive research on the design, synthesis and screening of organoselenides and tellurides as catalyst able to mimic the activity of the selenoenzyme glutathione peroxidase (GPx). This important enzyme forms part of the detoxification system in humans which deals with harmful peroxides and their byproducts formed during oxygen metabolism. Several strategies to enhance the GPx-like activity of compounds such as diselenides, selenides and tellurides have been proposed in recent years. Different mechanisms of action of these compounds are also presented in this review highlighting new advances in this exciting research field. © 2010 Sociedade Brasileira de Química.

The connected fragments of submontane and alluvial deciduous forests are present along the topographic gradient with large pedological and geomorphological variations. In order to understand the variations of ecological guilds and geographical contingent of forest community in a watershed, 200 plots of 100 2 divided into 40 sampling points with five plots each were distributed from the headwaters to the floodplain of the Jacuí River. In each sampling unit were identified and measured all woody plants with diameter at breast height ≥ 5 cm. From the total sample was performed a cluster analysis of floristic similarity, resulting in three forest communities. These were termed formation, submontane and alluvial, and the area dominated by both formations. For the total sample and the groups was determined the percentage contribution of species and individuals, by classification of ecological guilds of dispersal of seeds and regeneration and geographic quotas. The geographic contingent composition of forest communities was dominated by species of wide distribution. The patterns of ecological guilds were different between groups. However, all groups revealed higher contribution of zoocoric species.

Lara I.V.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Zanella I.,Centro Universitario Franciscano | De Souza Filho A.G.,Federal University of Ceara | Binotto Fagan S.,Centro Universitario Franciscano
Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics | Year: 2014

The effects of attaching COOH groups at different sites and in various concentrations on electronic and structural properties of (8,0) single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) were investigated using ab initio calculations. The binding energies and the charge transfers between the COOH functional groups and the tube were calculated for several configurations and a novel feature in the electronic structure of these groups was observed. The electronic character of these systems can be modulated by playing with the concentration and the position of the carboxyl groups bonded on the tube wall. The carboxyl groups bound to different carbon atom sub-lattices are more hybridized than those bound in the same one. These results suggested that SWNT-COOH systems are a playground for engineering electronic properties through a proper chemical functionalization which exploit both the attachment site and concentration of functional groups. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014.

Sousa F.D.R.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Sousa F.D.R.,Catholic University of Brasilia | Elmoor-Loureiro L.M.A.,Catholic University of Brasilia
Check List | Year: 2013

Protected areas are designed to maintain environmental conditions that favor the occurrence of a wide variety of taxa. However, few studies have devoted attention to inventories of biota in these areas. In this study, we provide a checklist of cladocerans for the poorly studied Sempre Vivas National Park, Minas Gerais state. Samples were collected in lotic and lentic environments, with a total of 27 species being recorded and the highest contribution coming from the Chydoridae family (21 spp.). Minas Gerais state is widely studied in relation to cladoceran fauna; nevertheless, the results indicate three new records. The genus Monospilus was reported for the first time in the Neotropical region. © 2013 Check List and Authors.

Rampelotto P.H.,National Institute for Space Research | Rampelotto P.H.,Federal University of Santa Maria
Sustainability | Year: 2010

In the last decades, substantial changes have occurred regarding what scientists consider the limits of habitable environmental conditions. For every extreme environmental condition investigated, a variety of microorganisms have shown that not only can they tolerate these conditions, but that they also often require these extreme conditions for survival. Microbes can return to life even after hundreds of millions of years. Furthermore, a variety of studies demonstrate that microorganisms can survive under extreme conditions, such as ultracentrifugation, hypervelocity, shock pressure, high temperature variations, vacuums, and different ultraviolet and ionizing radiation intensities, which simulate the conditions that microbes could experience during the ejection from one planet, the journey through space, as well as the impact in another planet. With these discoveries, our knowledge about the biosphere has grown and the putative boundaries of life have expanded. The present work examines the recent discoveries and the principal advances concerning the resistance of microorganisms to extreme environmental conditions, and analyzes its contributions to the development of the main themes of astrobiology: the origins of life, the search for extraterrestrial life, and the dispersion of life in the Universe. © 2010 by the authors.

This study aimed to describe the student experience to integrate an international academic mobility program during undergraduate nursing. It is reported academic experience in Portugal, Algarve University, made possible by the Federal University of Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The experience of exchange performed within six months, enabled the acquisition of new scientific knowledge and cultural rights, including innovations in healthcare technology, development of research and academic links. As contributions are expected to stimulate and intensify the international mobility especially at undergraduate level, considering its importance to the improvement of academic excellence and the Brazilian higher education through scientific and cultural exchange abroad.

The following paper presents the results of an exploratory-descriptive research, applying a qualitative approach. The main goal was to understand the perceptions of women in puerperium concerning the factors that influence breast feeding. The study has been carried out in a university hospital. Ten women in immediate puerperium participated. The data were collected through semi-structured interviews. The analytical procedure adopted was content analysis. The results pointed out categories related to biological and cultural factors. The research has reinforced the importance of knowing the main aspects that interfere with breast feeding and, thus, enabling health professionals applying new strategies in the construction of actions of health education, valuing the many dimensions that compose this experience.

Goettems M.L.,Federal University of Pelotas | Ardenghi T.M.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Demarco F.F.,Federal University of Pelotas | Romano A.R.,Federal University of Pelotas | Torriani D.D.,Federal University of Pelotas
Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology | Year: 2012

Objectives The purpose of the study was to investigate the influence of a child's clinical condition; maternal characteristics such as dental anxiety and dental visit pattern; socioeconomic conditions; and maternal perception of the child's oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) on a child's use of dental care services. Methods A cross-sectional study of 608 mother-child dyads was conducted during the Children's Immunization Campaign in Pelotas, Brazil. Mothers answered a questionnaire regarding their use of dental services, dental anxiety (Dental Anxiety Scale), socioeconomic status, and perception of their children's OHRQoL (the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale). Clinical examination of the children was performed to assess dental caries (dmf-t). Associations between the above-mentioned factors and child use of dental services were assessed using Poisson regression models (prevalence ratio [PR]; 95% CI; P â 0.05). Results The majority of children (79.3%) had never had a dental appointment and of the children who had visited a dentist, 55 (43.65%) presented with untreated dental caries at the time of examination. More than half the mothers (60.2%) did not visit a dentist regularly. In the final model, low schooling level of mothers (PR, 0.64) and irregular visits to a dentist by the mother (PR, 0.48) were factors because of which a child did not have a dental appointment. Children who had experienced pain (PR, 1.56), those who had poor OHRQoL (PR, 1.49), and older children (PR, 2.14) visited a dentist with higher frequency. Conclusions Use of dental care services by preschool children was low, and treatment was neglected even among children who had visited a dentist. Children of mothers with low schooling level who do not visit a dentist regularly were at greater risk of not receiving dental care. Maternal perception of their child's oral health motivated visits to the dentist. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

Wagner R.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Franco M.R.B.,University of Campinas
Food Analytical Methods | Year: 2012

The aim of this study was to determine the experimental conditions for extracting volatile compounds present in the headspace of a salami sample by solid phase microextraction (Carboxen/PDMS fiber), monitoring the individual aromas of the extracts directly in order to maintain the original aroma of the product. Additionally, extracts were analyzed in gas chromatograph equipped with flame ionization detector and mass spectrometer (GC-FID and GC/MS). Volatile compounds were separated in polar phase capillary column (DB-Wax). Response Surface Methodology was used to explain the effects of both time and temperature on the salami aroma and on the instrumental measurements. Trained judges analyzed the intensity of a characteristic aroma from 12 salami extracts directly in olfactometer coupled with a gas chromatograph. The sensory results generated a multivariate statistical model (R 2 = 0. 72, p < 0. 05) that included linear time and temperature terms. The optimal conditions were determined to be an extraction period of 45 min at 50 °C, as the resulting extract received a mean sensory score of 7. 15. This method allowed us to obtain a highly representative aroma of the product in an adequate time. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

The aim of this research was to determine the effect of shoot growth restriction in the dry matter partitioning and minituber production of potato plants grown in a closed soilless system. Minitubers of the cultivars ‘Macaca’ and ‘Asterix’ were planted in the greenhouse in the density of 100 hills m-2, during autumn and spring growing seasons. Growth restriction levels were gotten by pruning shoots at 10, 20 and 30cm height or without pruning. The growth restriction levels were identified by their respective leaf area index. The experiment was a factorial (cultivars x growth restriction x growing season) in a random design, with four replications. Growth restriction affected the dry matter production of potato plants in both growing seasons and cultivars. Pruning potato plants at 30cm is a feasible technique to control leaf area index and it has lower effect on harvest index and number than in dry matter production of minitubers. Growth restriction does not change dry matter partitioning of potato plants grown in soilless system. © 2015, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria. All rights reserved.

Da Silva A.S.,Santa Catarina State University | Martins D.B.,University of Cruz Alta | Soares J.F.,University of Sao Paulo | Franca R.T.,Federal University of Santa Maria
Parasitology Research | Year: 2013

Rangeliosis is a hemoparasitosis that affects dogs in Brazil. The disease has similar clinical and pathological characteristics to other hemo-protozoan infections. So, this paper has aimed to report a clinical case of infection by Rangelia vitalii in one dog, focusing on the need for the differential diagnosis to other infectious diseases. The animal showed apathy, anemia, thrombocytopenia, alteration of leucogram, and bleeding. The first difference was the observation of parasites in blood smears, where R. vitalii was visualized within leukocytes and erythrocytes. The confirmation of the clinical diagnosis was made by molecular test to R. vitalii. The dog was debilitated, and died a few hours after treatment at the veterinary hospital. At necropsy, splenomegaly, lymphadenopathy, and mild jaundice in the abdominal viscera were found. This article draws attention to the need for the parasitological, serological, and molecular to differential diagnosis in order to differentiate from other clinically similar disorders. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Bravo J.M.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Allasia D.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Paz A.R.,Federal University of Paraiba | Collischonn W.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Tucci C.E.M.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul
Journal of Hydrologic Engineering | Year: 2012

This paper presents a detailed modeling of rainfall-runoff processes and flow routing along a complex large-scale region, the Upper Paraguay River Basin (UPRB), encompassing a drainage area of approximately 600,000 km2, which extends over Brazil, Paraguay, and Bolivia. Within the UPRB lies the Pantanal, the world's largest wetland, with extraordinary biodiversity and great ecologic value, but which currently is threatened by anthropogenic activities. A conceptual model was applied with two main components: (1) simulation of the basin and part of the Paraguay River tributaries by means of the distributed large-scale hydrological model MGB-IPH using simpler flow routing methods; and (2) simulation of the main drainage network, approximately 4,800 km of river reaches, with a one-dimensional hydrodynamic model. Despite the data scarcity, complexity, and the intricate river drainage network of the region, the coupled model was able to represent the hydrological regime of the basin. Comparisons between observed and calculated hydrographs showed a good model skill in representing the flow regime of the upper Paraguay River and its tributaries, highlighting its value as a tool for understanding and predicting the system behavior. The proposed modeling of the hydrological processes of the UPRB, with a detail never presented before, provides a valuable tool for understanding ecosystem functioning and assessing its resilience to anthropogenic pressure, climate change, and climate variability. © 2012 American Society of Civil Engineers.

Suleiman A.K.A.,Federal University of Pampa | Manoeli L.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Boldo J.T.,Federal University of Pampa | Pereira M.G.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Roesch L.F.W.,Federal University of Pampa
Systematic and Applied Microbiology | Year: 2013

The interaction between plants, soil and microorganisms is considered to be the major driver of ecosystem functions and any modification of plant cover and/or soil properties might affect the microbial structure, which, in turn, will influence ecological processes. Assuming that soil properties are the major drivers of soil bacterial diversity and structure within the same soil type, it can be postulated whether plant cover causes significant shifts in soil bacterial community composition. To address this question, this study used 16S rRNA pyrosequencing to detect differences in diversity, composition and/or relative abundance of bacterial taxa from an area covered by pristine forest, as well as eight-year-old grassland surrounded by the same forest. It was shown that a total of 69% of the operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were shared between environments. Overall, forest and grassland samples presented the same diversity and the clustering analysis did not show the occurrence of very distinctive bacterial communities between environments. However, 11 OTUs were detected in statistically significant higher abundance in the forest samples but in lower abundance in the grassland samples, whereas 12 OTUs occurred in statistically significant higher abundance in the grassland samples but in lower abundance in the forest samples. The results suggested the prevalence of a resilient core microbial community that did not suffer any change related to land use, soil type or edaphic conditions. The results illustrated that the history of land use might influence present-day community structure. © 2012 Elsevier GmbH.

Jacob-Lopes E.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Franco T.T.,University of Campinas
Journal of CO2 Utilization | Year: 2013

The objective of this study was to develop an integrated system of biotransformation of carbon dioxide in oil refineries. The liquid and gaseous wastes from oil refining were considered for the cultivation of Aphanothece microscopica Nägeli in a bubble column photobioreactor. Growth kinetics, carbon dioxide removal and oxygen release rates, carbon balance, lipid production and biofuel quality were determined. The results showed the potential use of oil refinery wastes in microalgae-based systems under optimized culture conditions. The maximum specific growth rate was 1.4 day-1 and the maximum carbon dioxide elimination capacity was 22.9 mg/L min. Each CO 2 mass unit bioconverted resulted in approximately 0.75 O2 of mass units released. Carbon balance analyses indicated that a small fraction (3.64%) of the carbon dioxide is fixed into a biomass form. Volatile organic compounds (92.0%) were the main products of carbon dioxide transformation in the photobioreactor, in such conditions. For the production of biodiesel, it is possible to obtain 0.08 glipid/L day with this process. The quality properties of the biodiesel were an ester content of 99.7%, a cetane number of 51.3, an iodine value of 79.9 gI2/100 g, a degree of insaturation of 65.3% and a cold filter plugging point of 24.9 °C. Based on these results, the process developed could be considered a promising emerging biorefinery platform of waste-material-utilization type. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Lara I.V.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Zanella I.,Centro Universitario Franciscano | Fagan S.B.,Centro Universitario Franciscano
Chemical Physics | Year: 2014

The dependence of the structural and the electronic properties of functionalized (5, 5) single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) were investigated through ab initio density functional simulations when the carboxyl group is bonded on the flatter or curved regions. Radial deformations result in diameter decrease of up to 20 per cent of the original size, which was the limit reduction that maintains the SWNT functionalized structure. Changes on the electronic structure were observed due to the symmetry break of the SWNT caused by both the carboxyl group and the C-C bond distortions resulted by the radial deformation. It is observed that the functionalization process is specially favored by the sp3 hybridization induced on the more curved region of the deformed SWNT. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Goncalves P.B.,Federal University of Santa Maria
Journal of ovarian research | Year: 2014

BACKGROUND: Estradiol (E2) receptors mediate E2 effects on cell proliferation and apoptosis under normal and pathological conditions. However, the mechanisms involved in E2 signaling are not completely understood. The objectives in this study were to evaluate the expression of estrogen receptors (ESRs) during follicular selection in cattle, and the effect of intrafollicular injection of fulvestrant (an antagonist of ESRs) on follicular development and transcript abundance in granulosa cells.METHODS: Granulosa cells were obtained from the two largest follicles around follicular deviation, after FSH treatment and after intrafollicular injection of fulvestrant. Ovarian follicular dynamics monitored by ultrasonography and quantitative real time PCR were used to validate the in vivo model and investigate the effects of FSH supplementation or ESR blockade on mRNA expression of estradiol-related genes.RESULTS: ESR1 and ESR2 were expressed in granulosa cells of both dominant (F1) and subordinate (F2) follicles, but their transcripts levels were higher in F1 than F2 after follicular deviation. FSH treatment maintained mRNA levels of both ESR1 and ESR2 in F2 follicles at similar levels observed in F1 follicles. Intrafollicular injection of 100 μM fulvestrant inhibited follicular growth and decreased CYP19A1 mRNA levels. Transcript levels for both ESR1 and ESR2 were not affected by fulvestrant injection. Analyses of FSH-regulated genes revealed that ESRs inhibition in the dominant follicle decreased the transcript levels of the GJA1 but not those of PRKAR2B, MRO or LRP11 genes.CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that: both ESR1 and ESR2 are regulated during follicular deviation and dominance in cattle and in response to FSH treatment, and ESRs are required for normal gene expression and development of the dominant follicle. Furthermore, we have validated an in vivo model to study estrogen signaling during follicular development that allows paracrine signaling between different follicular cells in a physiological endocrine environment.

The habitat loss or fragmentation and reduced connectivity between habitats are common features in areas with roads. These impacts have close liaison with trampling of wild vertebrates. This study aimed to identify and quantify the factors that influence directly and indirectly these accidents. Four sections (North, South, East and West) at 100 km of highway BR 158, 287, 392 and RST 241 were monitored, through a different route every week in each trip, totaling 48 in the period from December 2008 to December 2009. The starting point of the routes was the outskirts of Santa Maria, zero km of the route, returning by the same BR occurred after traveling 100 km on the highway. 829 individuals were recorded, belonging to four classes, 43 families and 83 species. The percentage of roadkill mammals was 51.6%; 31.9% of birds; 11.7% of reptiles; and 4.7% of amphibians. The sampling effort of 9600 km resulted in an average of 0.086 roadkill/km. The most roadkilled vertebrates were in the class of mammals the possum-to-ear-White (Didelphis albiventris), 135 records; in birds, eared dove (Zenaida auriculata), with 39 records; in reptiles, tegu lizard (Tupinambis merianae), with 42 records; and amphibians in the frog cururu (Rhinella icterica), with 20 animals. The events were affected by seasonality, type of matrix surrounding the accident, the rainfall and temperature. No effective mitigation measures were identified on the slopes. Installation media for the implementation of highways by wildlife in identified critical areas was suggested. However, more studies are needed in order to identify specific features of the highways and species that are present in the region. © 2012 by Unisinos.

Farina M.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Avila D.S.,Federal University of Pampa | Da Rocha J.B.T.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Aschner M.,Vanderbilt University
Neurochemistry International | Year: 2013

Essential metals are crucial for the maintenance of cell homeostasis. Among the 23 elements that have known physiological functions in humans, 12 are metals, including iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn). Nevertheless, excessive exposure to these metals may lead to pathological conditions, including neurodegeneration. Similarly, exposure to metals that do not have known biological functions, such as mercury (Hg), also present great health concerns. This review focuses on the neurodegenerative mechanisms and effects of Fe, Mn and Hg. Oxidative stress (OS), particularly in mitochondria, is a common feature of Fe, Mn and Hg toxicity. However, the primary molecular targets triggering OS are distinct. Free cationic iron is a potent pro-oxidant and can initiate a set of reactions that form extremely reactive products, such as Oh. Mn can oxidize dopamine (DA), generating reactive species and also affect mitochondrial function, leading to accumulation of metabolites and culminating with OS. Cationic Hg forms have strong affinity for nucleophiles, such as -SH and -SeH. Therefore, they target critical thiol- and selenol-molecules with antioxidant properties. Finally, we address the main sources of exposure to these metals, their transport mechanisms into the brain, and therapeutic modalities to mitigate their neurotoxic effects. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Ferreira F.D.,State University of Maringa | Kemmelmeier C.,State University of Maringa | Arroteia C.C.,State University of Maringa | Da Costa C.L.,State University of Maringa | And 6 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2013

Aflatoxins are highly toxic, mutagenic, teratogenic and carcinogenic mycotoxins. Consumption of aflatoxin-contaminated food and commodities poses serious hazards to the health of humans and animals. Turmeric, Curcuma longa L.; is a native plant of Southeast Asia and has antimicrobial, antioxidant and antifungal properties. This paper reports the antiaflatoxigenic activities of the essential oil of C. longa and curcumin. The medium tests were prepared with the oil of C. longa, and the curcumin standard at concentrations varied from 0.01% to 5.0%. All doses of the essential oil of the plant and the curcumin standard interfered with mycotoxin production. Both the essential oil and curcumin significantly inhibited the production of aflatoxins; the 0.5% level had a greater than 96% inhibitory effect. The levels of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) production were 1.0 and 42.7 μg/mL, respectively, for the samples treated with the essential oil of C. longa L. and curcumin at a concentration of 0.5%. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Brandao E.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Tijs E.,Microflown Technologies | Lenzi A.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | De Bree H.-E.,Microflown Technologies
Acta Acustica united with Acustica | Year: 2011

In this paper the measurement, in situ or under free-field conditions, of the surface impedance and absorption coefficient is investigated. Numerical simulations of the measurement of impedance above a locally reactive surface is performed with the Boundary Element Method (BEM). Experiments are also made in a semi-anechoic chamber and in a regular office room. Three calculation methods used to obtain the surface impedance of an absorbent surface are described and compared, two of them being iterative. The first, referred to herein as the "q-term", relies on an exact description of the sound field above an infinite locally-reactive plane. The second, the "F-term", relies on an approximation for large values of the argument k |r2| in its equations. The third, the "Plane Wave Approximation (PWA)", is a simplification of the spherical wave reflection which considers that the reflected wave has its amplitude and phase changed by a simple planar reflection coefficient. The "F-term" and the "Plane Wave Approximation" methods also assume an infinite locally-reactive plane. The three calculation methods are compared, the differences in the found results are discussed. The three methods are compared mainly for small sound-source to sensor distances (|r2| = 0.3 m) and it is seen that they tend to converge as this distance increase. This comparison is relevant to in situ impedance measurements, since a bad choice of the calculation method may lead to a poor result. © S. Hirzel Verlag. EAA.

The study was conducted to evaluate productive and reproductive performance of 52 crossbred Charolais × Nellore beef cows on natural pasture. The experiment started on August 04, 2003, when pregnant cows were uniformly distributed by weight and body condition at two stocking rates (CA280 = 280 kg LW/ha and CA360 = 360 kg LW/ha). Early weaning was imposed to 26 cows when calves reached average of 100 days of age and conventional weaning, when calves were approximately 180 days old. Cows submitted to early weaning had average daily gain higher than cows submitted to conventional weaning (0.539 vs. 0.257 kg/day, respectively). There was significant interaction between weaning ages and periods for body condition of cows. Cows submitted to early weaning presented higher body condition at conventional weaning (3.5 vs. 2.8) and at the end of mating period (3.0 vs. 2.8) than the conventional weaning. The stocking rate did not significantly affect the average daily gain and body condition of cows (CA280 = 0.101 kg/day, 2.7 and CA360 = 0.214 kg/day, 2.7, respectively). The pregnancy rate of cows under early weaning (60.0%) was significantly better than for those under conventional weaning (12.0%); however, the stocking rates did not differ (CA280 = 7.7% vs. CA360 = 15.4%). In calves submitted to early weaning, average daily gain and live weight at 180 days were significantly lower than those of calves at conventional weaning. The post-partum management of cows and two ages of weaning calves evaluated did not affect the development of calves until 14 months of age. © 2011 Sociedade Brasileira de Zootecnia.

Ritter C.G.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Fiss D.V.C.,Experimental Pathology Laboratory | Borges Da Costa J.A.T.,Federal University of Santa Maria | De Carvalho R.R.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | And 2 more authors.
Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology | Year: 2013

Background Extra-facial melasma is a prevalent dermatosis in some populations with special characteristics in relation to its clinical aspects and probable etiopathogenic factors. Few studies have attempted to address this alteration of pigmentation, which has become a challenge in clinical Dermatology. Objective To assess the clinical histopathological and immunohistochemical characteristics of extra-facial melasma, comparing affected, and unaffected sites. Methods Case-control study with 45 patients in each group (melasma and disease-free volunteers), assessing their clinical characteristics. In 36 patients, biopsies were performed on the lesion and the normal perilesional skin. Specimens were stained with HE and Fontana-Masson, and melanocytes analysed by immunohistochemistry. Objective measurements were accomplished by a specifically designed image analysis software. Results The melasma group had a mean age ± SD of 56.67 ± 8 years, the majority of them were women (86.7%) and 82.1% of the female cases had reached menopause. There were no significant differences between groups in terms of presence of comorbidities, use of medications or hormone therapies. For extra-facial melasma patients, family history of this dermatose and of previous facial melasma was significantly higher than in the control group (P < 0.05). The HE staining showed increased rectification and basal hyperpigmentation, solar elastosis, and collagen degeneration in the pigmented area (P < 0.05). There was a significant increase in melanin density in melasma biopsies, but the immunohistochemical tests did not detect a difference between the groups in terms of number of melanocytes. Conclusion Extra-facial melasma appears to be related to menopause, family history, and personal history of facial melasma, in the studied population. Histopathology revealed a pattern similar to what has been described for facial melasma, with signs of solar degeneration, and a similar number of melanocytes, when comparing patients, and controls, suggesting that the hyperpigmentation is most likely the result of abnormal melanin production or distribution. © 2012 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

Farret M.M.B.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Da Luz Vieira G.,Florianopolis | De Lima E.M.S.,Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul
American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics | Year: 2015

This article describes the orthodontic relapse with mandibular incisor fenestration in a 36-year-old man who had undergone orthodontic treatment 21 years previously. The patient reported that his mandibular 3 × 3 bonded retainer had been partially debonded and broken 4 years earlier. The mandibular left lateral incisor remained bonded to the retainer and received the entire load of the incisors; consequently, there was extreme labial movement of the root, resulting in dental avulsion. As part of the treatment, the root was repositioned lingually using a titanium-molybdenum segmented archwire for 8 months, followed by endodontic treatment, an apicoectomy, and 4 months of alignment and leveling of both arches. The treatment outcomes were excellent, and the tooth remained stable, with good integrity of the mesial, distal, and lingual alveolar bones and periodontal ligament. The 1-year follow-up showed good stability of the results. © 2015 American Association of Orthodontists.

Martins C.R.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Pelegrini A.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Matheus S.C.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Petroski E.L.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Revista de Psiquiatria do Rio Grande do Sul | Year: 2010

Objectives: To identify the prevalence of body image dissatisfaction and anorexia and bulimia symptoms in adolescent girls from the city of Santa Maria, Brazil, and to determine the association of body image dissatisfaction with nutritional status, body fat, and anorexia and bulimia symptoms. Method: We investigated 258 adolescent girls (11 to 13 years) from public schools. The Body Shape Questionnaire and the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) were used. Body mass index and percent body fat were calculated. The chi-square test and logistic regression were used. Results: The prevalence of body image dissatisfaction was 25.3% and the prevalence of anorexia and bulimia symptoms was 27.6%. Body image dissatisfaction was associated with nutritional status, with overweight girls presenting higher dissatisfaction (OR = 2.64; 95%CI 1.02-6.83). Conclusions: The prevalence rates of body image dissatisfaction and anorexia and bulimia symptoms were high. Nutritional status seems to be a better predictor of body image dissatisfaction. Copyright © Revista de Psiquiatria do Rio Grande do Sul - APRS.

Knowledge of the feeding ecology of fish is essential for understanding the functioning of freshwater communities. Here we report on an analysis of the diet of Pachyurus bonariensis Steindachner, 1879, a freshwater sciaenid. Fish were collected bimonthly from December 1999 to January 2002 at three locations along the Ibicuí River in the Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. At each location, the specimens were collected in both lentic and lotic environments. The stomachs of 324 fish were analysed for contents and fullness. The main items were Ephemeroptera, Diptera (larvae), Trichoptera and Odonata. Annelida, plant matter, Decapoda, Diptera (pupae), Coleoptera and Mollusca were present in small amounts. The fish consumed smaller amounts of food in winter than in other seasons. The most important source of dietary variation for P. bonariensis was the ontogenetic, related to intrinsic biological characters. However, spatial variation was also found, suggesting that this species can adapt its diet to environmental changes. Although P. bonariensis showed ontogenetic and spatial variations in the main items consumed, the main items were always insects, characterising P. bonariensis as a fish with an insectivorous feeding habit in the Ibicuí River.

Couto G.S.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Storchi-Bergmann T.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Axon D.J.,Rochester Institute of Technology | Robinson A.,Rochester Institute of Technology | And 3 more authors.
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society | Year: 2013

We present a two-dimensional analysis of the gaseous excitation and kinematics of the inner 2.5 × 1.7 kpc2 of the low-ionization nuclear emission-line region (LINER)/Seyfert 1 galaxy Arp 102B, from optical spectra obtained with the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph Integral Field Unit on the Gemini North telescope at a spatial resolution of & 250 pc. Emission-line flux maps show the same two-armed nuclear spiral we have discovered in previous observations with the Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys. One arm reaches 1 kpc to the east and the other 500 pc to the west, with an 8.4 GHz Very Large Array bent radio jet correlating with the former. Gas excitation along the arms is low, with line ratios typical of LINERs, and which rule out gas ionization by stars. The gas density is highest (≈500-900 cm-3) at the nucleus and in the northern border of the east arm, at a region where the radio jet seems to be deflected. Centroid velocity maps suggest that most gas is in rotation in an inclined disc with line of nodes along position angle ≈88°, redshifts to the west and blueshifts to the east, with lower blueshifts correlated with the eastern arm and radio jet. This correlation suggests that the jet is interacting with gas in the disc. This interaction is supported by the gas excitation as a function of distance from the nucleus, which requires the contribution from shocks. Channel maps show blueshifts but also some redshifts at the eastern arm and jet location which can be interpreted as originated in the front and back walls of an outflow pushed by the radio jet, suggesting also that the outflow is launched close to the plane of the sky. Principal Component Analysis applied to our data supports this interpretation. We estimate a mass outflow rate along the east arm of 0.26-0.32M⊙ yr-1 (depending on the assumed outflow geometry), which is between one and two orders of magnitude higher than the mass accretion rate to the active nucleus, implying that there is mass-loading of the nuclear outflow from circumnuclear gas. The power of this outflow is 0.06-0.3 per cent Lbol. We propose a scenario in which gas has been recently captured by Arp 102B in an interaction with Arp 102A, settling in a disc rotating around the nucleus of Arp 102B and triggering its nuclear activity. A nuclear jet is pushing the circumnuclear gas, giving origin to the nuclear arms. A blueshifted emitting gas knot is observed at ≈300 pc southeast from the nucleus and can be interpreted as another (more compact) outflow, with a possible counterpart to the northwest. © 2013 The Authors. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society.

Godoi M.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Alberto E.E.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Paixao M.W.,Federal University of Sao Carlos | Soares L.A.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | And 2 more authors.
Tetrahedron | Year: 2010

A new class of amino-phosphinite chiral ligands was prepared and applied in zinc-catalyzed addition of aryl boronic acids to aldehydes; the reaction furnished the diarylmethanols in excellent yields and with a high level of enantioselectivity (up to 93% ee). © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

da Cunha T.A.,Federal University of Acre | Finger C.A.G.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Hasenauer H.,University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna
Forest Ecology and Management | Year: 2016

Little is known about sustainable forest management and tree growth in the Amazon forest. Reliable growth data from trees are very important in the context of forest management. Tree-characteristics such as architecture and competition are associated with diameter growth. Previous studies analyzing tree growth have indicated that these variables can describe these effects for temperate and boreal forests. However, the role of these effects for the growth of tropical trees needs to be enhanced for forest management practices. Here, we reconstructed the periodic annual basal area increment (BAIi cm2 yr-1) of four long-lived timber species from the Amazon forest of Brazil: (i) Cedrela odorata, (ii) Amburana cearensis, (iii) Copaifera pauper and (iv) Swietenia macrophylla to investigate the growth development. The study focuses on (i) drivers important for individual tree growth, (ii) calibration of an individual tree basal area increment model for each of the four species, and (iii) assessing the practical implementation of our findings for enhancing sustainable forest management of these four tree species in the Amazon rainforest. The results exhibit a significant relationship between increasing basal area increment versus increasing crown length and decreasing competition expressed by Hegyi's index. Trees sampled in densities greater than 25 m2 ha-1 had their BAI% significantly reduced. For Cedrela an additional negative impact on basal area increment from liana load is evident. Our findings reinforce the importance of release trees to obtain better crown exposure. © 2016.

Maziero J.,Federal University of Santa Maria
Revista Brasileira de Ensino de Fisica | Year: 2015

We review the postulates of quantum mechanics that are needed to discuss von Neumann's entropy. We introduce it as a generalization of Shannon's entropy and propose a simple game that makes it easier to understand itd physical meaning. © Sociedade Brasileira de Física.

Schneider C.C.,Laboratorio Of Sintese | Caldeira H.,Laboratorio Of Sintese | Gay B.M.,Laboratorio Of Sintese | Back D.F.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Zeni G.,Laboratorio Of Sintese
Organic Letters | Year: 2010

(Figure Presented) The synthesis of various Z-enynols via reaction of vlnyllithlum Intermediate with aldehydes and ketones Is described. The subsequent cyclizatlon of a wide variety of Z-enynols afforded substituted furans and dihydrofurans with high regloselectlvity under mild reaction conditions. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

Maziero J.,Federal University of Santa Maria
Brazilian Journal of Physics | Year: 2015

The trace distance (TD) possesses several of the good properties required for a faithful distance measure in the quantum state space. Despite its importance and ubiquitous use in quantum information science, one of its questionable features, its possible non-monotonicity under taking tensor products of its arguments (NMuTP), has been hitherto unexplored. In this article, we advance analytical and numerical investigations of this issue considering different classes of states living in a discrete and finite dimensional Hilbert space. Our results reveal that although this property of TD does not show up for pure states and for some particular classes of mixed states, it is present in a non-negligible fraction of the regarded density operators. Hence, even though the percentage of quartets of states leading to the NMuTP drawback of TD and its strength decrease as the system’s dimension grows, this property of TD must be taken into account before using it as a figure of merit for distinguishing mixed quantum states. © 2015, Sociedade Brasileira de Física.

Fagundes R.B.,Federal University of Santa Maria
Surgical Laparoscopy, Endoscopy and Percutaneous Techniques | Year: 2012

In this issue is reported a technique to remove a buried bumper without skin or gastric wall incision. Herein are the comments on this report. Copyright © 2012 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Maziero J.,Federal University of Santa Maria
Brazilian Journal of Physics | Year: 2015

The generation of pseudo-random discrete probability distributions is of paramount importance for a wide range of stochastic simulations spanning from Monte Carlo methods to the random sampling of quantum states for investigations in quantum information science. In spite of its significance, a thorough exposition of such a procedure is lacking in the literature. In this article, we present relevant details concerning the numerical implementation and applicability of what we call the iid, normalization, and trigonometric methods for generating an unbiased probability vector p=(p1,⋯ ,pd). An immediate application of these results regarding the generation of pseudo-random pure quantum states is also described. © 2015, Sociedade Brasileira de Física.

Bernardon D.P.,Federal University of Pampa | Garcia V.J.,Federal University of Pampa | Ferreira A.S.Q.,Federal University of Pampa | Canha L.N.,Federal University of Santa Maria
IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery | Year: 2010

Topological reconfiguration is an important tool for the planning and operation of electric power distribution systems. The amount of time that an algorithm spends on obtaining an alternative topological status for the system is not a primary concern, since the main goals of distribution operation planning are the reduction of power losses, the enhancement of the voltage profile, and the increase of reliability levels. The utility can use multiple criteria regarding the observation of regulation policies and public awareness to drive the topological reconfiguration. Several researchers are looking for new optimization methods, as the complexity of this combinatorial issue is high in large systems and the classic optimization methods are failing to address the problem reasonably. Therefore, we propose a new fuzzy multicriteria decision making algorithm and software to distribution network reconfiguration also including the power losses analysis of subtransmission systems. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated with case studies involving actual systems. © 2010 IEEE.

Minella J.P.G.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Merten G.H.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul
Ciencia Rural | Year: 2011

Soil and water conservation programs frequently use catchments as planning units. An important follow-up component of these programs is the installment of hydrosedimentometric and water quality monitoring projects to evaluate the impact of the practices introduced. However, in some cases, these monitoring projects have yielded inconclusive results, mostly due to procedural limitations. This review explores methods that combine traditional monitoring techniques with sediment source identification to further elucidate the impact of conservation practices on sediment yield in the catchment and dynamic interactions between different sediment sources.

Dartora C.A.,Federal University of Parana | Cabrera G.G.,University of Campinas | Nobrega K.Z.,Federal Institute of Technological Education of Maranhao IFMA | Montagner V.F.,Federal University of Santa Maria | And 3 more authors.
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2011

In the context of the paraxial regime, usually valid for optical frequencies and also in the microwave spectrum of guided waves, the propagation of electromagnetic fields can be analyzed through a paraxial wave equation, which is analogous to the nonrelativistic Schrödinger equation of quantum mechanics but replacing time t with spatial coordinate z. Considering that, here it is shown that for lossless media in optical frequencies it is possible to construct a Lagrangian operator with an one-to-one correspondence with nonrelativistic quantum mechanics, which allows someone to use the same mathematical methods and techniques for solving problems. To demonstrate that, we explore a few applications in optics with increasing levels of complexity. In the spirit of a Hamiltonian formulation, the ray-tracing trajectories of geometric optics in paraxial regime are obtained in a clear manner. Following that, the gauge symmetries of the optical-field Lagrangian density is discussed in a detailed way, leading to the general form of the interaction Hamiltonian. Through the use of perturbation theory, we discuss a classical analog for a quantum not gate, making use of mode coupling in an isotropic chiral medium. At last, we explore the optical spin Hall effect and its possible applications using an effective geometric optics equation derived from an interaction Hamiltonian for the optical fields. We also predict within the framework of paraxial optics a spin Hall effect of light induced by gravitational fields. © 2011 American Physical Society.

Schlemper V.,University of the Catarina Plateau | Freitas S.A.,University of the Catarina Plateau | Schlemper S.R.M.,Federal University of Santa Maria
Research Journal of Medicinal Plant | Year: 2011

The effects of hydroalcoholic extract from the leaves of Gochnatia polymorpha sp. floccosa on the contractile responses of the isolated guinea-pig ileum were investigated using a force displacement transducer amplifier connected to a physiograph. Isolated ileum preparations were set up for recording of isometric contractions in 5 mL jacketed organ baths containing oxygenated Krebs-Henseleit solution at 37°C under 1 g of load. G. polymorpha floccosa extract inhibited the contractile responses in a dose-dependent manner against different agonists. The profile of inhibition was noncompetitive to acetylcholine, histamine, serotonin and bradykinin- induced contractions. IC50s (and maximal inhibitions) values obtained were 247 μg mL-1 (83.1%), 818 μg mL-1 (72.62%), 450 -μg mL-1 (75.82%) and 210.09 μg mL-1 (97.35%), respectively. These findings support the popular use in folk medicine of this plant as an antispasmodic on smooth muscles contractions. © 2011 Academic Journals Inc.

Passos S.P.,University of Alberta | Gressler May L.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Faria R.,University of Sao Paulo | Ozcan M.,University of Groningen | Bottino M.A.,Sao Paulo State University
Journal of Biomedical Materials Research - Part B Applied Biomaterials | Year: 2013

Microorganisms from the oral cavity may settle at the implant-abutment interface (IAI). As a result, tissue inflammation could occur around these structures. The databases MEDLINE/PubMed and PubMed Central were used to identify articles published from 1981 through 2012 related to the microbial colonization in the implant-abutment gap and its consequence in terms of crest bone loss and osseointegration. The following considerations could be put forward, with respect to the clinical importance of IAI: (a) the space present at the IAI seems to allow bacterial leakage to occur, in spite of the size of this space; (b) bacterial leakage seems to occur at the IAI, irrespective of the type of connection. More studies are necessary to clarify the relationship between leakage at IAI and abutment connection designs; (c) losses at the peri-implant bone crests cannot be related to the IAI size, since few studies have shown no relationship. Also, the microbial leakage at the IAI cannot be related to the bone crest loss, since there are no articles reporting this relationship; remains controversial the influence of the IAI position on the bone crest losses. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater 101B: 1321-1328, 2013. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Wiederkehr N.A.,Federal University of Santa Maria
Physics and Chemistry of Glasses: European Journal of Glass Science and Technology Part B | Year: 2010

The present work describes the stepwise coordination processes for the preparation of (A)-(B)-(C) molecular sequences composed of 2,9,16,23-tetra(neopentoxy) phthalocyanine of cobalt (CoTnPc) (A), L (L: cyanide, pyridine, 4-cyanopyridine, pyrazine and 4,4′-bipyridyl) (B) and {[t-Ru(bipy)2(OH2)2](CF3SO3)2} (C), as solid compounds and as ultrathin films obtained by the Langmuir-Blodget technique (LB films), onto vitreous quartz and glass substrates. The obtained sequences were characterized as individual units or as molecular sequences [solid compounds and as LB films (nonmodified or superficially modified)] by using nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR), infrared (IR), electronic absorption spectra (UV-Visible) analysis of the surface pressure (isotherm π×A) and elemental analysis (EA). Non-modified LB films were obtained from pure compounds (not mixed) of CoTnPc (Z-type transfer) and CoTnPc/L (γ-type transfer) as starting materials, presenting high reproducibility for compression/decompression processes and precise determination of the mean molecular area (MMA), respectively, 160 Å2/molecule (CoTnPc) and 105 Å2/molecule (CoTnPc/L), long molecular axis 40° and 60° with the substrate surface. LB films for (A)-(B) chemically modified (CoTnPc/L-surface coordination of L) and non-modified surfaces (CoTnPc/L-starting compound) were subsequently coordinated to a (C) molecule {[t-Ru(bipy)2(OH2)2] (CF3SO3)2. The obtained (A)-(B)-(C) molecular sequences presented their long molecular axis at an angle of 55° with the substrate surface.

Riffel R.A.,Federal University of Santa Maria
Astrophysics and Space Science | Year: 2010

I briefly describe a simple routine for emission-line profile fitting by Gaussian curves or Gauss-Hermite series. The profit (line-profile fitting) routine represent a new alternative for use in fits data cubes, as the ones from Integral Field Spectroscopy or Fabry-Pérot Interferometry, and may be useful to better study the emission-line flux distributions and gas kinematics in distinct astrophysical objects, such as the central regions of galaxies and star forming regions. The profit routine is written in IDL language and is available at http://www. ufsm. br/rogemar/software. html. The profit routine was used to fit the [Fe ii] λ=1.257 μm emission-line profiles for about 1800 spectra of the inner 350 pc of the Seyfert galaxy Mrk 1066 obtained with Gemini NIFS and shows that the line profiles are better reproduced by Gauss-Hermite series than by the commonly used Gaussian curves. The two-dimensional map of the h3 Gauss-Hermite moment shows its highest absolute values to be in regions close to the edge of the radio structure. These high values may be originating with an biconical outflowing gas associated with the radio jet-previously observed in the optical [O III] emission. The analysis of this kinematic component indicates that the radio jet leaves the center of the galaxy with the north-west side slightly oriented towards us and the south-east side away from us, being partially hidden by the disc of the galaxy. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010.

Riffel R.A.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Riffel R.A.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Storchi-Bergmann T.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Nagar N.M.,University of Concepcion
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society | Year: 2010

We present integral field spectroscopy of the inner 700 × 700 pc2 of the Seyfert galaxy Mrk 1066 obtained with Gemini's Near-Infrared Integral Field Spectrograph (NIFS) at a spatial resolution of ≈35 pc. This high spatial resolution allowed us to observe, for the first time in this galaxy, an unresolved dust concentration with mass ~1.4 × 10-2M⊙. This unresolved concentration, with emission well reproduced by a blackbody with temperature ~830 K, is possibly part of the nuclear dusty torus. We compared maps of emission-line flux distributions and ratios with a 3.6 cm radio-continuum image and [O III] image in order to investigate the origin of the near-infrared emission. The emission-line fluxes are elongated in PA = 135°/315° in agreement with the [OI II] and radio images and, except for the H lines, are brighter to the north-west than to the south-east. This close association with the radio hot spot implies that at least part of the emitting gas is co-spatial with the radio outflow. The H emission is stronger to the south-east, where we find a large region of star-formation. The strong correlation between the radio emission and the highest emission-line fluxes indicates that the radio jet plays a fundamental role at these intensity levels. At lower emission-line fluxes this correlation disappears suggesting a contribution from the plane of the galaxy to the observed emission. The H2 flux is more uniformly distributed and has an excitation temperature of ≈2100 K. Its origin appears to be circum-nuclear gas heated by X-rays from the central active nucleus. The [Fe II] emission also is consistent with X-ray heating, but its spatial correlation with the radio jet and [O III] emission indicates additional emission due to excitation and/or abundance changes caused by shocks in the radio jet. The coronal-line emission of [Ca VIII] and [S IX] is unresolved by our observations indicating a distribution within 18 pc from the nucleus. The reddening map obtained via the Paβ/Brγ line ratio ranges from E(B - V ) ≈ 0 to 1.7 with the highest values defining a S-shaped structure along PA ≈ 135°/315°. The emission-line ratios are Seyfert-like within the ionization cone indicating that the line emission is powered by the central active nucleus in these locations. Low ionization regions are observed away from the ionization cone, and may be powered by the diffuse radiation field which filters through the ionization cone walls. Two regions at 0.5 arcsec south-east and at 1 arcsec northwest of the nucleus show starburst-like line ratios, co-spatial with an enhancement in the emission of the H lines. We attribute this change to additional emission from star-forming regions. The mass of ionized gas is MHII ≈ 1.7 × 107MΘ and that of hot molecular gas is MH2 ≈ 3.3 × 103M⊙. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation. © 2010 RAS.

Guedes D.P.,State University Londrina | Guedes D.P.,University of Sao Paulo | Guedes J.E.R.P.,State University Londrina | Guedes J.E.R.P.,Federal University of Santa Maria
Revista Paulista de Pediatria | Year: 2011

Objective: The Kidscreen-52 is a questionnaire developed in european countries to assess the health-related quality of life in children and adolescents and to provide proxy measures for parents and guardians. The purpose of this study was to translate the tool into Portuguese, to describe the cross-cultural adaptation and to identify its psychometric properties for a Brazilian population. Methods: The original questionnaire was translated following international guidelines. Translated versions of the questionnaire were analyzed by a committee of experts. The committee used semantic, idiomatic, cultural and conceptual equivalences as criteria of analysis. The final version of the translated questionnaire was administered to 758 schoolchildren of both genders and 653 parents/guardians, in the city of Londrina, Brazil. in order to identify the psychometric properties, exploratory factorial analysis with varimax rotation were completed. cronbach's α coefficient was used to assess the internal consistency of each dimension of the Kidscreen-52 associated to health-related quality of life. Results: After minor changes in the translated version, the committee of experts considered that the Portuguese version of the Kidscreen-52 questionnaire showed semantic, idiomatic, cultural and conceptual equivalences. The exploratory factorial analysis confirmed that the structure of the ten-dimension health-related quality of life questionnaire explained 63-69% of the total variance and presented reasonable values of internal consistency. The cronbach's α coefficient ranged from 0.725 to 0.894. Conclusions: The translation, cross-cultural adaptation and psychometric qualities of the Kidscreen-52 questionnaire were satisfactory, enabling its application in future studies in Brazil.

Lima E.F.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Lima E.F.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Bica E.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Bonatto C.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Saito R.K.,Federal University of Sergipe
Astronomy and Astrophysics | Year: 2014

Context. NGC 6357 is an active star-forming region located in the Sagittarius arm that displays several star clusters, which makes it a very interesting target to investigate star formation and early cluster evolution. Aims. We explore NGC 6357 with the VISTA Variables in the Vía Láctea (VVV) photometry of seven embedded clusters (ECs), and one open cluster projected in the outskirts of the complex. Methods. Photometric and structural properties (age, reddening, distance, core, and total radii) of the star clusters were derived. VVV saturated stars were replaced by their 2MASS counterparts. Field-decontaminated VVV photometry was used to analyse colour-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) and stellar radial density profiles and determine astrophysical parameters. Results. We report the discovery of four ECs and one intermediate-age cluster in the complex area. We derive a revised distance estimate for NGC 6357 of 1.78 ± 0.1 kpc based on the cluster CMD morphologies. Of the ECs, one contains the binary star WR 93, while the remaining ones are dominated by pre-main sequence stars, young stellar objects, and/or and have a developed main sequence. These features reflect a significant age spread among the clusters. Evidence is found that the relatively populous cluster Pismis 24 hosts two subclusters. © ESO, 2014.

Aiming to characterize aspects of the trophic ecology of Loricariichthys melanocheilus in the Ibicuí river, bimonthly samples were taken in lotic and lentic ecosystems. Fish were caught and fixed in 10% formalin and dissected for stomach content analysis. Items were identified to the lowest taxonomic level possible. Stomach fullness (SF), repletion index (RI) and intestinal quotient (IQ) were estimated. Diet was assessed by the frequency of occurrence and the volumetric method, combined to obtain a Alimentary index. Feeding activity was analyzed with mean values of SF, RI and vacuity index (VI), which represents the percentage of empty stomachs. These parameters were compared seasonally, spatially, and according to the circadian rhythm. The main items in the trophic spectrum of L. melanocheilus were detritus, sediment, plant organic matter, nematodes, micro crustaceans (Copepoda, Cladocera) and insects (Diptera, Trichoptera, Ephemeroptera and Odonata). No environmental or seasonal variations were found for the consumed items. Feeding activity showed seasonal and environmental variations according to RI but did not significantly change according to SF. The IQ was 1.51, and showed seasonal variations, indicating changes in the diet. © 2016, Eduem - Editora da Universidade Estadual de Maringa. All rights reserved.

Filho A.C.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Guadagnin J.P.,Fundacao Estadual de Pesquisa Agropecuaria FEPAGRO
Ciencia Rural | Year: 2011

The objective of this research was to evaluate the clustering pattern consistency obtained from the combination of the two dissimilarity measures and four clustering methods, in scenarios consist of combinations number of cultivars and number of variables, with real data in corn cultivars (Zea mays L.) and simulated data. We used real data from five variables measured in 69 trials involving corn cultivars, the number of cultivars ranged between 9 and 40. In order to investigate the results with more cultivars and variables, were simulated under the standard normal distribution, 1,000 experiments for each of the 54 scenarios formed by the combination among the number of cultivars (20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 and 100) and the number of variables (5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10). Analyses of correlation, diagnoses of multicollinearity ans cluster were carried out. Clustering pattern consistency was evaluated by the cophenetic correlation coefficient. There is a decrease of clustering pattern consistency with the increase in the number of cultivars and variable. The euclidean distance provides greater clustering pattern consistency in relation to Manhattan distance. The clustering pattern consistency among the methods increases as follows: Ward's, complete linkage, single linkage and average linkage between groups.

de Campos B.-H.C.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Amado T.J.C.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Bayer C.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Nicoloso R.S.,Embrapa Swine and Poultry | Fiorin J.E.,University of Cruz Alta
Revista Brasileira de Ciencia do Solo | Year: 2011

Soil organic matter (SOM) plays a crucial role in soil quality and can act as an atmospheric C-CO 2 sink under conservationist management systems. This study aimed to evaluate the long-term effects (19 years) of tillage (CT-conventional tillage and NT-no tillage) and crop rotations (R0-monoculture system, R1-winter crop rotation, and R2-intensive crop rotation) on total, particulate and mineralassociated organic carbon (C) stocks of an originally degraded Red Oxisol in Cruz Alta, RS, Southern Brazil. The climate is humid subtropical Cfa 2a (Köppen classification), the mean annual precipitation 1,774 mm and mean annual temperature 19.2 °C. The plots were divided into four segments, of which each was sampled in the layers 0-0.05, 0.05-0.10, 0.10-0.20, and 0.20-0.30 m. Sampling was performed manually by opening small trenches. The SOM pools were determined by physical fractionation. Soil C stocks had a linear relationship with annual crop C inputs, regardless of the tillage systems. Thus, soil disturbance had a minor effect on SOM turnover. In the 0-0.30 m layer, soil C sequestration ranged from 0 to 0.51 Mg ha -1 yr -1, using the CT R0 treatment as base-line; crop rotation systems had more influence on soil stock C than tillage systems. The mean C sequestration rate of the cropping systems was 0.13 Mg ha -1 yr -1 higher in NT than CT. This result was associated to the higher C input by crops due to the improvement in soil quality under long-term no-tillage. The particulate C fraction was a sensitive indicator of soil management quality, while mineral-associated organic C was the main pool of atmospheric C fixed in this clayey Oxisol. The C retention in this stable SOM fraction accounts for 81 and 89 % of total C sequestration in the treatments NT R1 and NT R2, respectively, in relation to the same cropping systems under CT. The highest C management index was observed in NT R2, confirming the capacity of this soil management practice to improve the soil C stock qualitatively in relation to CT R0. The results highlighted the diversification of crop rotation with cover crops as a crucial strategy for atmospheric C-CO 2 sequestration and SOM quality improvement in highly weathered subtropical Oxisols.

Ludke E.,Federal University of Santa Maria
Revista Brasileira de Ensino de Fisica | Year: 2011

In this paper, a sequence of low-cost teaching lab experiments to assess fundamental concepts in Fermi-Dirac quantum statistical mechanics and quantitative measurements of current density of a free thermal electron in vacuum to prove experimentally the Richardson-Dushman equation. Experimental techniques and numerical analysis for the current density are also discussed in this work. Thermoionic-emission tubes have proven to be excellent to corroborate the concepts discussed in this paper. © Sociedade Brasileira de Física.

Bini R.R.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Diefenthaeler F.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Mota C.B.,Federal University of Santa Maria
Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology | Year: 2010

The aim of the present study was to analyze the net joint moment distribution, joint forces and kinematics during cycling to exhaustion. Right pedal forces and lower limb kinematics of ten cyclists were measured throughout a fatigue cycling test at 100% of POMAX. The absolute net joint moments, resultant force and kinematics were calculated for the hip, knee and ankle joint through inverse dynamics. The contribution of each joint to the total net joint moments was computed. Decreased pedaling cadence was observed followed by a decreased ankle moment contribution to the total joint moments in the end of the test. The total absolute joint moment, and the hip and knee moments has also increased with fatigue. Resultant force was increased, while kinematics has changed in the end of the test for hip, knee and ankle joints. Reduced ankle contribution to the total absolute joint moment combined with higher ankle force and changes in kinematics has indicated a different mechanical function for this joint. Kinetics and kinematics changes observed at hip and knee joint was expected due to their function as power sources. Kinematics changes would be explained as an attempt to overcome decreased contractile properties of muscles during fatigue. © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Acevedo O.C.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Mahrt L.,Oregon State University
Boundary-Layer Meteorology | Year: 2010

The vertical mesoscale flux in the nocturnal boundary layer is generally considered to be difficult to estimate because of the small mesoscale vertical velocities and the large random variation of the mesoscale fluxes. However, the mesoscale vertical flux of heat, computed from FLOSSII data, varies quasi-systematically with height, stability and time scale. Such systematic variation requires correction for sonic misalignment and averaging over a large quantity of data. The relation of the mesoscale heat flux to the vertical structure of the nocturnal boundary layer is examined. For the most common conditions, the vertical convergence of the mesoscale heat flux acts to reduce the nocturnal cooling rate. Important uncertainties are discussed as well as the need for improved observations. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Da-Rosa A.A.S.,Federal University of Santa Maria
Journal of South American Earth Sciences | Year: 2015

The Triassic of the western Gondwana (southern Brazil and northwestern Argentina) records the oldest dinosaurs. The Southern Brazilian Triassic fauna is subdivided into four assemblage zones (AZ's), recorded in alluvial (channel and floodplain) deposits, split into three third-order sequences that comprise the Santa Maria Supersequence. These deposits record dinosauriforms in three of these AZ's, mostly in near-channel environments (channel deposits, crevasse splays, distal floodplains) with different types of preservation (mostly partly articulated, with little carbonate deposition). There is faciological homogeneity within the Dinodontosaurus, Santacruzodon and Hyperodapedon AZ's, whereas change in fluvial style is recorded at the Riograndia AZ. So, further stratigraphic studies must include the recognition of post-depositional tectonism, in order to better understand the autogenic and allogenic mechanisms of deposition. It is suggested here that there is a lateral change on main channel deposition, with the areal restriction of the Santacruzodon AZ probably linked to reactivation on the Passo do Sobrado lineament and modification of the basin floor. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

de Carvalho M.O.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Loreto E.L.S.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Loreto E.L.S.,Federal University of Santa Maria
Genetics and Molecular Biology | Year: 2012

Recent advances in nucleic acid sequencing technology are creating a diverse landscape for the analysis of horizontal transfer in complete genomes. Previously limited to prokaryotes, the availability of complete genomes from close eukaryotic species presents an opportunity to validate hypotheses about the patterns of evolution and mechanisms that drive horizontal transfer. Many of those methods can be transported from methods previously used in prokaryotic genomes, as the assumptions for horizontal transfer can be interpreted as the same. Some methods, however, require a complete adaptation, while others need refinements in sensitivity and specificity to deal with the huge datasets generated from next-generation sequencing technologies. Here we list the types of methods used for horizontal transfer detection, as well as theirs strengths and weakness.

Lena D.,Rochester Institute of Technology | Robinson A.,Rochester Institute of Technology | Storchi-Bergman T.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Storchi-Bergman T.,Harvard - Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics | And 6 more authors.
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2015

We present optical integral field spectroscopy of the circum-nuclear gas of the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1386. The data cover the central 7″9″ (530680 pc) at a spatial resolution of 0.″ 9 (68 pc), and the spectral range 5700-7000 at a resolution of 66 km s-1. The line emission is dominated by a bright central component, with two lobes extending ≈3″ north and south of the nucleus. We identify three main kinematic components. The first has low velocity dispersion ( 90 km s-1), extends over the whole field of view, and has a velocity field consistent with gas rotating in the galaxy disk. We interpret the lobes as resulting from photoionization of disk gas in regions where the active galactic nucleus radiation cones intercept the disk. The second has higher velocity dispersion ( 200 km s-1) and is observed in the inner 150 pc around the continuum peak. This component is double peaked, with redshifted and blueshifted components separated by ≈500 km s-1. Together with previous Hubble Space Telescope imaging, these features suggest the presence of a bipolar outflow for which we estimate a mass outflow rate of 0.1 yr-1. The third component is revealed by velocity residuals associated with enhanced velocity dispersion and suggests that outflow and/or rotation is occurring approximately in the equatorial plane of the torus. A second system of velocity residuals may indicate the presence of streaming motions along dusty spirals in the disk. © 2015. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

With population growth need to increase food production, making it necessary to use pesticides to ensure greater productivity, which led to excessive use of pesticides on Brazilian crops, giving rise to the problem of empty containers. The aim of the study was to identify and describe the reverse logistics process of pesticide containers in the city of Cachoeira do Sul, RS had a qualitative approach with exploratory and descriptive. A case study was carried out, data collection took place through a semi-structured interview. It was identified that the trader is responsible for forwarding the handling guidelines and producer returns process.

Schumacher R.F.,RWTH Aachen | Schumacher R.F.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Honraedt A.,RWTH Aachen | Honraedt A.,French National Center for Scientific Research | And 2 more authors.
European Journal of Organic Chemistry | Year: 2012

Domino cross-coupling/cyclization reactions of N-propargyl sulfoximines and 2-iodophenols or 2-iodoanilides are catalyzed by a cooperative palladium/copper system to provide benzo[b]furan and indole derivatives in good to excellent yields. The reactions occur under mild conditions and tolerate a wide variety of functional groups. Domino cross-coupling/cyclization reactions of N-propargyl sulfoximines and 2-iodophenols or 2-iodoanilides are catalyzed by a cooperative palladium/copper system to provide benzo[b]furan and indole derivatives in good to excellent yields. The reactions occur under mild conditions and tolerate a wide variety of functional groups. © Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

da Costa M.C.,Federal University of Santa Maria
Revista gaúcha de enfermagem / EENFUFRGS | Year: 2012

The current study is aimed at getting to know and analyzing the work process of community health agents (CHA) from a municipality of the Northeastern region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul through a qualitative approach. The collection of data was carried out by means of a semi-structured interview applied to 23 CHAs. The Thematic Content Analysis was utilized for the data analysis. The results evidenced some possibilities, such as: communication with the participating families, establishing bonds, and recognition of/satisfaction towards the professional agent by the community; and among some of the limits were: difficulty to perform team work; difficulty to perform collective tasks in the community; low salary/work overload and lack of qualification. Evidence shows the need of reorganizing the work process of these professionals with higher investment in education and instrumentation by adopting a permanent educational policy.

Schneider S.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Gazolla M.,Federal University of Santa Maria
Research in Rural Sociology and Development | Year: 2015

In this chapter we examine how the small scale agro-industries located in Southern Brazil, specifically in the North of the State of Rio Grande do Sul, started to deal with changes in their production processes, how they created and adapted technologies, and devised new products. Among the main outcomes of the study we highlight the novelties observed during the field research, especially regarding the family situation and the agromanufacturing activities, in which we observed (i) a relative raise in autonomy; (ii) improvement in both the income level and the quality of life of household members; (iii) creation of new nested markets and marketing channels; (iv) development of more environmentally sustainable products; (v) improvement of the value added to food products; and (vi) development of new interfaces between families and other social actors. © 2015 by Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

Aissou K.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Pfaff A.,University of Bayreuth | Giacomelli C.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Travelet C.,French National Center for Scientific Research | And 2 more authors.
Macromolecular Rapid Communications | Year: 2011

Fluorescent vesicles considered as a mimic of natural primitive cells are prepared from poly(3-hexylthiophene)-block-poly(3-O-methacryloyl-D- galactopyranose) P3HT-b-PMAGP copolymers. The unique characteristic of such vesicular nanostructures is their architecture, which comprises a hydrophobic π-conjugated P3HT wall stabilized by a hydrophilic PMAGP interface featuring glucose units. The results of this work offer a very efficient and straightforward method for engineering well-controlled fluorescent nanoparticles (without the addition of dyes), which provide an excellent support to the study of carbohydrate-protein interactions. Copolymer vesicles with intrinsic fluorescent properties are obtained by self-assembly of π-conjugated poly(3-hexylthiophene) chains coupled to poly(3-O-methacryloyl-D- galactopyranose) carbohydrate-based segments. Considered a mimic of natural primitive cells, these structures provide an excellent support to the study of carbohydrate-protein interactions.(Figure Presented) © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Da Silva J.L.F.,University of Sao Paulo | Kim H.G.,KAIST | Piotrowski M.J.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Prieto M.J.,University of Sao Paulo | Tremiliosi-Filho G.,University of Sao Paulo
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2010

Cuboctahedron (CUB) and icosahedron (ICO) model structures are widely used in the study of transition-metal (TM) nanoparticles (NPs), however, it might not provide a reliable description for small TM NPs such as the Pt55 and Au55 systems in gas phase. In this work, we combined density-functional theory calculations with atomic configurations generated by the basin hopping Monte Carlo algorithm within the empirical Sutton-Chen embedded atom potential. We identified alternative lower energy configurations compared with the ICO and CUB model structures, e.g., our lowest energy structures are 5.22 eV (Pt55) and 2.01 eV (Au55) lower than ICO. The energy gain is obtained by the Pt and Au diffusion from the ICO core region to the NP surface, which is driven by surface compression (only 12 atoms) on the ICO core region. Therefore, in the lowest energy configurations, the core size reduces from 13 atoms (ICO, CUB) to about 9 atoms while the NP surface increases from 42 atoms (ICO, CUB) to about 46 atoms. The present mechanism can provide an improved atom-level understanding of small TM NPs reconstructions. © 2010 The American Physical Society.

de Oliveira L.B.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Tiecher T.,Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development | de Quadros F.L.F.,Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development | dos Santos D.R.,Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development
Revista Brasileira de Ciencia do Solo | Year: 2011

In natural grassland ecosystems deficient in available P, the temporary immobilization of P in microbial biomass and its subsequent mineralization can be considered a potential mechanism of P supply to plants. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of burning and grazing of grassland vegetation on the dynamics of soil P, with emphasis on the content of P immobilized in microbial biomass. The treatments consisted of the combination of grazing (presence or absence) and burning (presence or absence) in a natural grassland on slope and lowlands after 13 years under a management involving burning and grazing. Burning and grazing were arranged in a completely randomized design with four replications. Soil samples were collected from the 0-10 cm layer twice during the growing period of native pasture, always immediately after grazing. The stocking rate was calculated based on a utilization rate of 20-35 % of existing forage mass. The P content stored in the soil microbial biomass, the total P content and total organic P in soil were determined. The statistical analysis was based on analysis of variance by randomization tests. The microbial P content of natural pasture ranged from 11.4 to 57.3 mg kg-1, representing on average 38 and 32 % of total organic P in soil in the first and second evaluation, respectively. The P immobilized in microbial biomass is a potential reserve of P that can meet the demand for native species in natural pastures, and is a more sensitive indicator than the total organic P content of the soil to detect changes induced by grazing. Management of natural pastures with fire decreases the amplitude of the increase in microbial P due to grazing.

The significant increase in traffic of large machines in wood harvesting can cause damage to soil structure, especially in terms of compaction. The objective of this study was to evaluate the compaction of a Cambisol and Neosoil subjected to a Feller Buncher and Skidder traffic in stands of Pinus taeda L. The study was conducted in logging areas of the forestry company located in Santa Catarina State. To evaluate the compaction, sample plots were established according to simulation of different traffic conditions. The soil density and mechanical penetration resistance were analyzed. Most part of soil compaction occurred after of the initial traffic the Feller Buncher and Skidder, mainly in the top soil (up to 30 cm), but changes in soils up to 50 cm of depth were also detected. Therefore it is recommend to restrict the wood harvesting machines traffic only to designated skid trails, thus contributing to reduce the extent of soil compaction effects and environment impacts.

Magistrali I.C.,Federal University of Santa Maria | dos Anjos N.,Federal University of Vicosa
Ciencia Florestal | Year: 2011

There is great difficulty to improve techniques of integrated pest management of leaf cutting ants, mainly when found outside of, but near to, forest plantations. This work aims to characterize aspects such as nest size and foraging distance from eucalypt plantations. Studies were performed near forest plantations in the counties of João Pinheiro and Buritizeiro, in Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Six months before, all leaf cutting ant nests received chemical control with sulfluramid baits. Nine nests were located outside the eucalypt plantations. Nest area was 62.5 ± 11.1 m 2 and nests were located 33.94 ± 8.68 m from plantation boundary. Such characteristics may be useful to fix the boundary range used to control leaf cutting ant mounds outside the eucalypt plantation. Results show that boundary range should be 50 m wide. Acromyrmex sp. is a new occurrence for both Buritizeiro and João Pinheiro counties, but Atta laevigata, A. sexdens rubropilosa and Trachymyrmex sp. are new occurrences for Buritizeiro only.

Rossato M.B.,Federal University of Santa Maria
Oral health & preventive dentistry | Year: 2011

To compare the effectiveness of bacterial plaque removal of six denture hygiene procedures used by patients to clean their dentures. Fifteen students randomly divided into groups G1, G2, G3, G4, G5 and G6 used maxillary intraoral appliances for 24 h without cleaning them. Afterwards, the appliances were submitted to the following procedures: P1: washing under running water for 20 s; P2 and P3: cleaning with alkaline peroxide (Corega Tabs®) for 5 and 30 min, respectively; P4: brushing with water and liquid soap for 40 s; P5: alkaline hypochlorite for 10 minutes; P6: home use chlorine solution (Q'boa® at 0.45% for 10 min), throughout a period of 6 consecutive weeks. The procedures followed a circulating scheme, so that all the appliances were submitted to all the hygiene methods studied. After the hygiene procedures, the appliances were stained, photographed and submitted to the weighing method. After ANOVA and Tukey's test, differences were observed: P5 = 0.73 ± 0.3 (b), P6 = 1.27 ± 0.4(b,c), P4 = 1.92 ± 0.5 (b,c), P3 = 2.24 ± 1.0 (b,c), P2 = 7.53 ± 2.5 (c) and P1 = 26.86 ± 15. 3 (a). From the results of the study, it could be concluded that the use of alkaline hypochlorite is the best way to remove bacterial plaque, followed by the home-use chlorine solution and brushing with water and liquid soap. Corega Tabs® must be used for 30 min of immersion to have a cleaning effectiveness similar to that of alkaline hypochlorite.

HIV children infected by vertical transmission are crossing from childhood to adolescence, however, we do not know how they are caring for themselves during those transitional age. The objective was to understand the (un)said about AIDS in their quotidian. After approval by the Research Ethics Committee of three hospitals in Rio de Janeiro, the interview was conducted with eleven boys/girls from 12-14 years old, who knew their diagnosis. The Heideggerian hermeneutics unveiled that the adolescent-being knows that the disease was acquired by his/her mother; he/she was said that his/her relatives are sick; he/she reminds when the diagnosis was disclosure, and its relation to prejudice. He/she projects him/her as a being-of-possibilities inside an existential movement. One concludes that the care for adolescent-being needs to integrate the biological, clinical, socio-cultural, ethical, political, and existential dimensions.

Depra M.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Ludwig A.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Ludwig A.,Instituto Carlos Chagas ICC | Ludwig A.,Pontifical Catholic University of Parana | And 3 more authors.
Mobile DNA | Year: 2012

Background: Miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) are short, nonautonomous DNA elements flanked by subterminal or terminal inverted repeats (TIRs) with no coding capacity. MITEs were originally recognized as important components of plant genomes, where they can attain extremely high copy numbers, and are also found in several animal genomes, including mosquitoes, fish and humans. So far, few MITEs have been described in Drosophila. Results: Herein we describe the distribution and evolution of Mar, a MITE family of hAT transposons, in Drosophilidae species. In silico searches and PCR screening showed that Mar distribution is restricted to the willistoni subgroup of the Drosophila species, and a phylogenetic analysis of Mar indicates that this element may have originated prior to the diversification of these species. Most of the Mar copies in D. willistoni present conserved target site duplications and TIRs, indicating recent mobilization of these sequences. We also identified relic copies of potentially full-length Mar transposon in D. tropicalis and D. willistoni. The phylogenetic relationship among transposases from the putative full-length Mar and other hAT superfamily elements revealed that Mar is placed into the recently determined Buster group of hAT transposons. Conclusion: On the basis of the obtained data, we can suggest that the origin of these Mar MITEs occurred before the subgroup willistoni speciation, which started about 5.7 Mya. The Mar relic transposase existence indicates that these MITEs originated by internal deletions and suggests that the full-length transposon was recently functional in D. willistoni, promoting Mar MITEs mobilization. © 2012 Deprá et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Villetti M.A.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Soldi V.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Rochas C.,Joseph Fourier University | Borsali R.,Joseph Fourier University
Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics | Year: 2011

Phase-separation dynamics are investigated by SALS in aqueous MC solutions in the presence of 5% NaCl, promoted by a quench temperature. The observed scattering peak indicates that the phase separation occurs by the SD mechanism, leading to a bicontinuous structure. A semilog plot of I(q) against time in the early stage of SD gives a straight line, but the position of qmax varies; also, a Cahn-Hilliard plot indicates that diffusive processes dominate and the data can be described by linear CHC theory. Dapp shows a kinetic dependency on the quench temperature. The spinodal temperature of the sample is 41 °C. In the late stages, S(q,t) collapses into a universally time-independent curve. The phase-separation kinetics and mechanism of aqueous MC solutions in the presence of 5% NaCl are discussed. The scattering peak shows that phase separation occurs by spinodal decomposition. The spinodal temperature is determined using CHC theory. In the late stage of phase separation, the dynamic structural factor collapses into a universally time-independent curve. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Although the period following 1930 has been considered an era in which homeopathy lost ground within academia, homeopaths nevertheless were advocating for their proposals in a variety of spaces. One such instance was represented by the Homeopathic League of Rio Grande do Sul, founded in 1941, which published a journal until the 1970s, set up three free dispensaries to serve the population in Porto Alegre, and played an active role in political discussions through a group of homeopaths who endeavored to disseminate and expand homeopathic practice. An analysis of the League's Boletim de Homeopatia provides insight into homeopaths' strategies for expanding their role in Porto Alegre, capital of Rio Grande do Sul.

De Oliveira S.V.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Waquil P.D.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul
Ciencia Rural | Year: 2015

The production of yerba mate is one of the nonlumberman forest activities that compose the Brazilian agroforestry market. In Rio Grande do Sul, this segment is propelled by tradition of mate consumption. However, in recent years, it is observed that Rio Grande do Sul state has been losing significant share of the domestic market, mainly to the state of Paraná. In this sense, this study aims to understand the dynamics of production and marketing of this product, from the analysis of the behavior of prices received by farmers of yerba mate in Rio Grande do Sul, prices direct to consumers of yerba mate as well as statistical data related to production of yerba mate. It is evident that the econometric model conducted to estimate the value of yerba mate, while indicating the existence of positive linear association between the dependent and independent variables, is considered statistically frail. Moreover, about 80% of the variations in the price of the kilogram of yerba mate in retail Porto Alegre are explained by variations in the price of the bushel of yerba mate paid to Rio Grande do Sul farmers. Thus, is reiterated the need for additional analyzes to identify the factors that have an influence on the market for yerba mate in the context of expansion of national and international demand. © 2015 Universidade Federal de Santa Maria. All rights reserved.

The proteins of the endosperm of corn, referring to zein, have important degree of polymerization for the formation of the films on food, being useful in the conservation of it. This review will address ways of extracting these proteins by their amino acid solubility in alcoholic solvents and methods of combined chemical and enzymatic treatments. The polymer of zein can replace synthetic polymers used in food packaging, it contributes for economic value to the corn industry. Its application in films provides functional characteristics of mass stability, microbial control and reduction of lipid oxidation in some kind of food during storage. © 2015, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria. All rights reserved.

Rocha Sousa F.D.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Rocha Sousa F.D.,Catholic University of Brasilia | Elmoor-Loureiro L.M.A.,Catholic University of Brasilia
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia | Year: 2012

Aim: This study aimed provides a checklist of cladocerans and also an evaluation of richness and species composition in the Federal District, Brazil. Methods: Checklist of cladocerans was obtained evaluating data from the literature, from taxonomic collection (Elmoor-Loureiro's collection) and from fauna surveys conducted over more than three decades in different types of aquatic environments. Results: The 57 water bodies studied showed 56 species, of which 14 are new records. The number of species contained in the list displayed corresponds to 85% of what was expected for richness estimators. The highest number of species was observed in the lentic water bodies (52), which also presented the specific composition of fauna (R = 0.110; p = 0.016), possibly because there were samples taken among the aquatic vegetation. According to our understanding, some species may be subject to local extinctions because they inhabit water bodies located exclusively in urban areas, which can lead to a decline in richness. Conclusion: Thus, the results of this study can assist in monitoring aquatic environments and in selection of new areas for surveys of cladocerans in the Federal District.

Vasconcelos S.S.,University of Florida | Zarin D.J.,University of Florida | Araujo M.M.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Miranda I.D.S.,University of Amazon
Forest Ecology and Management | Year: 2012

Aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP) represents an important integrated measure of resource effects on forest ecosystem functions. Rates of ANPP, as well as resource availability controls over ANPP, are poorly understood for tropical forest regrowth following agricultural abandonment, although such regrowth accounts for a large and growing proportion of tropical landscapes. Here, we report on the response of ANPP to inter-annual variability in dry-season precipitation and to four years of dry-season irrigation in a forest regrowth stand in eastern Amazonia. ANPP was most strongly correlated with previous-year annual and dry-season precipitation inputs, suggesting a lag effect of the influence of precipitation on ANPP. The dry-season irrigation experiment provides some confirmation of this lag effect: ANPP response to treatment was significant for 2002 and 2003, following strong previous-year dry seasons, but not during the first treatment year (2001) or 2004, following the weak 2003 dry season. ANPP response to both inter-annual precipitation variability and to dry-season was largely due to a response in aboveground biomass increment rather than litterfall. Drought constraints on aboveground biomass increment suggest that the potential of forest regrowth to sequester atmospheric carbon will decrease with projected reductions in regional rainfall. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

De Oliveira G.A.,Federal University of Parana | De Oliveira G.A.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Bureau S.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Bureau S.,University of Avignon | And 5 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2014

NIR Spectroscopy ability was investigated to assess the fruit structure effect (passion fruit, tomato and apricot) on prediction performance of soluble solids content (SSC) and titratable acidity (TA). Relationships between spectral wavelengths and SSC and TA were evaluated through the application of chemo-metric techniques based on partial least squares (PLS). Good prediction performance was obtained for apricot with correlation coefficients of 0.93 and 0.95 for SSC and TA and root mean square errors of prediction (RMSEP%) of 3.3% and 14.2%, respectively. For the passion fruit and tomato, the prediction models were not satisfactorily accurate due to the high RMSEP. Results showed that NIR technology can be used to evaluate apricot internal quality, however, it was not appropriate to evaluate internal quality in fruits with thick skin, (passion fruit), and/or heterogeneous internal structure (tomato). © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Marchezan A.,Instituto Federal Farroupilha IFFarroupilha | Souza A.M.,Federal University of Santa Maria
Ciencia Rural | Year: 2010

The aim of this research was to make predictions for 2007, referring to the price of temporary crops developed in the Rio Grande do Sul state. The data-base of the amout produced of the major grain analyzed were the annual average1995 to 2006 and price produced, from January 1995 to December 2006. To accomplish the forecasts in relation to prices of soybean, rice and sweetcorn in RS state, it was used the Box & Jenkins methodology. To such cultivations, the methodoly showed many significant models, however, through the penalizing criterias, AIC e SBC, in addition to the square average error, it was possible to choose the best model for each serie, being the model ARIMA (0,1,2)(0,1,0) to soybean; the model SARIMA (1,1,0)(1,0,1) to rice and the model ARIMA (2,1,1)(0,1,0) to sweetcorn.

Grigoletto F.B.,Federal University of Pampa | Pinheiro H.,Federal University of Santa Maria
IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics | Year: 2014

This paper presents a new flexible arrangement of static converters for grid-connected wind energy conversion systems (WECS). The proposed arrangement uses three-phase voltage-fed back-to-back mass-produced power converter modules with reconfiguration switches. The main features of the proposed flexible arrangement are as follows: 1) expanded reactive power capability limits; 2) high efficiency, mainly under low wind conditions where the active power is reduced; and 3) low current harmonic content. In addition, a detailed description of the operating modes, as well as of the grid, generator, and circulating current controller design, are given. Finally, experimental results support the theoretical development, and demonstrate the good performance and flexibility of the proposed arrangement. © 1982-2012 IEEE.

Carpes F.P.,Federal University of Pampa | Mota C.B.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Faria I.E.,California State University, Sacramento
Physical Therapy in Sport | Year: 2010

Background: This review summarizes the effects of bilateral asymmetry on running and cycling performance and risk of injury in healthy subjects and the influence of leg preference. We define the term leg preference derived from lateral preference as representative of the choice for one side of the body to perform a motor action. Useful information is provided for biomechanical and physiological research and coaching with relevance to an understanding regarding the occurrence of lower limb asymmetry. Objectives: To provide a synopsis of what is known about bilateral asymmetry in human running and cycling and its relationship to limb preference, especially in the context of competitive sport performance and risk of injury. Design: Structured narrative review. Methods: The relationship between asymmetry and lower limb preference was reviewed using Medline®, Sciencedirect®, and Scopus® search engines considering studies published in English until June 2009. Summary: The environment characteristics may influence running asymmetries, which are more frequent in angular parameters. Environment characteristics are related to ground irregularities requiring compensatory movements changing the mechanical workload on joints and bones, which may influence asymmetries in biomechanical parameters between lower limbs. The relationship between asymmetry and injury risk should be assessed with caution since running speed may influence asymmetry in injured and non-injured subjects who often show similar asymmetry levels. Symmetry can be improved with increasing running speed. In addition to running speed, coaches and athletes interested in minimizing lateral difference should consider a training regime aimed at correcting asymmetry which may negatively affect running technique by influencing the compensatory movements that an athlete usually performs. During cycling, bilateral differences are frequently found and vary with the competitive situation, pedaling cadence, exercise intensity and exercise duration. Regardless of the variability of asymmetry index between subjects, few suggestions are available to overcome lateral differences. Most of the research suggests that bilateral pedaling asymmetries decrease as the workload increases, however the relationship to injury risk was not clearly addressed. For both running and cycling, few investigations examined the central mechanisms of neuromuscular control, and no study addressed the effect of asymmetry on performance. Conclusions: Collectively, the volume of studies supporting symmetry is small and to a large extent research considered unilateral assessment. Preferred limb performance can differ from the contralateral limb. In the context of biomechanical and physiological investigations, we believe that further studies should address the role of lower limb symmetry on human motor performance and injury risk focusing on the energetic cost, muscle efficiency and the neuromuscular aspects such as muscle activation and motor units firing rate. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Comim F.V.,Imperial College London | Comim F.V.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Teerds K.,Wageningen University | Hardy K.,Imperial College London | Franks S.,Imperial College London
Human Reproduction | Year: 2013

STUDY QUESTIONDoes the expression of LHCG receptor (LHCGR) protein and key enzymes in the androgen biosynthetic pathway differ in normal human versus polycystic ovarian tissue?SUMMARY ANSWERLHCGR and 17-hydroxylase/17-20-lyase (CYP17A1) protein levels are increased in polycystic ovaries (PCOs).WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADYThe predominant source of excess androgen secretion in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is ovarian theca cells but few studies have directly assessed the presence and abundance of protein for key molecules involved in androgen production by theca, including LHCGR and the rate-limiting enzyme in androgen production, CYP17A1.STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATIONThis is a laboratory-based, cross-sectional study comparing protein expression of key molecules in the androgen biosynthetic pathway in archived ovarian tissue from women with normal ovaries (n = 10) with those with PCOs (n = 16).PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODSA quantitative morphometric study was performed using sections of archived human ovaries (n = 26) previously characterized as normal or polycystic. The distribution and abundance of LHCGR, CYP17A1, 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (3βHSDII) and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 5 (17βHSD5) proteins were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and quantified.MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCEA higher proportion of theca cells from anovulatory PCO expressed LHCGR protein when compared with control ovaries (P = 0.01). A significant increase in the intensity of immunostaining for CYP17A1 was identified in antral follicles in sections of PCO compared with ovaries from normal women (P = 0.04).LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTIONAs the study used formalin-fixed ovarian tissue sections, it was not possible to carry out studies 'in vitro' using the same ovarian tissues in order to also demonstrate increased functional activity of LHCGR and CYP17A1.WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGSThe data are in keeping with the results of previous studies in isolated theca cells and support the notion of an intrinsic abnormality of theca cell androgen production in women with PCOS.STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S)The research was supported by a Programme Grant, G0802782, from the Medical Research Council (MRC) UK and by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Biomedical Research Centre based at Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust and Imperial College London. F.V.C was supported by Capes Foundation (Brazilian Ministry of Education). The authors have no conflicts of interest to disclose. © 2013 © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

Aouadi M.,University of Carthage | Copetti M.I.M.,Federal University of Santa Maria
ZAMM Zeitschrift fur Angewandte Mathematik und Mechanik | Year: 2015

In this paper we investigate the dynamic behaviour of a thermoelastic diffusion rod clamped at one end and moves freely between two stops at the other. The contact is modelled with the Signorini or normal compliance conditions. The coupled system of equations consists of a hyperbolic equation and two parabolic equations. This problem poses new mathematical difficulties due to the nonlinear boundary conditions. The existence of a weak solution is proved using a penalization method and compensated compactness. Moreover, we show that the weak solution converges to zero exponentially as time goes to infinity. We describe the discrete finite element method to our numerical approximations and we show that the given solution converges to the weak solution. Finally, we give an error estimate assuming extra regularity on the solution and we give some results of our numerical experiments. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Hansen T.R.,Federal University of Santa Maria
Society of Reproduction and Fertility supplement | Year: 2010

The ovine conceptus releases interferon-tau (IFNT), which prevents upregulation of the endometrial estrogen receptor (ESR1) and, consequently, oxytocin receptor (OXTR), thereby disrupting pulsatile release of prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF) in response to oxytocin. IFNT, through paracrine action on the endometrium, protects the corpus luteum (CL) during maternal recognition of pregnancy. Pregnancy also induces IFN stimulated genes (ISGs) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), which is interpreted to reflect a "prompted" antiviral and immune cell response peripherally in ruminants. IFNT was recently demonstrated to be released from the uterus in amounts of 200 microg (2 x 10(7) U)/24 h via the uterine vein and to induce ISGs in the CL during maternal recognition of pregnancy. Delivery of recombinant ovine (ro) IFNT into the uterine vein in a location that is upstream of the utero-ovarian plexus from Day 10 to 17 maintained serum progesterone concentrations and extended normal 16-17 d estrous cycles to beyond 32 d. It is concluded from these studies that IFNT is released into the uterine vein and initiates a peripheral antiviral response to protect pregnancy from maternal viral infection. It also may have endocrine action through inducing luteal resistance to PGF and longer-term survival of the CL and maintenance of pregnancy.

Gan M.A.,National Institute for Space Research | Piva E.D.,Federal University of Santa Maria
Climate Dynamics | Year: 2015

The existence of cut-off lows (COLs) over South Pacific and South America is often associated with adverse weather events such as intense precipitation over the central region of South America, frost episodes in southern Brazil and the development of Andes lee cyclones and intense cyclones over the southern coast of Brazil. Despite this importance, the formation and maintenance mechanisms of the COLs are not well understood. To detail the significant variability in terms of the eddy kinetic energy equation for fifty cases of COLs that formed over the southeastern Pacific Ocean is the aim of this study. Only the cases of COLs that formed over the ocean and remained there during most of their life were chosen. The main terms of the equation [ageostrophic flux convergence (AFC), baroclinic conversion (BRC) and barotropic conversion (BRT)] were calculated using the 6-hourly gridded data from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction/Department of Energy reanalysis. The formation mechanism of the COLs was associated with BRC and AFC. During the midlife period, the BRC term converted eddy kinetic energy to eddy potential energy and the AFC had a positive contribution until 6 h after the midlife point. In the dissipation phase, the BRC term remained positive and AFC became negative. The BRT extracted kinetic energy from the COL during the entire life cycle. The AFC term was the most important in all phases of the cut-off lifetime, and it was the responsible for extending the cut-off lifetime while the others terms were negatives. © 2015 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

Napoli R.,Bioconsult Associados Ltda. | Caceres N.,Federal University of Santa Maria
Community Ecology | Year: 2012

We evaluated the effect of edge on the richness, species composition, diversity, and abundance of small-mammal assemblages in remnants of woodland savannah in the Cerrado biome, south-western Brazil. Four remnants were sampled from September 2003 to July 2004, each one sampled in two field phases of 10 consecutive nights. Four sampling areas were selected in each remnant, two in edges and two in interiors (at least 200 m distant from the abrupt edge); each different habitat received a grid of 45 live-traps or a transect line pitfall-traps with 10 capture buckets. Structural variables of the vegetation at the edges and interiors were also measured in these habitats by two sampling methods. The gradients of fauna and vegetation were analysed in the edge-interior gradient (10 to 90 m inside the remnant). The trapping effort resulted in 342 captures of 219 individuals of 12 species. There was no evidence of edge effect on the small-mammal assemblages for richness, species composition, diversity and species abundance, but there was an apparent edge-interior gradient in the vegetation (e.g., understorey plants and bamboos). Results are discussed in the light of a supposed plasticity to environmental change faced by the small mammals from the Cerrado biome combined to a relatively good conservation of edges, since the structural parameters were rather similar between edges and interiors, despite the observed gradient up to 90 m within the remnants. Fences protecting edges from cattle and absence of water for cattle consuming in remnants were thought to be the main reasons for the observed edge conservation.

Schmitt J.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Belle C.,Federal University of Pelotas
Nematropica | Year: 2016

The objective of this study was to evaluate, in a greenhouse, the reaction of 16 soybean cultivars to Meloidogyne javanica and M. incognita. The tested soybean cultivars were the same for the two assays. The cultivars were inoculated with 5,000 eggs + second-stage juveniles (J2) of Meloidogyne from cultures maintained in the greenhouse. After 60 d the roots of each plant were evaluated for the number of galls, final population, and reproduction factor (RF = final population/initial population). The averages of the different variables were compared by the grouping test Scott-Knott (5%). All evaluated soybean cultivars behaved as susceptible to M. javanica and M. incognita.

Tartaruga M.P.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Mota C.B.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Peyre-Tartaruga L.A.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Brisswalter J.,University of Nice Sophia Antipolis
International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance | Year: 2014

Purpose: To identify the effect of allometric scaling on the relationship between running efficiency (REff) and middle-distance-running performance according to performance level. Methods: Thirteen male recreational middle-distance runners (mean ± SD age 33.3 ± 8.4 y, body mass 76.4 ± 8.6 kg, maximal oxygen uptake [VO2max] 52.8 ± 4.6 mL · kg-1 · min-1; G1) and 13 male high-level middle-distance runners (age 25.5 ± 4.2 y, body mass 62.8 ± 2.7 kg, VO2max 70.4 ± 1.9 mL · kg-1 · min-1; G2) performed a continuous incremental test to volitional exhaustion to determine VO2max and a 6-min submaximal running test at 70% of VO2max to assess REff. Results: Significant correlation between REff and performance were found for both groups; however, the strongest correlations were observed in recreational runners, especially when using the allometric exponent (respectively for G1, nonallometric vs allometric scaling: r =.80 vs r =.86; and for G2, nonallometric vs allometric scaling: r =.55 vs r =.50). Conclusion: These results indicate that an allometric normalization may improve endurance-performance prediction from REff values in recreational, but not in elite, runners. © 2014 Human Kinetics, Inc.

Ebone M.V.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Cavalli S.B.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Lopes S.J.,Federal University of Santa Maria
Revista de Nutricao | Year: 2011

Objective: The objective of this study was to analyze the hygiene and sanitation strategies employed by food services of Florianópolis (SC), Brazil. Methods: The sample consisted of 105 food services. Managers were interviewed using an adapted instrument that covers the characterization of the places, their size, their legal form, number of seats, number of meals served and description of the systems and activities related to quality management. The analyses were done by the software NTIA 4.2.2 using the chi-square test and by the software BioEstat 5.0 using the G-test for the contingency tables. The open questions were transcribed and the information was categorized into the most common themes mentioned by the managers for analysis. Results: Most establishments (78.8%) used some quality system or activity, mainly the good practices (58.9%) and Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) (18.6%). More than half (51.1%) the managers of establishments that had no quality systems or activities reported not being aware of them. Managers believed it was necessary to improve the facilities, their equipment and utensils, and personnel training. Conclusion: Food services need improvements to provide safer foods. Owners and managers have to be made aware of the importance of serving foods that do not jeopardize the health of their customers.

Farias R.L.S.,Federal University of Sao Joao del Rei | Farias R.L.S.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Gomes K.P.,Federal University of Sao Joao del Rei | Krein G.,Sao Paulo State University | Pinto M.B.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics | Year: 2014

Although asymptotic freedom is an essential feature of QCD, it is absent in effective chiral quark models like the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio and linear sigma models. In this work we advocate that asymptotic freedom plays a key role in the recently observed discrepancies between results of lattice QCD simulations and quark models regarding the behavior of the pseudocritical temperature Tpc for chiral-symmetry restoration in the presence of a magnetic field B. We show that the lattice predictions that Tpc decreases with B can be reproduced within the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model if the coupling constant G of the model decreases with B and the temperature. Without aiming at numerical precision, we support our claim by considering a simple ansatz for G that mimics the asymptotic-freedom behavior of the QCD coupling constant 1/αs∼ln(eB/ΛQCD2) for large values of B. © 2014 American Physical Society.

Loreto E.S.,Federal University of Santa Maria
Mycopathologia | Year: 2010

Candida dubliniensis is an emerging pathogen first described in 1995, which shares many phenotypic features with Candida albicans and therefore may be misidentified in microbial laboratories. Despite various phenotypic techniques described in the literature to differentiate the two species, the correct identification of C. dubliniensis remains problematic due to phenotypic similarities between these species. Thus, as the differences between both are best characterized at genetic levels, several molecular methods have been proposed to provide a specific and rapid identification of this species. Epidemiological studies have shown that C. dubliniensis is prevalent throughout the world and it is primarily associated with oral carriage and oropharyngeal infections in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). However, data acquired from its isolation from other healthy and immunocompromised patients are variable, and there is still no real consensus on the epidemiological relevance of this species. In this article, we review the various phenotypic methods used in the identification of C. dubliniensis and the epidemiological impact of this new species.

Llibre J.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Da Silva M.F.,Federal University of Santa Maria
International Journal of Bifurcation and Chaos | Year: 2016

We provide the nine topological global phase portraits in the Poincaré disk of the family of the centers of Kukles polynomial differential systems of the form x. = -y, = x + ax5y + bx3y3 + cxy5, where x,y and a,b,c are real parameters satisfying a2 + b2 + c2=0. Using averaging theory up to sixth order we determine the number of limit cycles which bifurcate from the origin when we perturb this system first inside the class of all homogeneous polynomial differential systems of degree 6, and second inside the class of all polynomial differential systems of degree 6. © 2016 World Scientific Publishing Company.

Battistel O.A.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Dallabona G.,Federal University of Lavras
International Journal of Modern Physics A | Year: 2014

The questions related to the consistent interpretation of QFT perturbative amplitudes are considered in light of a novel procedure, alternative to the traditional ones based on regularization prescriptions. A detailed discussion about the aspects associated to the space-time dimension is performed. For this purpose, it is considered a simple model having a fermionic vector current, coupled to a vector field, as well as a fermionic scalar current, coupled to a scalar field, both of them composed by different species of massive fermions. The referred currents are related in a precise way, which is reflected in the Ward identities for the perturbative physical amplitudes. The double vector two-point fermionic function, related to the vacuum polarization tensor of QED, as well as the amplitudes related to such quantity through relations among Green functions are explicit evaluated in space-time dimensions d = 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6. In the adopted procedure the perturbative amplitudes are not modified in intermediary steps of the calculations, as occurs in regularization procedures. Divergent Feynman integrals are not really solved. They appear only in standard objects, conveniently defined, where no physical parameter is present. Only very general properties for such quantities are assumed. For the finite parts, a set of functions is introduced which allows universal forms for the results. We show that scale independent, ambiguity free amplitudes are automatically obtained in a regularization independent way. As a consequence, interesting and, in certain way, surprising aspects are revealed in a clear and transparent way when the Ward identities and low-energy limits are verified for the simple amplitudes considered in the presently reported investigation. The obtained results suggest that the procedure can be considered as an advantageous tool to handle with the problem of divergences in perturbative solutions of QFT's, relative to the traditional regularization techniques, since the obtained results are so consistent as desirable and there are no limitations of applicability. In particular, the method can be applied in odd and even space-time dimensions having extra dimensions, which is not possible within the context of traditional regularization. © 2014 World Scientific Publishing Company.

Maziero J.,Federal University of Pampa | Maziero J.,Federal University of Santa Maria
Brazilian Journal of Physics | Year: 2014

Using the relative entropy of total correlation, we derive an expression relating the mutual information of n-partite pure states to the sum of the mutual informations and entropies of its marginals and analyze some of its implications. Besides, by utilizing the extended strong subadditivity of von Neumann entropy, we obtain generalized monogamy relations for the total correlation in three-partite mixed states. These inequalities lead to a tight lower bound for this correlation in terms of the sum of the bipartite mutual informations. We use this bound to propose a measure for residual three-partite total correlation and discuss the non-applicability of this kind of quantifier to measure genuine multiparty correlations. © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Física.

Amaral M.,Sao Paulo State University | Belli R.,Friedrich - Alexander - University, Erlangen - Nuremberg | Cesar P.F.,University of Sao Paulo | Valandro L.F.,Federal University of Santa Maria | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Dentistry | Year: 2014

Objectives To investigate the adhesive potential of novel zirconia primers and universal adhesives to surface-treated zirconia substrates. Methods Zirconia bars were manufactured (3.0 mm × 3.0 mm × 9.0 mm) and treated as follows: no treatment (C); air abrasion with 35 μm alumina particles (S); air abrasion with 30 μm silica particles using one of two systems (Rocatec or SilJet) and; glazing (G). Groups C and S were subsequentially treated with one of the following primers or adhesives: ZP (Z-Prime Plus), AZ (AZ Primer); MP (Monobond Plus); SU (ScotchBond Universal) and; EA (an Experimental Adhesive). Groups Rocatec and SilJet were silanized prior to cementation. Samples form group G were further etched and silanized. Bars were cemented (Multilink) onto bars of a silicate-based ceramic (3.0 mm × 3.0 mm × 9.0 mm) at 90 angle, thermocycled (2.500 cycles, 5-55 C, 30 s dwell time), and tested in tensile strength test. Failure analysis was performed on fractured specimens to measure the bonding area and crack origin. Results Specimens from group C did not survive thermocycling, while CMP, CSU and CEA groups survived thermocycling but rendered low values of bond strength. All primers presented a better bond performance after air abrasion with Al2O3 particles. SilJet was similar to Rocatec, both presenting the best bond strength results, along with SMP, SSU and CEA. G promoted intermediate bond strength values. Failure mode was predominately adhesive on zirconia surface combined to cohesive of the luting agent. Conclusions Universal adhesives (MP, SU, EA) may be a considerable alternative for bonding to zirconia, but air abrasion is still previously required. Air abrasion with silica particles followed by silane application also presented high bond strength values. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Pachaly R.,Federal University of Santa Maria
Acta odontológica latinoamericana : AOL | Year: 2012

The aim of this study was to assess in vitro the surface roughness (Ra) of human enamel exposed or not exposed to the action of a bleaching agent containing 10% carbamide peroxide (CP) after brushing with different dentifrices. Ninety-six human enamel specimens were divided into 2 groups: GI--exposed to the action of 10% CP; GII--not exposed. These were subdivided into 4 brushing subgroups: (CEW) Close-Up Extra Whitening, (CUB) Colgate Ultra Branco, (CCP) Crest Cavity Protection and (DW) Deionized Water. The specimens from Group GI were exposed to 10% CP for 6 hours/14 days and those from Group GII were stored in artificial saliva for 14 days. Then they were submitted to 35.600 brushing cycles. Ra was measured before and after brushing. Ra difference was compared by two-way ANOVA. Ra was compared between subgroups using ANOVA and Tukey's test. Ra was compared between groups using T-test (alpha = 0.05). Final and initial Ra were compared by Paired t-test; using SPSS (15.0). Two-way ANOVA difference in the outcome revealed that the use of bleaching agent did not affect the difference in Ra (p = 0.45). Brushing significantly influenced the difference in Ra (p < 0.001), but the interaction between the two factors was not significant (p = 0.20). Among the brushing subgroups, a significant increase in Ra was observed for Subgroup CEW--GI: Rai 0.691 (0.112)a, Raf 0.993 (0.264)a; Raf-Rai: 0.303a (43. 7%)--G2: Rai 0.794 (0.167)a, Raf 1.006 (0.488)a; Raf-Rai: 0.212a (26.7%) with a statistical difference for Subgroup CUB--GI: Rai 0.639 (0.163)a, Raf 0.506 (0.113)b; Raf-Rai: -0.133b (-20.8%)--GII: Rai 0.647(0.166)a, Raf 0.472b (0.260); Raf-Rai: -0.134b (-0.27%). Regardless of whether or not the enamel had been exposed to 10% CP, Ra values varied according to the abrasives in the composition of the different dentifrices.

Gubert P.,Federal University of Minas Gerais | Aguiar G.C.,Federal University of Minas Gerais | Mourao T.,Federal University of Minas Gerais | Bridi J.C.,Federal University of Minas Gerais | And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Atypical antipsychotics are associated with metabolic syndrome, primarily associated with weight gain. The effects of Ziprasidone, an atypical antipsychotic, on metabolic syndrome has yet to be evaluated. Here in, we evaluated lipid accumulation and behavioral changes in a new experimental model, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). Behavioral parameters in the worms were evaluated 24 h after Ziprasidone treatment. Subsequently, lipid accumulation was examined using Nile red, LipidTox green and BODIPY labeling. Ziprasidone at 40 μM for 24 h effectively decreased the fluorescence labeling of all markers in intestinal cells of C. elegans compared to control (0.16% dimethyl sulfoxide). Ziprasidone did not alter behaviors related to energetic balance, such as pharynx pumping, defecation cycles and movement. There was, however, a reduction in egg-production, egg-laying and body-length in nematodes exposed to Ziprasidone without any changes in the progression of larval stages. The serotoninergic pathway did not appear to modulate Ziprasidone's effects on Nile red fluorescence. Additionally, Ziprasidone did not alter lipid accumulation in daf-16 or crh-1 deletion mutants (orthologous of the transcription factors DAF-16 and CREB, respectively). These results suggest that Ziprasidone alters reproductive behavior, morphology and lipid reserves in the intestinal cells of C. elegans. Our results highlight that the DAF-16 and CREB transcription factors are essential for Ziprasidone-induced fat store reduction. © 2013 Gubert et al.

Debien I.C.N.,University of Campinas | Rigo A.A.,URI Integrated Regional University Brazil | Mazutti M.A.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Oliveira J.V.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Meireles M.A.A.,University of Campinas
Journal of Supercritical Fluids | Year: 2013

Biodegradable polymers have received increased attention due to their potential applications in the medicine and food industries; in particular, poly(L-lactic acid) (PLA) is of primary importance because of its biocompatibility and resorbable features. Recently, the synthesis of this biopolymer through the enzyme-catalyzed ring-opening polymerization of L-lactic acid in a compressed fluid has been considered promising. The aim of this work was to report the phase equilibrium data (cloud points) of the L-lactic acid + (propane + ethanol) and the L-lactic acid + (carbon dioxide + ethanol) systems. The phase equilibrium experiments were conducted in a variable-volume view cell employing the static synthetic method. These experiments were conducted in the temperature range of 323.15-353.15 K and at pressures up to 25 MPa; the mass ratio of ethanol to either CO2 or propane was maintained at 1:9. The L-lactic acid + (propane + ethanol) system exhibited vapor-liquid, liquid-liquid and vapor-liquid-liquid transitions, whereas the L-lactic acid + (carbon dioxide + ethanol) system only exhibited liquid-liquid type transitions. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

de Lima D.O.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Azambuja B.O.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Camilotti V.L.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Caceres N.C.,Federal University of Santa Maria
Zoologia | Year: 2010

We investigated the richness, composition, and species relative abundance of a terrestrial small mammal community in a Deciduous Forest area in the austral boundary of the Atlantic Forest. The microhabitat use of the most common species was also investigated. Six rodents - Akodon montensis (Thomas, 1913), Oligoryzomys nigripes (Olfers, 1818), Sooretamys angouya (Thomas, 1913), Thaptomys nigrita (Lichtenstein, 1829), Mus musculus (Linnaeus, 1758) and Juliomys sp. - and one marsupial - Didelphis albiventris (Lund, 1840) - were captured. Thaptomys nigrita is recorded in the state of Rio Grande do Sul for the first time. Species richness was poor when compared with communities in the central portions of the Atlantic Forest, but equivalent to that found in the Araucaria and Dense Ombrophilous forests of southern Brazil. The species most often captured in our study, A. montensis and O. nigripes, are also the most common in the majority of faunistic studies carried out in the Atlantic Forest. Akodon montensis and S. angouya used places with high abundance of bamboo, possibly to avoid predators. Oligorizomys nigripes used areas with a high density of scrubs, what could facilitate aboveground movements, and was negatively correlated to mature forest indicators, which reinforce the idea that this species has opportunistic habits. © 2010 Sociedade Brasileira de Zoologia.

Zanella N.,University Of Passo Fundo | Cechin S.Z.,Federal University of Santa Maria
Zoologia | Year: 2010

The reproductive cycles of snakes can be influenced by many factors, both biotic and abiotic, and information about these factors can contribute significantly to knowledge of the biology of many species. Here, we present data on the reproductive biology (body size, sexual dimorphism and female reproductive cycle) of the forest-dwelling colubrid Echinanthera cyanopleura (Cope, 1885), based on analyses of 128 specimens preserved in collections and originating from the states of Paraná, Santa Catarina, and Rio Grande do Sul in southern Brazil. The snout-vent length of females was significantly greater than in males. The tail length of mature females was greater than in males, although this difference was not significant. Vitellogenesis occurs from August to December and eggs were found in greater frequency from October through December. Juveniles were found in larger numbers beginning in February, indicating that recruitment occurs from January to April. The reproductive cycle of this species is seasonal, which is usual for oviparous colubrids of temperate areas of Brazil. © 2010 Sociedade Brasileira de Zoologia.

Barcellos L.J.G.,University Of Passo Fundo | Marqueze A.,Unilassale Centro Universitario Lassalle | Trapp M.,Centro Universitario Feevale | Quevedo R.M.,University Of Passo Fundo | Ferreira D.,Federal University of Santa Maria
Aquaculture | Year: 2010

Both in nature and in aquaculture, fishes could experience periods of food deprivation or starvation. The hormonal regulation of metabolism in fishes is a complex process that involves several factors, including cortisol. Data about the effects of fasting on cortisol level were inconsistent, from no effect of starvation to a decrease or increase in cortisol level in fasted fish. Because of these highly variable results, it is not safe to speculate about the effects of fasting on cortisol levels in Rhamdia quelen. Thus, the present work aimed to elucidate the role of cortisol in controlling metabolism during fasting periods. Jundiás were distributed in five experimental groups. The first group was considered as the control and was fed normally. Jundiás of the second group were fasted for a 1-day period and then re-fed and those in the third group were fasted for 7 days and then re-fed. The fourth group was fasted for a 14-day period and then re-fed. The fifth batch was fasted for 21 days and then re-fed. Fasting periods of 7, 14, and 21 days significantly increased plasma cortisol levels compared with the control, with a return to basal level after 4 days of re-feeding. Blood glucose values remained unchanged during fasting with a low nonsignificant variation. At the end of the 7-, 14-, and 21-day fasting period, liver glycogen content was depleted, but 2 days after re-feeding, liver glycogen increased with values ranging from 1.1 to 3.5 times those of control concentrations. In contrast, no starvation effect was verified in the muscle glycogen. In conclusion, the variation in cortisol levels within treatment is suggestive of a functional role in control of intermediary metabolism during fasting in R. quelen. The early and large depletion of liver glycogen in fasted fish also suggests that this is a primary energy source in periods of food restriction. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Braun N.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | de Lima R.L.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Baldisserotto B.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Dafre A.L.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | de Oliveira Nuner A.P.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Aquaculture | Year: 2010

The dourado Salminus brasiliensis is a freshwater species found in major South American rivers and has recently been cultivated in cage systems. As stocking density and handling are known stress factors in cage systems, we studied the combined effect of stocking density (of 30, 150 and 300 fish m-3) and fish handling (consisting of the pursuit, capture and exposure of the fish to air for 30 s) on growth as well as biochemical and physiological responses of S. brasiliensis fingerlings. The endpoints measured were as follows: standard length and weight, blood hematocrit (Ht) and hemoglobin (Hb), plasma glucose and lactate, hepatic activities of the antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and catalase (CAT), and the concentrations of Na+, K+, Cl- and Ca2+ in the gills and plasma of S. brasiliensis fingerlings. Samples were taken every 20 days until the end of the experiment, on the 80th day. S. brasiliensis fingerlings that were not handled exhibited reduced growth at increased densities. In contrast, handled fish exhibited slower growth at all densities, suggesting that the effect of handling was greater than the effect of density in these fish. Enzymes related to oxidative stress were influenced by handling, indicating that stress is an important modulator of the antioxidant response. Antioxidant defenses were negatively influenced by handling, but only slightly influenced by density. On the 80th day, the Hb concentration, enzymatic activity of GR, GST, GPx and CAT in the liver, and concentrations of Na+ and Cl- in the gills were higher in fish that had not been handled, in contrast to the glucose concentration, which was higher in the handled fish. However, the activity of GPx was influenced by stocking density in handled fish. The Ht and the concentrations of lactate, Na+, K+, Cl- and Ca2+ were not influenced by the stress factors of stocking density or handling. The growth of S. brasiliensis was negatively affected by frequent handling stress, whereas stocking density only affected growth when fish were not handled, thus overcoming the effect caused by high densities. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Caceres N.C.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Napoli R.P.,Bioconsult Associados Ltda. | Casella J.,Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul | Hannibal W.,Rua Pedro Pace
Journal of Natural History | Year: 2010

Mammal abundance, richness, and community structure were examined in fragments of savannah and in gallery forests of south-western Brazil in order to assess the influence of fragment size and habitat on the communities. Five savannah fragments and two gallery forests were sampled. Within the savannah fragments, environmental parameters such as tree and shrub densities were measured. Live-traps and pitfalls were used for trapping small mammals; larger mammals were recorded from footprints and sightings. Seventeen species of small mammal and 15 species of large mammal were recorded. Small mammals were affected by fragment size and isolation, whereas larger mammals were not. Communities of small mammals were better structured in the largest fragments, and those in smaller fragments were subsets of the communities in larger fragments. Gallery forests revealed a rather different assemblage of mammals, but also contained species common to both gallery and large savannah remnants. Data are discussed relating mammal community structure to area size and vegetation structure, in an attempt to understand the present conservation status of this fragmented landscape. © 2010 Taylor & Francis.

Hannibal W.,Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul | Caceres N.C.,Federal University of Santa Maria
Mammalia | Year: 2010

We examined the community composition and abundance of small mammals in the vertical strata of gallery forests and woodland savannahs in south-western Brazil. Captures were carried out during the winter and summer months of 2006/2007. Traps were set in three transect lines per habitat, with 10 capture stations on each line. Each station had three traps: on the ground, in the understorey (2-3 m in height), and in the canopy (8-10 m) in each physiognomy. With an effort of 3600 trap-nights, 11 species of small mammals were captured, which were distributed differently regarding the forest physiognomies and utilisation of vertical strata. The species showed a high degree of habitat segregation in the two physiognomies, with only the climbing-rat Rhipidomys macrurus found in both habitats. The correspondence analysis revealed that Caluromys philander occurred mostly in the canopy; Cryptonanus agricolai, Marmosa murina, and Oecomys bicolor in the understorey; and Gracilinanus agilis and Nectomys rattus on the ground. The utilisation of traps in different strata increased species richness in the Cerrado biome, showing that the small-mammal community is distributed along the vertical complexity of the forest and even in different physiognomies, enabling more species to coexist. © 2010 by Walter de Gruyter Berlin New York.

Bizzi C.A.,Federal University of Santa Maria
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2013

The mineral content of 10 commercially available milk-based infant formulas widely consumed in Brazil was investigated. The levels of elements (Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, and Zn) were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry after microwave-assisted wet digestion. The results were compared with the producers' label declarations and levels proposed by the Codex Alimentarius and the Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency. The obtained results were in good agreement with certified reference materials, and the relative standard deviation of the measurements was always below 10%, with the exception of Cu (up to 14%). A high degree of variation between the experimental and producers' data was found for trace elements among different brands, with differences as high as 41 and 68% for Cu and Zn, respectively. The content of minerals in the starting formulas was in accordance with levels established by the Codex Alimentarius, with the exception of 1 brand that had a Zn level that was not in agreement with the Codex minimum value. Among follow-up formulas, 2 brands contained levels of Ca and K that were higher than the maximum established by Brazilian standards, and 1 brand contained less than the minimum value recommended for Zn. The guidance upper levels have not been established in the Codex Alimentarius for follow-up formulas, and the maximum value has been established for only 2 of the analyzed minerals. This lack of a standard could be a problem; as shown in the present study, if the Brazilian standard is used, several formulas could be considered out of specification. Despite the limited number of samples evaluated in this work, the levels of some elements were out of specification and special attention by the Brazilian government on the content of minerals in infant formulas is needed. © 2013 American Dairy Science Association.

Miguel L.F.F.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Miguel L.F.F.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Kaminski Jr. J.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Riera J.D.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul
Expert Systems with Applications | Year: 2012

Damage in structural systems induced by vibrations, alternating load cycles, temperature changes, corrosion, etc.; constitute a serious technical problem. Smart methods of control and structural health monitoring (SHM) for large structures are, therefore, highly needed. In certain structural applications, moreover, a lack of access to the damaged area imposes an additional constraint on damage identification procedures. One method that may fulfill those requirements is dynamic nondestructive testing, which consists of monitoring changes in the structure's natural frequencies, vibration modes and damping. In this paper, a new approach for vibration-based (SHM) procedures is presented, in an ambient vibration context; this method combines a time domain modal identification technique (SSI) with the evolutionary harmony search algorithm. A series of numerical examples with different damage scenarios and noise levels have been carried out under impact and ambient vibration. Thereafter, an experimental study of three cantilever beams with several different damage scenarios is conducted and the proposed methodology has shown potential for use in the damage diagnosis assessment of the remaining structural life. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Dos Santos B.P.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Valverde J.V.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Rohr P.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Monticielo O.A.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | And 4 more authors.
Lupus | Year: 2012

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease and can affect several organs and systems. It is characterized by high production of autoantibodies against nuclear compounds. TLR7/8/9 are responsible for nucleic acid recognition and they trigger proinflammatory responses through activation of NK-kappaB and Type I IFN production, making a bridge between the innate and the adaptative immune systems. We analyzed the frequency of TLR7 rs179008, TLR8 rs3764880, TLR9 rs5743836 and rs352140 in 370 patients with SLE and 415 healthy controls from southern Brazil. All analyses were conducted with regard to gender and ethnicity. Genotypic and allelic frequencies were different for TLR7 rs179008 (0.253 vs. 0.163, p = 0.020 and p = 0.003, OR for T allele: 1.74 CI 95% 1.12-2.70) and TLR9 rs5743836 (0.174 vs. 0.112, p = 0.045 and p = 0.017, OR for C allele: 1.59, CI 95% 0.99-2.57) between European-derived female groups. A higher frequency was observed for the presence of Anti-SSa/Ro for TRL9 rs5743836 C allele carriers (0.228 vs 0.126, Bonferroni corrected p = 0.06). No statistical differences were found for TLR9 haplotypic analyses. We suggest that TLR7 rs179008 and TLR9 rs5743836 can be considered SLE susceptibility factors for women of European descent in our population. © The Author(s), 2012.

Monks L.,URI Integrated Regional University Brazil | Tiggamann L.,URI Integrated Regional University Brazil | Mazuti M.A.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Oliveira V.J.,URI Integrated Regional University Brazil | Valduga E.,URI Integrated Regional University Brazil
Food and Bioprocess Technology | Year: 2012

The increasing demand for carotenoids by industries has drawn attention to their bio-production. Since pigments are intracellular, extraction steps are then needed after cell cultivation. In this work, different strategies for extraction of carotenoid pigments from Sporidiobolus salmonicolor (CBS 2636) were investigated. The cell rupture was carried out using dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), two pure compressed fluids, supercritical carbon dioxide and propane, and also a combination of pressurized fluid treatment followed by liquid DMSO. Dichloromethane, ethanol, ethyl acetate, and acetone were tested for the carotenoids extraction. Results obtained show that when multiple solvents were used a synergetic effect on the extent of carotenoids recovery was verified. Maximum concentration of total carotenoids (2,875 μg/L) was obtained in the treatment using supercritical CO 2 (300 bar/120 min) followed by dimethyl sulfoxide to disrupt the cell, and then the extraction with a solution of acetone/methanol (7:3, v/v). © 2011 Springer Science + Business Media, LLC.

The CALM/AF10 fusion gene is found in various hematological malignancies including acute myeloid leukemia (AML), T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia and malignant lymphoma. We have previously identified the leukemia stem cell (LSC) in a CALM/AF10-driven murine bone marrow transplant AML model as B220+ lymphoid cells with B-cell characteristics. To identify the target cell for leukemic transformation or ‘cell of origin of leukemia’ (COL) in non-disturbed steady-state hematopoiesis, we inserted the CALM/AF10 fusion gene preceded by a loxP-flanked transcriptional stop cassette into the Rosa26 locus. Vav-Cre-induced panhematopoietic expression of the CALM/AF10 fusion gene led to acute leukemia with a median latency of 12 months. Mice expressing CALM/AF10 in the B-lymphoid compartment using Mb1-Cre or CD19-Cre inducer lines did not develop leukemia. Leukemias had a predominantly myeloid phenotype but showed coexpression of the B-cell marker B220, and had clonal B-cell receptor rearrangements. Using whole-exome sequencing, we identified an average of two to three additional mutations per leukemia, including activating mutations in known oncogenes such as FLT3 and PTPN11. Our results show that the COL for CALM/AF10 leukemia is a stem or early progenitor cell and not a cell of B-cell lineage with a phenotype similar to that of the LSC in CALM/AF10+ leukemia.Leukemia advance online publication, 22 January 2016; doi:10.1038/leu.2015.349. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited

de Almeida J.M.,Federal University of ABC | Kar T.,Utah State University | Piquini P.,Federal University of Santa Maria
Physics Letters, Section A: General, Atomic and Solid State Physics | Year: 2010

Semiconductor optoelectronic devices based on GaN and on InGaN or AlGaN alloys and superlattices can operate in a wide range of wavelengths, from far infrared to near ultraviolet region. The efficiency of these devices could be enhanced by shrinking the size and increasing the density of the semiconductor components. Nanostructured materials are natural candidates to fulfill these requirements. Here we use the density functional theory to study the electronic and structural properties of (10, 0) GaN, AlN, AlxGa1 - xN nanotubes and GaN/AlxGa1 - xN heterojunctions, 0 < x < 1. The AlxGa1 - xN nanotubes exhibit direct band gaps for the whole range of Al compositions, with band gaps varying from 3.45 to 4.85 eV, and a negative band gap bowing coefficient of -0.14 eV. The GaN/AlxGa1 - xN nanotube heterojunctions show a type-I band alignment, with the valence band offsets showing a non-linear dependence with the Al content in the nanotube alloy. The results show the possibility of engineering the band gaps and band offsets of these III-nitrides nanotubes by alloying on the cation sites. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Bergoli C.D.,Sao Paulo State University | Amaral M.,Sao Paulo State University | Valandro L.F.,Federal University of Santa Maria
Journal of Adhesion | Year: 2012

This study evaluated the effect of different thickness of disk-shaped specimens on the push-out bond strength test. Eighteen lower bovine teeth were sectioned (20mm) and prepared (15mm) with the same post system drill (Light Post® #1, Schaumburg, IL, Bisco, USA). The apical third of each specimen was embedded in a plastic matrix filled with an acrylic resin (Dencrilay™, Dencril, Sao Paulo, Brazil). The posts were cleaned with alcohol, silanated (ProSil®, FGM, Joenville, SC, Brazil) and cemented with the RelyX™ U100 (3M ESPE, St. Paul, MN, USA). Each specimen was sectioned into three pieces of differing thicknesses (1, 2, and 4mm). These disk-samples were allocated into 3 groups (n=18) and subjected to push-out testing. One-way ANOVA showed no influence of the specimen thickness on the results (p=0.842). No correlation was observed between thickness and push-out bond strength (Pearson Correlation, r 2=0.0688; P=0.6209). The push-out bond strength test was not affected by the thickness of the disk-specimens. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Currently, the Motor Praxeology is a meaningful glance at games and sports and it focuses on understanding the operational core of these manifestations. In this article, based on the universals of games and sports by Pierre Parlebas, I have made some analyses regarding the internal logic of Collective Sport Games using handball as an example, thus unveiling essential characteristics that have been little explored and considered in the comprehension process and, accordingly, in the teaching process. The study points out the need to deepen still more the reflections that approach and place the praxeological knowledge as to the training of teachers and students, so that we can build better and in depth sport knowledge, taking into account the Physical Education critical approaches.

Cureau F.V.,Federal University of Pelotas | Duarte P.,Federal University of Pelotas | Lopes Dos Santos D.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Reichert F.F.,Federal University of Pelotas
Journal of Physical Activity and Health | Year: 2014

Background: Few studies have investigated the prevalence and correlates of risk factors for noncommunicable diseases among Brazilian adolescents. We evaluated the clustering of risk factors and their associations with sociodemographic variables. Methods: We used a cross-sectional study carried out in 2011 comprising 1132 students aged 14-19 years from Santa Maria, Brazil. The cluster index was created as the sum of the risk factors. For the correlates analysis, a multinomial logistic regression was used. Furthermore, the observed/expected ratio was calculated. Results: Prevalence of individual risk factors studied was as follows: 85.8% unhealthy diets, 53.5% physical inactivity, 31.3% elevated blood pressure, 23.9% overweight, 22.3% excessive drinking alcohol, and 8.6% smoking. Only 2.8% of the adolescents did not present any risk factor, while 21.7%, 40.9%, 23.1%, and 11.5% presented 1, 2, 3, and 4 or more risk factors, respectively. The most prevalent combination was between unhealthy diets and physical inactivity (observed/expected ratio =1.32; 95% CI: 1.16-1.49). Clustering of risk factors was directly associated with age and inversely associated with socioeconomic status. Conclusions: Clustering of risk factors for noncommunicable diseases is high in Brazilian adolescents. Preventive strategies are more likely to be successful if focusing on multiple risk factors, instead of a single one. © 2014 Human Kinetics, Inc.

Hoss M.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Ten Caten C.S.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul
International Journal of Production Research | Year: 2013

Academia has produced theoretical and practical knowledge about lean for over 30 years, and for that reason, research is in a mature phase. To organise this knowledge, we propose a typology of lean schools of thought. Schools were categorised into two paradigms of organisational analysis - interpretivist and functionalist - to clarify theoretical assumptions about how each conducts scientific investigations and what contributions they generate. Seven schools were identified: systems engineering, systems architecture, operations research, organisational development, contingency systems, socio-technical systems and evolutionary. Persistent practical problems should guide production and operations management research such as the difficulties companies face with adoption and sustainability of lean practices. The typology proposed in this study provides a theoretical framework and a respective school for these problematical situations. The evolutionary school in the interpretivist paradigm seems to be more appropriate; action research as a methodology should be used since it is consistent with interpretivism assumptions. The originality of this paper lies within a proposal of lean schools of thought not found in the literature. Directions for research that have more meaning for companies seeking lean transformation are proposed. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Ardenghi T.M.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Piovesan C.,Centro Universitario Franciscano | Antunes J.L.F.,University of Sao Paulo
Revista de Saude Publica | Year: 2014

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of social inequalities of individual and contextual nature on untreated dental caries in Brazilian children. METHODS: The data on the prevalence of dental caries were obtained from the Brazilian Oral Health Survey (SBBrasil 2010) Project, an epidemiological survey of oral health with a representative sample for the country and each of the geographical micro-regions. Children aged five (n = 7,217) in 177 municipalities were examined and their parents/guardians completed a questionnaire. Contextual characteristics referring to the municipalities in 2010 (mean income, fluorodized water and proportion of residences with water supply) were supplied by the Fundação Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics). Multilevel Poisson regression analysis models were used to assess associations. RESULTS: The prevalence of non-treated dental caries was 48.2%; more than half of the sample had at least one deciduous tooth affected by dental caries. The index of dental caries in deciduous teeth was 2.41, with higher figures in the North and Northeast. Black and brown children and those from lower income families had a higher prevalence of untreated dental caries. With regards context, the mean income in the municipality and the addition of fluoride to the water supply were inversely associated with the prevalence of the outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Inequalities in the prevalence of untreated dental caries remain, affecting deciduous teeth of children in Brazil. Planning public policies to promote oral health should consider the effect of contextual factors as a determinant of individual risk.

Kirsten V.R.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Kirsten V.R.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Wagner M.B.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul
Appetite | Year: 2014

The aim of this study was to identify the salt taste sensitivity thresholds and relationships with body composition and blood pressure levels in a cross-sectional study of adolescents. Blood pressure and body composition were measured with a digital device and by anthropometry, respectively. The salt taste sensitivity threshold was measured with 9 solutions with different sodium chloride concentrations to assess the sensitivity to saltiness. The solutions (4, 8, 15, 30, 60, 120, 250, 500 and 1000 mmol/L sodium chloride) were served in increasing concentrations until the taste was correctly identified. The taste sensitivity threshold was then classified as normal or high. In total, 421 adolescents (55.6% female), with an average age of 15.8 ± 0.91 years, were evaluated. The median threshold was 30 mmol/L, and 36.1% had a high threshold. The high blood pressure prevalence was 12.6%, and 25.5% of the subjects were overweight. When the mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels were compared between the normal and increased threshold groups after adjusting for gender, age, sedentary lifestyle and body mass index, only diastolic blood pressure showed a statistically significant effect (P < 0.0001) between the groups. The effect of a high threshold on body composition after adjusting for gender, age and physical inactivity was not significant (P = 0.177). There was no relationship between a high threshold and systolic pressure or body composition in the evaluated adolescents; therefore, only diastolic blood pressure was affected. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Biacchi G.R.,Institute and Research Center Sao Leopoldo Mandic | Biacchi G.R.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Mello B.,Institute and Research Center Sao Leopoldo Mandic | Basting R.T.,Institute and Research Center Sao Leopoldo Mandic
Journal of Esthetic and Restorative Dentistry | Year: 2013

Endocrown-type restorations are single prostheses fabricated from reinforced ceramics that can be acid etched, indicated for endodontically treated molar teeth that have significant loss of coronal structure. Endocrowns are formed from a monoblock containing the coronal portion integrated into the apical projection that fills the pulp chamber space, and possibly the root canal entrances. In this study, the proposal was to discuss the indication and use of the endocrown to replace single crowns with intraradicular retention, and to present a clinical case report on the 3-year follow-up of an endocrown-type restoration, fabricated from injected lithium disilicate ceramic (IPS e.Max Press/Ivoclar Vivadent) in a mandibular first molar with extensive coronal destruction from fracture. It was found that endocrown restorations could be made following the development of reinforced ceramics that can be acid etched, that have aggregate strength and esthetics, that bond to the dental structure, and that have developed from broader knowledge of the biomechanical behavior of depulped teeth restored with and without intraradicular posts. Clinical studies have shown that the endocrown has functional longevity, and has become a promising alternative in the esthetic and functional recovery of endodontically treated molar teeth. Clinical Significance It should be borne in mind that endocrowns offer advantages for the restoration of depulped molar teeth, insofar as they promote adequate function and offer adequate esthetics, and also maintain the biomechanical integrity of the compromised structure of non-vital posterior teeth. By eliminating the use of a post and filling core, the number of adhesive bond interfaces is reduced, thus making the restoration less susceptible to the adverse effects of degradation of the hybrid layer. In this clinical case, the 3-year survival of the endocrown restoration may be considered successful. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Dall'Agnol M.M.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Dall'Agnol M.M.,Federal University of Pelotas | Fassa A.G.,Federal University of Pelotas | Facchini L.A.,Federal University of Pelotas
Cadernos de Saude Publica | Year: 2011

This cross-sectional study assessed the association between smoking and child and adolescent labor among 3,269 individuals 10 to 17 years of age in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, in southern Brazil (excluding higher income census tracts) in 1998. Adjusted hierarchical analysis was performed using Poisson regression. Prevalence of child labor was 13.8%. Current smoking prevalence was 6.3% in the sample as a whole (15.7% among working versus 3.4% among non-working children). In the multivariate analysis, smoking was significantly associated with child labor, with a prevalence ratio of 1.75 (95%CI: 1.30-2.36). Smoking was also associated with family characteristics (lower maternal schooling, mother currently without husband/partner, household members with alcohol or drug problems, single mother, and history of serious injuries), and the children's characteristics (age greater than 16 years, inadequate school performance, and externalizing behavior). The findings point to smoking as one of the harmful consequences of child labor and suggest the workplace as an appropriate target for smoking prevention.

Ribeiro A.L.B.,University Estadual Of Santa Cruz | Lopes P.A.A.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Rembold S.B.,University Estadual Of Santa Cruz | Rembold S.B.,Federal University of Santa Maria
Astronomy and Astrophysics | Year: 2013

Context. We investigate relations between the color and luminosity distributions of cluster galaxies and the evolutionary state of their host clusters. Aims. Our aim is to explore some aspects of cluster galaxy evolution and the dynamical state of clusters as two sides of the same process. Methods. We used 10 721 member galaxies of 183 clusters extracted from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey using a list of NoSOCS and CIRS targets. First, we classified the clusters into two categories, Gaussian and non-Gaussian, according to their velocity distribution measurements, which we used as an indicator of their dynamical state. We then used objective criteria to split up galaxies according to their luminosities, colors, and photometric mean stellar age. This information was then used to evaluate how galaxies evolve in their host clusters. Results. Meaningful color gradients, i.e., the fraction of red galaxies as a function of radius from the center, are observed for both the Gaussian velocity distribution and the non-Gaussian velocity distribution cluster subsamples, which suggests that member galaxy colors change on a shorter timescale than the time needed for the cluster to reach dynamical equilibrium. We also found that larger portions of fainter red galaxies are found, on average, in smaller radii. The luminosity function in Gaussian clusters has a brighter characteristic absolute magnitude and a steeper faint-end slope than it does in the non-Gaussian velocity distribution clusters. Conclusions. Our findings suggest that cluster galaxies experience intense color evolution before virialization, while the formation of faint galaxies through dynamical interactions probably takes place on a longer timescale, possibly longer than the virialization time. © 2013 ESO.

Vanderlei A.,Sao Paulo State University | Bottino M.A.,Sao Paulo State University | Valandro L.F.,Federal University of Santa Maria
Operative Dentistry | Year: 2014

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of different surface treatments of yttriastabilized tetragonal zirconia (Y-TZP) on bond strength durability and marginal discrepancies. For adhesion testing, 144 specimens of VITA In-Ceram YZ ceramic for InLab were obtained (5.25×3.75×4.5 mm) and divided into six groups (n=24) according to the surface treatment: 1) Control (CRTL): untreated; 2) SIL: tribochemical silica coating (CoJet system, 3M/ESPE AG); 3) V1+HF: spray application of low-fusing porcelain glaze (V1, VITA Akzent Spray Glaze) followed by etching with hydrofluoric acid (HF) (one minute); 4) V1+SIL: V1 glazing (VITA Akzent Spray Glaze) followed by tribochemical silica coating; 5) V2+HF: brush application of low-fusing porcelain glaze (VITA Akzent Glaze) plus etching with HF (one minute); and 6) V2+SIL: V2 glazing (VITA Akzent Glaze) plus tribochemical silica coating. After all treatments, the surfaces were silanized for five minutes (ESPE-SIL) and cementation was performed using Panavia F (Kuraray). Half of the specimens in each treatment were tested 24 hours after cementation (dry), with the other half subjected to storage (150 days) and thermocycling (12,000×) (aging), and then a shear test was carried out (1 mm/min). The micromorphological (digital optical profilometry and scanning electron microscopy) and elemental analyses of the treated surfaces were performed. The inner surfaces of 60 Y-TZP infrastructures were conditioned and marginal fit was evaluated. The statistical analysis revealed that the groups treated via surface glaze application followed by hydrofluoric acid etching and silanization showed the highest bond strength (in dry and aging conditions), but the bond strengths were affected by aging. The highest marginal discrepancies were observed in the groups receiving glaze (117.4 ± 29.6 to 105.8 ± 12.2 lm) when compared to other groups (55.3 ± 8.7 and 55 ± 8.5 lm). Low-fusing porcelain glaze + hydrofluoric acid etching changed the morphology of the Y-TZP ceramic and improved the adhesion to the resin cement, but obtaining high and stable bond values to Y-TZP remains challenging. Marginal discrepancies increased with glazing.

De Oliveira Simonetto E.,Federal University of Santa Maria
International Journal of Environment and Sustainable Development | Year: 2014

The article presents the development, validation and experimentation of simulation model using systems dynamics methodology, which allows users and managers to evaluate and analyse scenarios about the generation and disposal of urban solid waste. The developed model takes into account the following rates and information: rate of population natural increase (births and deaths), percentage of urban solid waste sent to each type of final disposal and the quantity of waste generated per inhabitant. The simulated scenarios take into account three distinct situations: a) current scenario with varying rates; b) current scenario with static rates; c) scenario with rates similar to the Netherlands's. The model's validation was developed through the analysis of future scenarios for a municipality in Brazil's southern region. With the generated results, the area managers may, in advance, evaluate and decide possible ways for improvements or adjustments in the management of municipal solid waste. The best simulated scenario was with rates similar to the Netherlands's. For the system modelling and development Vensim simulator was used. Copyright © 2014 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

Zerbino R.,CONICET | Giaccio G.,National University of La Plata | Batic O.R.,National University of La Plata | Isaia G.C.,Federal University of Santa Maria
Construction and Building Materials | Year: 2012

Rice-husk ash (RHA) is a supplementary cementing material of great interest in many developing countries. Before using in concrete the rice husk needs to be burnt at a controlled temperature. In other conditions a residual RHA is obtained with a lower quality, but it can be improved by grinding (GRHA). As a way to simplify RHA processing and amplify its use nearby where it is produced, it was demonstrated that it is possible to produce structural concretes incorporating residual RHA "as nature" (NRHA), adapting the mixing process to optimize the ash particle size by grinding it in the mixer together with the coarse aggregate. Nevertheless as RHA has siliceous vitreous minerals and cristobalite, deleterious reactions with Portland cement can take place when alkalis and certain environmental conditions are present. This paper studies the development of alkali-silica reaction (ASR) in mortars and concretes prepared with NRHA and GRHA. Accelerated and long term expansion tests, mechanical characterization, microscopic observations and studies on prototypes are included. The RHA can inhibit or promote ASR depending on its particle size. Furthermore, the risks of cracking and the selection criteria for the best binders when using NRHA are shown. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Gan M.A.,National Institute for Space Research | Dal Piva E.,Federal University of Santa Maria
Atmospheric Science Letters | Year: 2013

The occurrence of cut-off lows (COLs) over South Pacific can be seen on different synoptic maps and on satellite imageries. However, the formation and maintenance mechanisms of the COLs are not well understood. An energetics analysis of a COL case through the eddy kinetic energy (EKE) equation is the aim of this study. The main terms analysed were ageostrophic flux convergence (AFC), baroclinic (BRC) and barotropic (BRT) conversions. This analysis shows that the formation mechanism of the COL was associated with BRC (COL western side) and AFC (COL eastern side). After the maximum intensity period, the BRC term was negative and the AFC positive. © 2013 Royal Meteorological Society.

Medeiros L.E.,Albany State University | Medeiros L.E.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Fitzjarrald D.R.,Albany State University
Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology | Year: 2015

The authors examine how terrain texture and topography influence nocturnal mixing rates. Local topographic curvature and site sheltering exhibit systematic influences on nocturnal heat and momentum fluxes and the near-surface potential temperature distribution. This influence is particularly evident in hilly terrain with patchy forested areas, typical of eastern North America and many other regions. Exposure to local obstacles, quantified using Fujita's "transmission factor," has its maximum influence on mixing during strong winds (>5ms-1), whereas the effects of local terrain curvature dominate under weaker winds. Such complementary dominance conditions currently limit direct comparison of the two effects. Even with a limited network of 10 stations, it is clear that preferred regions for mixing can be identified in advance given knowledge of land cover and topography. When designing a network of surface stations to be deployed in heterogeneous terrain, one should consider site curvature, slope, and exposure in addition to spatial coverage. © 2015 American Meteorological Society.

Beck C.C.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | da Silva Lopes A.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Pitanga F.J.G.,Federal University of Bahia
Revista Paulista de Pediatria | Year: 2011

Objective: To identify the power of overweight and obesity anthropometric indexes to predict lipid changes in adolescents.Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out with 660 adolescents aged 14 to 19 years old (317 males; 343 females). The following anthropometric indexes were studied: body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio, and conicity index. The lipid changes were characterized by total cholesterol (TC) higher than 170mg/dL and high-density lipoproteins (HDL-C) under 45mg/dL. In order to identify the predictors of lipid changes, the analysis of Receiver Operating Characteristics curves (ROC) was used. The cutoff values were identified with their respective sensitivities and specificities. Then, the prevalence ratio was calculated between anthropometric indicators and investigated outcomes.Results: The areas under the ROC curves (95% confidence interval) for high TC in boys and their respective cutoff values were: BMI of 0.74 (0.65-0.83), 21.7kg/m 2; waist circumference of 0.73 (0.65-0.82), 74cm; waist-to-height ratio of 0.72 (0.63-0.81) and 0.4; conicity index of 0.60 (0.50-0.69), 1.1. The areas under the ROC curves (95% confidence interval) for low levels of HDL-C and their respective cutoff values were: BMI for boys of 0.58 (0.52-0.64) and 20.7kg/m 2; for the girls of 0.61 (0.53-0.69), 20.8kg/m 2; waist circumference, boys with 0.57 (0.50-0.63) and 73.3cm, girls with 0.63 (0.55-0.72) and 71.5cm; waist-to-height (W/H) ratio, boys of 0.58 (0.52-0.65) and W/H of 0.4; girls with 0.62 (0.54-0.70) and W/H of 0.4; and the conicity index, for girls, 0.60 (0.51-0.68) and 1.1. Conclusions: The anthropometric indexes were good predictors of high TC for boys, and reasonable for low levels of high-density lipoproteins for boys and girls.

Portolan dos Santos T.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Portolan dos Santos T.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Ruther R.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Renewable Energy | Year: 2014

Photovoltaic (PV) generation depends directly on the amount of radiation received by solar modules at a given temperature, and annual irradiation varies according to site location and PV array position. In this paper, the limitations and the solar irradiation levels received by building surfaces in different positions (with azimuth and tilt angle variation) in capital cities in Brazil are shown, making use of the Brazilian global horizontal solar irradiation data provided by the SWERA (Solar and Wind Energy Resource Assessment) project. These data were processed to generate figures on the irradiation at various PV module orientations and slopes for each city, which show the relative radiation levels received on specific azimuth and tilt angles in relation to the ideal position. Results were validated using four real and operating PV systems. In general, variations in azimuth or slope did not cause large annual irradiation losses up to around 20° tilt angles. This shows to PV system planners that under these fairly flexible conditions it is possible to install PV on any orientation, keeping high levels of annual irradiation, and that limitations in orientation and tilt can be relatively low. It also allows a quick analysis of PV retrofit in building-applied photovoltaics (BAPV), when seeking the best building surfaces to incorporate PV. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Agricultural efficiency (EA) is used as an indicator of the level of regional agricultural development, reflecting, by mean of the ratio between actual and achievable yields, the crop technology level. Based on that, the objective of this study was to evaluate the EA for soybean, corn and wheat crops in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, between 1980 and 2008, identifying the main factors which conditioned it. EA was obtained by the relationship between the achievable yield (PA) and actual crop yield (PR). PR was obtained from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE) data base. PA was obtained by estimating the potential yield (PPf) with the FAO Agroecological Zone method, penalized by the water deficit for each crop phase. Average EAs for corn, soybean and wheat crops were 54, 61 and 43%, respectively. On the contrary of the majority of location, in Santa Rosa, São Borja and VeranópolisEA values were negative for soybean crop. The main factors that contributed to the increase of EA, in the majority of thelocations, were: change on the soil use and fertility; use of agricultural machinery; prices paid for commodities; investments in research and development; climatic risk zoning;and plant breeding.

Paz A.R.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Bravo J.M.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Allasia D.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Collischonn W.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Tucci C.E.M.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul
Journal of Hydrologic Engineering | Year: 2010

This paper presents a one-dimensional hydrodynamic modeling of a large-scale river network and floodplains. The study site comprises the Upper Paraguay River and its main tributaries (a total of 4,800 km of river reaches) in South American central area, including a complex river network flowing along the Pantanal wetland. The main issues are related to preparing input data for the hydraulic model in a consistent and georeferenced database and to representing different flow regimes. Geographic information systems-based automatic procedures were developed in order to produce cross-sectional profiles that encompass the large floodplains and to link hydraulic data and spatial location. The marked seasonal flow regime and relative smooth hydrographs of Paraguay River were quite well reproduced by the hydraulic model. For the tributaries, it must be mentioned the model's ability to simulate both cases when the hydrograph does not present a marked peak flow, due to water loss for the floodplainwhen the hydrograph presents a more common shape, with recession and peak flows well defined. © 2010 ASCE.

May L.G.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Kelly J.R.,University of Connecticut Health Center
Dental Materials | Year: 2013

Objective The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of polymerization shrinkage of the cement layer on stresses within feldspathic ceramic crowns, using experimentally validated FEA models for (1) increasing occlusal cement thickness; and, (2) bonded versus non-bonded ceramic-cement interfaces. Methods 2-D axial symmetric models simulated stylized feldspathic crowns (1.5 mm occlusal thickness) cemented with resin-cement layers of 50-500 μm on dentin preparations, being loaded (500 N) or not. Ceramic-cement interface was either bonded or not. Cement was bonded to the dentin in all models. Maximum axial shrinkage of 0%, 1%, 2%, 3%, 4% and 4.65% were simulated. The first principal stresses developing in the cementation surface at the center and at the occluso-axial line-angle of the crown were registered. Results Polymerization shrinkage of the cement increased tensile stresses in the ceramic, especially in loaded non-bonded crowns for thicker cement layers. Stresses in loaded non-bonded crowns increased as much as 87% when cement shrinkage increased from 0% to 4.65% (100-187 MPa), for a 500 μm-thick cement. Increasing polymerization shrinkage strain raised the tensile stresses, especially at the internal occlusal-axial line-angle, for bonded crowns. Significance Changes in the polymerization shrinkage strain (from 0% to 4.65%) have little effect on the tensile stresses generated at the cementation surface of the ceramic crowns, when the occlusal cement thickness is thin (approx. 50 μm for bonded crowns). However, as the cement becomes thicker stresses within the ceramic become significant. © 2013 Academy of Dental Materials.

Souza R.O.A.,Federal University of Paraiba | Valandro L.F.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Melo R.M.,Sao Paulo State University | Machado J.P.B.,National Institute of Spatial Research | And 2 more authors.
Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials | Year: 2013

This study evaluated the effect of different air-particle abrasion protocols on the biaxial flexural strength and structural stability of zirconia ceramics. Zirconia ceramic specimens (ISO 6872) (Lava, 3M ESPE) were obtained (N=336). The specimens (N=118, n=20 per group) were randomly assigned to one of the air-abrasion protocols: Gr1: Control (as-sintered); Gr2: 50 μm Al2O3 (2.5 bar); Gr3: 50 μm Al2O3 (3.5 bar); Gr4: 110 μm Al2O3(2.5 bar); Gr5: 110 μm Al2O3 (3.5 bar); Gr6: 30 μm SiO2 (2.5 bar) (CoJet); Gr7: 30 μm SiO2(3.5 bar); Gr8: 110 μm SiO2 (2.5 bar) (Rocatec Plus); and Gr9: 110 μm SiO2 (3.5 bar) (duration: 20 s, distance: 10 mm). While half of the specimens were tested immediately, the other half was subjected to cyclic loading in water (100,000 cycles; 50 N, 4 Hz, 37 °°C) prior to biaxial flexural strength test (ISO 6872). Phase transformation (t→m), relative amount of transformed monoclinic zirconia (FM), transformed zone depth (TZD) and surface roughness were measured. Particle type (p=0.2746), pressure (p=0.5084) and cyclic loading (p=0.1610) did not influence the flexural strength. Except for the air-abraded group with 110 μm Al2O3 at 3.5 bar, all air-abrasion protocols increased the biaxial flexural strength (MPa) (Controlnon-aged: 1030±153, Controlaged: 1138±138; Experimentalnon-aged: 1307±184-1554±124; Experimentalaged: 1308±118-1451±135) in both non-aged and aged conditions, respectively. Surface roughness (Ra) was the highest with 110 μm Al2O3(0.84 μm. FM values ranged from 0% to 27.21%, higher value for the Rocatec Plus (110 μm SiO2) and 110 μm Al2O3 groups at 3.5 bar pressure. TZD ranged between 0 and 1.43 μm, with the highest values for Rocatec Plus and 110 μm Al2O3 groups at 3.5 bar pressure. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Ozcan M.,University of Zurich | Melo R.M.,Sao Paulo State University | Souza R.O.A.,Federal University of Paraiba | Machado J.P.B.,National Institute of Spatial Research | And 2 more authors.
Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials | Year: 2013

This study evaluated the effect of air-particle abrasion protocols on the biaxial flexural strength, surface characteristics and phase transformation of zirconia after cyclic loading. Disc-shaped zirconia specimens (Ø: 15mm, thickness: 1.2mm) (N=32) were submitted to one of the air-particle abrasion protocols (n=8 per group): (a) 50μm Al2O3 particles, (b) 110μm Al2O3 particles coated with silica (Rocatec Plus), (c) 30μm Al2O3 particles coated with silica (CoJet Sand) for 20s at 2.8bar pressure. Control group received no air-abrasion. All specimens were initially cyclic loaded (×20,000, 50N, 1Hz) in water at 37°C and then subjected to biaxial flexural strength testing where the conditioned surface was under tension. Zirconia surfaces were characterized and roughness was measured with 3D surface profilometer. Phase transformation from tetragonal to monoclinic was determined by Raman spectroscopy. The relative amount of transformed monoclinic zirconia (FM) and transformed zone depth (TZD) were measured using XRD. The data (MPa) were analyzed using ANOVA, Tukey's tests and Weibull modulus (m) were calculated for each group (95% CI). The biaxial flexural strength (MPa) of CoJet treated group (1266.3±158A) was not significantly different than that of Rocatec Plus group (1179±216.4A,B) but was significantly higher than the other groups (Control: 942.3±74.6C; 50μm Al2O3: 915.2±185.7B,C). Weibull modulus was higher for control (m=13.79) than those of other groups (m=4.95, m=5.64, m=9.13 for group a, b and c, respectively). Surface roughness (Ra) was the highest with 50μm Al2O3 (0.261μm) than those of other groups (0.15-0.195μm). After all air-abrasion protocols, FM increased (15.02%-19.25%) compared to control group (11.12%). TZD also showed increase after air-abrasion protocols (0.83-1.07μm) compared to control group (0.59μm). Air-abrasion protocols increased the roughness and monoclinic phase but in turn abrasion with 30μm Al2O3 particles coated with silica has increased the biaxial flexural strength of the tested zirconia. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Perussello C.A.,Federal University of Parana | Kumar C.,Queensland University of Technology | De Castilhos F.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Karim M.A.,Queensland University of Technology
Applied Thermal Engineering | Year: 2014

Osmotic treatments are often applied prior to convective drying of foods to impart sensory appeal aspects. During this process a multicomponent mass flow, composed mainly of water and osmotic agent, takes place. In this work, a heat and mass transfer model for the osmo-convective drying of yacon was developed and solved by the Finite Element Method using COMSOL Multiphysics ®, considering a 2-D axisymmetric geometry and moisture dependent thermophysical properties. Yacon slices were osmotically dehydrated for 2 h in a solution of sucralose and then dried in a tray dryer for 3 h. The model was validated by experimental data of temperature, moisture content and sucralose uptake (R2 > 0.90).© 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Comim F.V.,Imperial College London | Comim F.V.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Hardy K.,Imperial College London | Franks S.,Imperial College London
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), characterized by ovarian androgen excess, is the commonest endocrine disorder in women. Obesity increases androgen synthesis, a phenomenon attributed to the accompanying hyperinsulinemia. Our hypothesis was that adipokines, fat cell-derived hormones, play a direct role in modulating ovarian androgen secretion. Therefore, the aims of this study were to explore the effects of adipokines (in particular, adiponectin) on ovarian steroidogenesis and compare the expression of adiponectin receptors in ovaries from women with and without PCO. Sections of archived human ovaries (nine from women with normal ovaries and 16 with PCOS, classified histologically, with reference to menstrual history and ultrasound) were analysed by quantitative morphometry and the proportion of positive-labelling cells compared. In addition, studies of androgen production in relation to adipokine function in primary bovine theca cell culture were also performed. A significantly lower proportion of theca cells expressed adiponectin receptors 1 and 2 (AdipoR1, AdipoR2) in polycystic ovaries than in normal ovaries. In cultured theca cells, adiponectin suppressed androstenedione production and gene expression of LH receptor and key enzymes in the androgen synthesis pathway. Moreover, knockdown of genes for AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 was associated with increased androstenedione secretion by bovine theca cells. These results provide evidence for a direct link between fat cell metabolism and ovarian steroidogenesis, suggesting that disruption of adiponectin and/or its receptors plays a key role in pathogenesis of hyperandrogenism in PCOS. © 2013 Comim et al.

Alberton A.L.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Schwaab M.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Chalbaud Biscaia E.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Carlos Pinto J.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Chemical Engineering Science | Year: 2010

Model-based sequential experimental designs are frequently applied for discrimination of rival models and/or estimation of precise model parameters. Although the development and use of a single design criterion to perform the simultaneous model discrimination and precise parameter estimation seem appealing, published material indicates that previous attempts to develop such a single design criterion have not been successful. Despite that, this problem has rarely been analyzed with the help of multiobjective optimization procedures. In this work, a multiobjective optimization method based on the particle swarm optimization procedure is used to build the Pareto fronts in experimental design problems where distinct design criteria used for discrimination of rival models and/or estimation of precise model parameters are considered simultaneously. It is shown through the rigorous analysis of the Pareto sets that both design objectives are frequently conflicting, which means that optimum discrimination of rival models and estimation of precise model parameters cannot be performed simultaneously in many cases. However, it is also shown that the use of the posterior covariance matrix of estimated model parameters for model discrimination makes the design of experiments for the simultaneous optimum model discrimination and estimation of model parameters possible in many experimental design problems. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Bergamo R.L.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Romano L.N.,Federal University of Santa Maria
Engenharia Agricola | Year: 2016

This study aims at presenting the process of machine design and agricultural implements by means of a reference model, formulated with the purpose of explaining the development activities of new products, serving as a guideline to coach human resources and to assist in formalizing the process in small and medium-sized businesses (SMB), i.e. up to 500 employees. The methodology used included the process modeling, carried out from case studies in the SMB, and the study of reference models in literature. The modeling formalism used was based on the IDEF0 standard, which identifies the dimensions required for the model detailing: input information; activities; tasks; knowledge domains; mechanisms; controls and information produced. These dimensions were organized in spreadsheets and graphs. As a result, a reference model with 27 activities and 71 tasks was obtained, distributed over four phases of the design process. The evaluation of the model was carried out by the companies participating in the case studies and by experts, who concluded that the model explains the actions needed to develop new products in SMB.

Objective: To analyze adolescents clinically diagnosed with asthma, in terms of the physiological changes occurring during acute hypoxia and during a maximal stress test. Methods: This was a descriptive, cross-sectional study involving 48 adolescents (12-14 years of age) who were divided into three groups: mild intermittent asthma (MIA, n = 12); mild persistent asthma (MPA, n = 12); and control (n = 24). All subjects were induced to acute hypoxia and were submitted to maximal stress testing. Anthropometric data were collected, and functional variables were assessed before and after the maximal stress test. During acute hypoxia, the time to a decrease in SpO 2 and the time to recovery of SpO 2 (at rest) were determined. Results: No significant differences were found among the groups regarding the anthropometric variables or regarding the ventilatory variables during the stress test. Significant differences were found in oxygen half-saturation pressure of hemoglobin prior to the test and in PaO 2 prior to the test between the MPA and control groups (p = 0.0279 and p = 0.0116, respectively), as was in the oxygen extraction tension prior to the test between the MIA and MPA groups (p = 0.0419). There were no significant differences in terms of the SpO 2 times under any of the conditions studied. Oxygen consumption and respiratory efficiency were similar among the groups. The use of a bronchodilator provided no significant benefit during the hypoxia test. No correlations were found between the hypoxia test results and the physiological variables. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that adolescents with mild persistent asthma have a greater capacity to adapt to hypoxia than do those with other types of asthma.

Benazzi T.,URI Integrated Regional University Brazil | Calgaroto S.,URI Integrated Regional University Brazil | Dalla Rosa C.,URI Integrated Regional University Brazil | Vladimir Oliveira J.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Mazutti M.A.,Federal University of Santa Maria
Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology | Year: 2013

This work evaluates the hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse using supercritical carbon dioxide to obtain fermentable sugars in a single-step process. The effects of temperature, pressure, despressurization rate, moisture content and reaction time on the amount of fermentable sugars released were assessed. Results obtained showed the feasibility of adopting the present procedure since it produced about 287 g of fermentable sugars per kg of dry bagasse, which corresponds to 60% yield on the basis of total cellulose. Such a result is very attractive from an industrial viewpoint because there is no use of toxic solvent, solvent removal is completed (no residues), and the method has very low water consumption since the process is a solid-gas reaction. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

Agotegaray M.A.,National University of the South | Dennehy M.,National University of the South | Boeris M.A.,National University of La Pampa | Grela M.A.,University of the Sea | And 2 more authors.
Polyhedron | Year: 2012

The copper(II) ternary complexes of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug Fenoprofen (Hfen) and the biologically relevant molecules imidazole (im) and caffeine (caf) as auxiliary ligands were investigated as novel anti-inflammatory agents. The new copper(II) complexes with formula [Cu(fen) 2(im) 2] (1) and Cu 2(fen) 4(caf) 2 (2) were synthesized from the dinuclear complex [Cu 2(fen) 4(dmf) 2] and characterized by IR, UV-Vis, EPR spectral and elemental analysis. The molecular structure of complex 1 was determined by X-ray crystallography. Both complexes 1 and 2 present enhanced and prolongued anti-inflammatory properties against the parent drug calcium Fenoprofenate, Ca(fen) 2·2H 2O, with a better performance for complex 1. Ternary complexes are potential models for several mono and poly-nuclear metal enzymes. The measured superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimetic activities of the complexes indicated a higher SOD mimic activity for complex 2 (IC 50 of 0.24 μM) than complex 1 (IC 50 of 0.70 μM), and also than the native enzyme evaluated by the same method (IC 50 of 0.480 μM). The catecholase activity of the complexes toward the aerobic oxidation of 3,5-di-tert-butylcatechol (dtbc) onto 3,5-di-tert-butylquinone (dtbq) showed that both complexes have moderate catalytic oxidase activity. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Cardoso T.C.,Sao Paulo State University | Silva-Frade C.,Sao Paulo State University | Taparo C.V.,Sao Paulo State University | Okamura L.H.,Sao Paulo State University | Flores E.F.,Federal University of Santa Maria
Molecular and Cellular Probes | Year: 2013

The objective of this study was to optimize an internal control to improve SYBR-Green-based qPCR to amplify/detect the BoHV-5 US9 gene in bovine embryos produced invitro and experimentally exposed to the virus. We designed an SYBR-Green-based binding assay that is quick to perform, reliable, easily optimized and compares well with the published assay. Herein we demonstrated its general applicability to detect BoHV-5 US9 gene in bovine embryos produced invitro experimentally exposed to BoHV-5. In order to validate the assay, three different reference genes were tested; and the histone 2a gene was shown to be the most adequate for normalizing the qPCR reaction, by considering melting and standard curves ( p<0.05). On the other hand, no differences were found in the development of bovine embryos invitro whether they were exposed to BoHV-5 reference and field strains comparing to unexposed embryos. The developed qPCR assay may have important field applications as it provides an accurate BoHV-5 US9 gene detection using a proven reference gene and is considerably less expensive than the TaqMan qPCR currently employed in sanitary programs. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Ghosh B.K.,Birla Institute of Technology and Science | Hazra S.,Birla Institute of Technology and Science | Naik B.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Ghosh N.N.,Birla Institute of Technology and Science
Powder Technology | Year: 2015

In this paper, we report a simple aqueous solution based chemical method for preparation of Cu nanoparticle loaded mesoporous silica SBA-15 (Cu@SBA-15) catalysts. Synthesized catalysts were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM), N2 adsorption-desorption surface area and pore size analyzer, and particle size analyzer. Catalytic activity of Cu nanoparticle loaded SBA-15 towards reduction of various dyes, such as 4-nitrophenol, Methyl Orange, Congo Red, Rhodamine B, Methylene Blue and mixture of dyes were investigated in the presence of excess NaBH4. Catalysis reactions were monitored by employing UV-vis spectroscopy. Catalysis reactions followed pseudo-first order rate equation. These catalysts exhibited excellent catalytic activity and convenient recycling. The high catalytic activity, cost effectiveness and simple preparation methodology make 12.5Cu@SBA-15 an attractive catalyst for decolorization of organic dyes. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Medeiros R.C.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Daniel L.A.,University of Sao Paulo
Journal of Water and Health | Year: 2015

More precise methods are needed to recover Giardia and Cryptosporidium (oo)cysts from wastewater in order to advance research related to their inactivation, removal, quantification, and species differentiation. This study applied different methods to recover the maximum number of (oo)cysts from wastewater samples using ColorSeed®. Immunomagnetic separation assisted in capturing oocysts mainly in samples with medium and low turbidity. A triple centrifugation method reached recovery rates of 85% and 20%, for Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts, respectively, in raw wastewater, and 62.5 and 17.5% in secondary-treated effluent. For low turbidity-treated effluent, membrane filtration reached 67.5% recovery for Giardia cysts and 22.5% for Cryptosporidium oocysts. Simple, quick and low-cost methods do not involve much handling of the samples and could be useful, particularly in developing countries. © IWA Publishing 2015.

Battistel O.A.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Fonseca M.V.S.,Brazilian Center for Research in Physics (CBPF) | Dallabona G.,Federal University of Lavras
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2012

An explicit and detailed investigation about the two-dimensional single axial-vector (AVV) triangle is performed. Such a perturbative amplitude is related to the anomalous axial-vector (AV) one through contractions with external momenta. Given this fact, before considering such a triangle we must give a clear point of view for the AV amplitude. Such a point of view is constructed within the context of an alternative strategy to handle the divergences typical of perturbative solutions of quantum field theory. In this procedure all amplitudes in all theories, formulated in odd and even space-time dimensions, renormalizable or not, are treated in an absolutely identical way. The ambiguities are automatically eliminated and the symmetry relations preserved. The well-known divergent anomalous amplitudes are correctly described, in a predictive scenario. After performing, in a very detailed way, all the calculations involved we conclude that the same phenomenon occurring in the AV amplitude is also present in the finite AVV triangle. The conclusion gives support to the thesis that the phenomenon is present in all pseudoamplitudes in a chain where the divergent AV one is only the most simple structure. The same must occur in all even space-time dimensions. In particular, the single and triple four-dimensional box amplitudes must exhibit anomalies too. A conclusive investigation is allowed due to the special features of the adopted procedure where regularization is completely avoided and an adequate systematization for the finite parts is introduced. © 2012 American Physical Society.

The purpose of this phenomenological research is to understand the daily routine of women infected with the virus of human immunodeficiency (HIV) prevented from breastfeeding. Twelve women were interviewed in a university hospital in southern Brazil. Their statements, analyzed through a Heideggerian approach, showed that the women reveal themselves as beings-in-the-world and are mainly impersonal. The way of being of de-cadence was unveiled and expressed by occupation, gossip, curiosity, ambiguity, fear, and the inauthenticity of the pact of silence and the unsaid. The helpful care mediated by a dialogic relationship between mother and son/daughter between the woman and the professional, showed the possibility of movement from inauthenticity to authenticity. We recommend the use of direct and dialogued interaction as an assistance strategy, mediated by listening, empathy and intersubjectivity, and developed through the comprehension of the way of being of the human being in the face of the impossibilities imposed by the serological condition and in their attempt to unveil their possibilities.

Picolotto E.L.,Federal University of Santa Maria
Revista de Economia e Sociologia Rural | Year: 2014

The present paper aims at a reflection on the process of building the family farm category in contemporary Brazil. The reflection synthesized here is based on revisiting the main academic papers which have contributed to define the field of reflection of family farming in Brazil, documentary analysis and interviews with leaders and advisors of unionism family farming. It is argued that there were three sets of actors who promoted the construction of the category family farming in Brazil: some academic work that provided the basis for rethinking the theoretical location of this farm in the history and development of the country; State policies and legal regulations that gave visibility and operationally defined as comprising this category, and organizations of family farmers who have identified this category as their project and the use of agriculture as a political identity.

Nuernberg G.B.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Foletto E.L.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Probst L.F.D.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Carreno N.L.V.,Federal University of Pelotas | Moreira M.A.,Santa Catarina State University
Journal of Molecular Catalysis A: Chemical | Year: 2013

Magnesium aluminate particles were prepared from biopolymer (chitosan) and Al-Mg solutions by the metal-chitosan complexation method. The MgAl 2O4 spinel obtained was used to prepare a Ni catalyst support. The Ni/MgAl2O4 (20% Ni, w/w) was evaluated as a catalyst in the methane decomposition reaction. The influence of the reaction temperature and the catalyst reduction temperature and time on the methane decomposition, as well as on the properties of the carbon produced, was investigated. The materials were characterized using XRD, SEM, TEM, TPR, TGA and Raman spectroscopy analyses. It was observed that the catalytic behavior was dependent on the reaction operating conditions employed. Under the operating conditions used in this study the carbon byproduct is mainly deposited as multi-walled nanotubes (MWNTs). © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Cortat B.,University of Sao Paulo | Garcia C.C.M.,University of Sao Paulo | Quinet A.,University of Sao Paulo | Schuch A.P.,Federal University of Santa Maria | And 2 more authors.
Photochemical and Photobiological Sciences | Year: 2013

UVA light (320-400 nm) represents approximately 95% of the total solar UV radiation that reaches the Earth's surface. UVA light induces oxidative stress and the formation of DNA photoproducts in skin cells. These photoproducts such as pyrimidine dimers (cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers, CPDs, and pyrimidine (6-4) pyrimidone photoproducts, 6-4PPs) are removed by nucleotide excision repair (NER). In this repair pathway, the XPA protein is recruited to the damage removal site; therefore, cells deficient in this protein are unable to repair the photoproducts. The aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of oxidative stress and the formation of DNA photoproducts in UVA-induced cell death. In fact, similar levels of oxidative stress and oxidised bases were detected in XP-A and NER-proficient cells exposed to UVA light. Interestingly, CPDs were detected in both cell lines; however, 6-4PPs were detected only in DNA repair-deficient cells. XP-A cells were also observed to be significantly more sensitive to UVA light compared to NER-proficient cells, with an increased induction of apoptosis, while necrosis was similarly observed in both cell lines. The induction of apoptosis and necrosis in XP-A cells using adenovirus-mediated transduction of specific photolyases was investigated and we confirm that both types of photoproducts are the primary lesions responsible for inducing cell death in XP-A cells and may trigger the skin-damaging effects of UVA light, particularly skin ageing and carcinogenesis. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry and Owner Societies.

Ce G.V.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Ce G.V.,Instituto da Crianca Com Diabetes | Rohde L.E.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Silva A.M.V.D.,Federal University of Santa Maria | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2011

Context: The relation between endothelial dysfunction (ED), glycemic control, and early type diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is unclear. Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate the association of ED, glycemic control, and the duration of diabetes in T1DM. Design: This was a cross-sectional study. Setting: The study was conducted at a public outpatient clinic. Patients: Fifty-seven T1DM adolescentsand10 healthy age-matched controls participated in the study. Intervention: There were no interventions. Methods and Outcome Measures: Endothelial function (ED) was evaluated by flow-mediated dilation (FMD) in the brachial artery after reactive hyperemia. Biochemical data, including HbA1c (glycohemoglobin), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, lipids, and urinary albumin excretion were collected. Means of four HbA1c values collected at 3-month intervals in the first and second year before FMD analyses were obtained. Results: Mean FMD was decreased in T1DM compared with controls (P = 0.023), independent of age, smoking, hypertension, or dyslipidemia. Twenty-eight of 57 T1DM patients enrolled (49%) had ED. FMD was decreased in microalbuminuric (4.1%) compared with normoalbuminuric patients (10.1%, P = 0.01) and controls (14.6%, P < 0.001). FMD correlated inversely with mean second-year HbA1c (r = -0.426, P = 0.02), particularly in patients with less than 5 yr of T1DM (r = -0.61, P = 0.004). In these patients, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein was strongly correlated with mean first-year HbA1c (r = -0.66, P = 0.0003). In patients with more than 5 yr of T1DM, we found no significant correlations between ED and glycemic control. Conclusions: Endothelial dysfunction is common in T1DM adolescents with less than 5 yr of disease. is associated with duration of disease, microalbuminuria, and mean second-year HbA1c but not with meanfirst-year HbA1c. These data support the metabolicmemoryhypothesis. Copyright © 2011 by The Endocrine Society.

Campagnol P.C.B.,University of Campinas | dos Santos B.A.,University of Campinas | Terra N.N.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Pollonio M.A.R.,University of Campinas
Meat Science | Year: 2012

Fermented sausages were produced with 50% replacement of NaCl with KCl and with addition of lysine, disodium guanylate, and disodium inosinate. The sausage production was monitored with physical, chemical and microbiological analyses. The final products were submitted to a consumer study. The replacement of NaCl with KCl did not cause changes in the technological process. However, defects in the sensory quality were detected. Lysine at a concentration of 1% with disodium inosinate (300. mg/kg) and disodium guanylate (300. mg/kg) reduced the sensory defects caused by the replacement of 50% NaCl with KCl allowing the preparation of sensory acceptable fermented sausages with a 50% decrease in sodium. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Magalhaes S.G.,Federal University of Fluminense | Zimmer F.M.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Coqblin B.,University Paris - Sud
Journal of Physics Condensed Matter | Year: 2011

The interplay between disorder and strong correlations has been observed experimentally in disordered cerium alloys such as Ce(Ni, Cu) or Ce(Pd, Rh). In the case of Ce(Ni, Cu) alloys with a Cu concentration x between 0.6 and 0.3, the first studies have shown a smooth transition with decreasing temperature from a spin glass phase to ferromagnetism; for x smaller than 0.2, a Kondo phase has been observed. The situation is more complicated now due to the recent observation of magnetic clusters. The competition between the Kondo effect, the spin glass (SG) and the ferromagnetic (FE) ordering has been extensively studied theoretically. The Kondo effect is described by the usual mean-field approximation; we have treated the SG behavior successively by the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model, then by the Mattis model and finally by the van Hemmen model, which takes both a ferromagnetic part and a site-disorder random part for the intersite exchange interaction. We present here the results obtained by the van Hemmen-Kondo model: for a large Kondo exchange J K, a Kondo phase is obtained while, for smaller J K, the succession of an SG phase, a mixed SG-FE one and finally an FE one has been obtained with decreasing temperature. This model improves the theoretical description of disordered Kondo systems by providing a simpler approach for further calculations of magnetic clusters and can, therefore, account for recent experimental data on disordered cerium systems. © 2011 IOP Publishing Ltd.

Garlet T.M.B.,University of Cruz Alta | Flores R.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Messchmidt A.A.,UNICRUZ
Revista Brasileira de Plantas Medicinais | Year: 2011

Mentha x gracilis Sole is a hybrid that produces essential oils rich in monoterpenes. Aimed at the clonal propagation of this plant, nodal segments from aseptic plants were cultured in Murashige and Skoog (MSO) medium supplemented with 0; 0.5; 1.0 and 2.0 μM kinetin, benzyl adenine (BAP) or thidiazuron (TDZ). After 30 days, plants were transferred to MOS medium without cytokinin supplementation. The best results were obtained in medium supplemented with 2 μM TDZ, which proved to be a viable method for the rapid production of a large number of seedlings. After transference to the greenhouse, plants propagated with TDZ had a larger number of glandular trichomes.

Bisognin D.A.,Federal University of Santa Maria
Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology | Year: 2011

Horticulture is an important part of agriculture with many important crops being vegetatively propagated. The objectives of this work were to discuss some of the most important characteristics of vegetatively propagated crops and the breeding strategies to develop and propagate new cultivars. Vegetative propagation enables to fix favorable combinations of important traits, very specific chemical compositions, superior genetic variance interactions and high levels of heterozygosity. Breeding new cultivars involve few possibilities of genetic recombination by sexual reproduction and many generations of selection and vegetative propagation. Marker assisted selection should be useful for genotyping and selecting complementary parents for crossing and for identifying superior genotypes at early stages of selection. The tissue culture technique enables to get disease free stock plants and to maximize its multiplication rate, having an important role in yield and quality of these crops.

Campagnol P.C.B.,University of Campinas | Santos B.A.D.,University of Campinas | Morgano M.A.,Institute Tecnologia Of Alimentos | Terra N.N.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Pollonio M.A.R.,University of Campinas
Meat Science | Year: 2011

The effects of 50% replacement of NaCl by KCl and addition of the amino acids lysine and taurine and the 5'-ribonucleotide disodium inosinate and disodium guanylate on some sensory and physicochemical parameters of fermented cooked sausages were evaluated. The partial replacement of NaCl by KCl did not alter the manufacturing process; however, defects in the sensory quality were detected. Lysine at a concentration of 0.313% and a mixture of taurine (750. mg/kg) with disodium inosinate (300. mg/kg) and disodium guanylate (300. mg/kg) reduced the sensory defects caused by KCl, allowing the fermented cooked sausages to be elaborated with reduced sodium content and high sensory quality. © 2010 The American Meat Science Association.

Minella J.P.G.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Merten G.H.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Magnago P.F.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul
Revista Brasileira de Engenharia Agricola e Ambiental | Year: 2011

The relationship between flow rate - Q and suspended sediment concentration - SSC demonstrates complex temporal patterns during hydrologic events, which are governed by geomorphology, land use, soil management and rainfall. This fact has important implications for understanding and describing erosive processes and sediment production in catchments. These patterns can be evaluated by their loop hysteresis characteristics on the graph of SSC vs. Q. In this study, the hysteresis effect was analyzed for 19 rainfall events in a rural catchment in Southern Brazil. The events were separated in two groups in relation to soil management (with and without soil management practices). The events were classified according to the type of hysteresis, and a hysteresis index (HI) was calculated to evaluate the magnitude of the difference in phase. Results show that the hysteresis pattern was a clockwise loop, indicating that the peak SSC occurred before the peak Q, which represents rapid mobilization and transfer of sediment in the catchment. The HI was not statistically different between the two periods studied, although there is evidence that the conservation practices do have some influence on the index.

Dressler V.L.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Pozebon D.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Mesko M.F.,Federal University of Pelotas | Matusch A.,Julich Research Center | And 3 more authors.
Talanta | Year: 2010

Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) has been established as a powerful and sensitive surface analytical technique for the determination of concentration and distribution of trace metals within biological systems at micrometer spatial resolution. LA-ICP-MS allows easy quantification procedures if suitable standard references materials (SRM) are available. In this work a new SRM-free approach of solution-based calibration method in LA-ICP-MS for element quantification in hair is described. A dual argon flow of the carrier gas and nebulizer gas is used. A dry aerosol produced by laser ablation (LA) of biological sample and a desolvated aerosol generated by pneumatic nebulization (PN) of standard solutions are carried by two different flows of argon as carrier or nebulizer gas, respectively and introduced separately in the injector tube of a special ICP torch, through two separated apertures. Both argon flows are mixed directly in the ICP torch. External calibration via defined standard solutions before analysis of single hair was employed as calibration strategy. A correction factor, calculated using hair with known analyte concentration (measured by ICP-MS), is applied to correct the different elemental sensitivities of ICP-MS and LA-ICP-MS. Calibration curves are obtained by plotting the ratio of analyte ion M +/34S+ ion intensities measured using LA-ICP-MS in dependence of analyte concentration in calibration solutions. Matrix-matched on-line calibration in LA-ICP-MS is carried out by ablating of human hair strands (mounted on a sticky tape in the LA chamber) using a focused laser beam in parallel with conventional nebulization of calibration solutions. Calibrations curves of Li, Na, Mg, Al, K, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Co, Cu, Zn, Sr, Mo, Ag, Cd, I, Hg, Pb, Tl, Bi and U are presented. The linear correlation coefficients (R) of calibration curves for analytes were typically between 0.97 and 0.999. The limits of detection (LODs) of Li, V, Mn, Ni, Co, Cu, Sr, Mo, Ag, Ba, Cd, I, Hg, Pb, Bi and U in a single hair strand were in the range of 0.001-0.90 μg g-1, whereas those of Cr and Zn were 3.4 and 5.1 μg g-1, respectively. The proposed quantification strategy using on-line solution-based calibration in LA-ICP-MS was applied for biomonitoring (the spatial resolved distribution analysis) of essential and toxic metals and iodine in human hair and mouse hair. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Premaor M.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Parker R.A.,University of Cambridge | Cummings S.,San Francisco Coordinating Center | Ensrud K.,University of Minnesota | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Bone and Mineral Research | Year: 2013

Recent studies indicate that obesity is not protective against fracture in postmenopausal women and increases the risk of fracture at some sites. Risk factors for fracture in obese women may differ from those in the nonobese. We aimed to compare the ability of FRAX with and without bone mineral density (BMD) to predict fractures in obese and nonobese older postmenopausal women who were participants in the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures. Data for FRAX clinical risk factors and femoral neck BMD were available in 6049 women, of whom 18.5% were obese. Hip fractures, major osteoporotic fractures, and any clinical fractures were ascertained during a mean follow-up period of 9.03 years. Receiving operator curve (ROC) analysis, model calibration, and decision curve analysis were used to compare fracture prediction in obese and nonobese women. ROC analysis revealed no significant differences between obese and nonobese women in fracture prediction by FRAX, with or without BMD. Predicted hip fracture risk was lower than observed risk in both groups of women, particularly when FRAX + BMD was used, but there was good calibration for FRAX + BMD in prediction of major osteoporotic fracture in both groups. Decision curve analysis demonstrated that both FRAX models were useful for hip fracture prediction in obese and nonobese women for threshold 10-year fracture probabilities in the range of 4% to 10%, although in obese women FRAX + BMD was superior to FRAX alone. For major osteoporotic fracture, both FRAX models were useful in both groups of women for threshold probabilities in the range of 10% to 30%. For all clinical fractures, the FRAX models were not useful at threshold probabilities below 30%. We conclude that FRAX is of value in predicting hip and major osteoporotic fractures in obese postmenopausal women, particularly when used with BMD. © 2013 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

Becker J.S.,Aeropharm GmbH | Pozebon D.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Matusch A.,Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine | Dressler V.L.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Becker J.S.,Julich Research Center
International Journal of Mass Spectrometry | Year: 2011

Assessing the inventory of biological systems in respect to metal species is a growing area of life science research called metallomics. Slugs are of special interest as monitor organisms for environmental contaminations. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) was applied to map the distribution of total Zn in a section of a slug sample and to detect Zn-containing proteins after one-dimensional separation by gel electrophoresis (Blue Native PAGE). Interestingly, by far the largest fraction of protein bound Zn was explained by three sharp and prominent bands at 75, 100 and 150 kDa. Analysis of tryptic digests of selected bands using MALDI-TOF-MS and public databases failed to identify proteins within the Zn bands what may be due to coverage gaps concerning the species arion ater. Three non-Zn containing bands could be assigned to proteins known from other mollusc species. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Daudt C.E.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Fogaca A.O.,Centro Universitario Franciscano
Food Science and Technology | Year: 2013

In Brazil, the grape and wine production takes place mainly in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, and the region "Serra" is known as the traditional wine region. In the last years, new areas have emerged, with emphasis for the Campanha region; the red wines from this region have low acidity, little color intensity, and are wines to drink while young, even when produced from grape varieties such as Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of different maceration types on the phenolic compounds of Merlot wines made with grapes produced in two regions of Rio Grande do Sul, Serra and Campanha, as well as to identify the key differences between the wines produced. The localization of the vineyards seems to have more influence on the wine characteristics than the maceration type. The color due copigmentation was an important aspect in the wines made with short maceration. The effect of extended maceration was different than the expected for the Campanha region wines; the extended maceration increased the extraction of tannins resulting in greater color intensity and a greater amount of anthocyanins. The pH control seems to be a key factor for the Campanha region wines.

Dorneles A.P.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | De Araujo O.C.B.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Buriol L.S.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul
Computers and Operations Research | Year: 2014

The high school timetabling is a classical combinatorial optimization problem that takes a large number of variables and constraints into account. Due to its combinatorial nature, solving medium and large instances to optimality is a challenging task. When resources are tight, it is often difficult to find even a feasible solution. Among the different requirements that are considered in Brazilian schools, two compactness requirements must be met on a teachers schedule: the minimization of working days and the avoidance of idle timeslots. In this paper, we present a mixed integer linear programming model and a fix-and-optimize heuristic combined with a variable neighborhood descent method. Our method uses three different types of decompositions - class, teacher and day - in order to solve the high school timetabling problem. The method is able to find new best known solutions for seven instances, including three optimal ones. A comparison with results reported in the literature shows that the proposed fix-and-optimize heuristic outperforms state-of-the-art techniques for the resolution of the problem at hand. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Dorea J.G.,University of Brasilia | Farina M.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Rocha J.B.T.,Federal University of Santa Maria
Journal of Applied Toxicology | Year: 2013

Ethylmercury (etHg) is derived from the metabolism of thimerosal (o-carboxyphenyl-thio-ethyl-sodium salt), which is the most widely used form of organic mercury. Because of its application as a vaccine preservative, almost every human and animal (domestic and farmed) that has been immunized with thimerosal-containing vaccines has been exposed to etHg. Although methylmercury (meHg) is considered a hazardous substance that is to be avoided even at small levels when consumed in foods such as seafood and rice (in Asia), the World Health Organization considers small doses of thimerosal safe regardless of multiple/repetitive exposures to vaccines that are predominantly taken during pregnancy or infancy. We have reviewed in vitro and in vivo studies that compare the toxicological parameters among etHg and other forms of mercury (predominantly meHg) to assess their relative toxicities and potential to cause cumulative insults. In vitro studies comparing etHg with meHg demonstrate equivalent measured outcomes for cardiovascular, neural and immune cells. However, under in vivo conditions, evidence indicates a distinct toxicokinetic profile between meHg and etHg, favoring a shorter blood half-life, attendant compartment distribution and the elimination of etHg compared with meHg. EtHg's toxicity profile is different from that of meHg, leading to different exposure and toxicity risks. Therefore, in real-life scenarios, a simultaneous exposure to both etHg and meHg might result in enhanced neurotoxic effects in developing mammals. However, our knowledge on this subject is still incomplete, and studies are required to address the predictability of the additive or synergic toxicological effects of etHg and meHg (or other neurotoxicants). © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Hassan W.,Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro | Hassan W.,University of Peshawar | Silva C.E.B.,Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro | Mohammadzai I.U.,University of Peshawar | And 2 more authors.
Current Neuropharmacology | Year: 2014

Oxidative stress caused by reactive species, including reactive oxygen species, reactive nitrogen species, and unbound, adventitious metal ions (e.g., iron [Fe] and copper [Cu]), is an underlying cause of various neurodegenerative diseases. These reactive species are an inevitable by-product of cellular respiration or other metabolic processes that may cause the oxidation of lipids, nucleic acids, and proteins. Oxidative stress has recently been implicated in depression and anxiety-related disorders. Furthermore, the manifestation of anxiety in numerous psychiatric disorders, such as generalized anxiety disorder, depressive disorder, panic disorder, phobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder, highlights the importance of studying the underlying biology of these disorders to gain a better understanding of the disease and to identify common biomarkers for these disorders. Most recently, the expression of glutathione reductase 1 and glyoxalase 1, which are genes involved in antioxidative metabolism, were reported to be correlated with anxiety-related phenotypes. This review focuses on direct and indirect evidence of the potential involvement of oxidative stress in the genesis of anxiety and discusses different opinions that exist in this field. Antioxidant therapeutic strategies are also discussed, highlighting the importance of oxidative stress in the etiology, incidence, progression, and prevention of psychiatric disorders. © 2014 Bentham Science Publishers.

Moresco R.N.,Ghent University | Moresco R.N.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Speeckaert M.M.,Ghent University | Delanghe J.R.,Ghent University
Autoimmunity Reviews | Year: 2015

IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is the most prevalent form of chronic glomerulonephritis in the world. The underlying pathogenesis of this autoimmune disease comprises the formation of immune complexes, including glycan-specific IgA1 or IgG antibodies and an aberrant glycosylation of IgA1. Until now, anatomopathological analysis of renal biopsies is essential for the diagnosis of IgAN and different histological classification systems have been proposed, e.g. the Oxford classification. However, a percutaneous renal biopsy is frequently not performed for several reasons and the Oxford classification system has some limitations. Since the poor prognosis of IgAN patients is partly the result of a delayed diagnosis, there is an urgent need for reliable noninvasive biomarkers that might be applicable in routine clinical practice. This article reviews the advances on the understanding of the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of IgAN and discusses in depth the recent development of new biomarkers, including the use of proteomics and microRNAs. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Moraes E.Z.,Federal University of Santa Maria
Jornal brasileiro de pneumologia : publicaça{combining double acute accent} o oficial da Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisilogia | Year: 2012

To assess children and adolescents diagnosed with mild intermittent or mild persistent asthma, in terms of their aerobic capacity between attacks. We included 33 children and adolescents recently diagnosed with asthma (mild intermittent or mild persistent) and 36 healthy children and adolescents. Those with asthma were evaluated between attacks. All participants underwent clinical evaluation; assessment of baseline physical activity level; pre- and post-bronchodilator spirometry; and a maximal exercise test, including determination of maximal voluntary ventilation, maximal oxygen uptake, respiratory quotient, maximal minute ventilation, ventilatory equivalent, ventilatory reserve, maximal HR, SpO2, and serum lactate. No significant differences were found among the groups (intermittent asthma, persistent asthma, and control) regarding anthropometric or spirometric variables. There were no significant differences among the groups regarding the variables studied during the maximal exercise test. A diagnosis of mild intermittent/persistent asthma has no effect on the aerobic capacity of children and adolescents between asthma attacks.

According to a stronger version of sustainability, sustainable business is defined by the responsibility for both collecting wastes arising from goods and services along the output end and for reducing them along the input end (supply chain). In other words, it is meant by reducing the throughput-the unavoidable cost of maintaining stocks, from material and energy requirements (depletion) to supply goods and services, at the input end, up to the wastes (pollution) arising from their consumption and left along the way, at the output end. Accordingly, input-output matrices can appropriately cope with the throughput. Moreover, by bringing hybridism into these models, it is possible to ground the monetary value (measured in monetary units) of the economic output in the biophysical value (measured in weight or volume units) of its maintenance. An alike model is applied to the retail sector to show why biophysical savings imply higher monetary costs.

Esteban C.,Institute of Astrophysics of Canarias | Esteban C.,University of La Laguna |