Florianopolis, Brazil
Florianopolis, Brazil

The Federal University of Santa Catarina is a public university in Florianópolis, the capital city of Santa Catarina in southern Brazil. Ranked as the 4th best overall university in Latin America by the Webometrics Ranking of World Universities, it is one of the leading Latin American research universities, being the third largest university in Brazil and the fifth in Latin America, noted for its engineering school, and the only Federal University in the state of Santa Catarina. UFSC is internationally known for the quality of its courses in mechanical engineering, control engineering, sanitary engineering, electrical engineering and dentistry.The organization of its campus is done in the 11 Centers of Education , divided by field of study. Every Center of Education is divided in departments, the largest one being Department of Mechanical Engineering. The oldest is the Center of Juridic science, that is itself the department of Law, which was the first of UFSC's departments to be officially recognized in 1932. Wikipedia.

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Vettore M.V.,University of Sheffield | de Amorim Marques R.A.,Area Tecnica de Saude Bucal | Peres M.A.,University of Adelaide | Peres M.A.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Revista de Saude Publica | Year: 2014

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence and geographical distribution of periodontal disease in the Brazilian adult population and its associations with contextual and individual social inequalities. METHODS: Data from adults aged 35 to 44 who participated in the 2010 Brazilian Brazilian Oral Health Survey (SBBrasil 2010) (n = 9,564) were used. The Community Periodontal Index (CPI) and clinical attachment loss (CAL) were used to defi ne "moderate to severe" periodontal disease (CPI > 2 and CAL > 0) and "severe" periodontal disease (CPI > 2 and CAL > 1). Contextual social inequalities assessed were Human Development Index and income inequalitiy (Gini Index). Other contextual variables were integration of oral health teams in the Family Health Programme and the percentage of adult smokers. Multilevel logistic regression models for participants with complete data (n = 4,594) were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confi dence intervals (95%CI) between social inequalities and periodontal disease. RESULTS: The prevalence of "moderate to severe" and "severe" periodontal disease in Brazilian adults was 15.3% and 5.8%, respectively, with considerable variation across municipalities. Of the contextual variables, income inequality was independently associated with "severe" periodontal disease (OR = 3.0, 95%CI 1.5;5.9). Lower oral health teams coverage was associated with both defi nitions of periodontal disease whereas the percentage of smokers remained associated with "moderate to severe" periodontal disease. Older adults, brown skin color, males and those with lower family income and less schooling were more likely to both periodontal conditions. CONCLUSIONS: In Brazil, the prevalence of periodontal disease varied across the municipalities and according to defi nition of periodontal disease. Income inequality played a signifi cant role in the occurrence of "severe" periodontal disease. Individual characteristics of social position were associated with both forms of periodontal disease.

Maiello A.,Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies | Viegas C.V.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Frey M.,Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies | D. Ribeiro J.L.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul
Environmental Science and Policy | Year: 2013

Scholars agree that governance of the public environment entails cooperation between science, policy and society. This requires the active role of public managers as catalysts of knowledge co-production, addressing participatory arenas in relation to knowledge integration and social learning. This paper deals with the question of whether public managers acknowledge and take on this task. A survey accessing Directors of Environmental Offices (EOs) of 64 municipalities was carried out in parallel for two regions - Tuscany (Italy) and Porto Alegre Metropolitan Region (Brazil). The survey data were analysed using the multiple correspondence method. Results showed that, regarding policy practices, EOs do not play the role of knowledge co-production catalysts, since when making environmental decisions they only use technical knowledge. We conclude that there is a gap between theory and practice, and identify some factors that may hinder local environmental managers in acting as catalyst of knowledge co-production, raising a further question for future research. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Godoi M.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Paixao M.W.,Federal University of São Carlos | Braga A.L.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Dalton Transactions | Year: 2011

In recent years, there has been an increasing application of chiral selenium compounds as ligands in metal-catalyzed enantioselective transformations. One of the most important challenges in this field is the development of new chiral complexes (catalyst) generated from the reaction between a metal and appropriate chiral selenium-containing compounds (ligand). The vast majority of these ligands are easily synthesized in a few high-yielding synthetic steps, starting from readily available chiral amino alcohols. In this context, the advantages of using these compounds will be discussed, mainly with regard to their easy accessibility, modular nature and the formation of strong bonds with soft or, more rarely, hard metals. Important selective contributions within the field of chiral selenium complexes are examined, according to their applications. As final remarks, future developments and perspectives of the field are discussed. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Bershad N.J.,1621 Santiago Drive | Bermudez J.C.M.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Digital Signal Processing: A Review Journal | Year: 2011

Normalized forms of adaptive algorithms are usually sought in order to obtain convergence properties independent of the input signal power. Such is the case of the well-known Normalized LMS (NLMS) algorithm. The Least-Mean Fourth (LMF) adaptive algorithm has been shown to outperform LMS in different situations. However, the LMF stability is dependent on both the signal power and on the adaptive weights initialization. This paper studies the behavior of two normalized forms of the LMF algorithm for Gaussian inputs. Contrary to what could be expected, the mean-square stability of both normalized algorithms is shown to be dependent upon the input signal power. Thus, the usefulness of the NLMF algorithm is open to question. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

de Mello A.L.F.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Clinical Interventions in Aging | Year: 2015

Data on the oral health of the elderly depict a worrying situation, with an elevated prevalence of caries and moderate periodontal disease, frequent edentulism, and numerous cases of dry mouth and oral cancer. There is wide evidence that periodontitis is a risk factor for certain systemic diseases, and impaired oral health has been associated with mastication and nutritional problems, especially among the elderly, with highly negative effects on their quality of life. In this nonsystematic review, the authors discuss the importance of evaluating the oral health of the geriatric population in a comprehensive manner, beyond simple clinical assessments. © 2015 Gil-Montoya et al.

Pereira L.F.A.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Flores J.V.,Grande Rio University | Bonan G.,Schneider Electric | Coutinho D.F.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Gomes Da Silva J.M.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul
IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics | Year: 2014

This paper deals with the synthesis problem of multiple resonant controllers for uninterruptible-power-supply systems in a robust control framework. The controller parameters aiming the tracking of sinusoidal reference signals (with zero steady-state error) and the rejection of harmonic components of the output voltage (when supplying energy to time-varying nonlinear loads) are determined by means of a convex optimization problem subject to a set of linear-matrix-inequality constraints. Results from a 5.0-kVA experimental setup are considered to illustrate and validate the proposed approach. © 1982-2012 IEEE.

Macedo-Soares L.C.P.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Freire A.S.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Muelbert J.H.,Grande Rio University
Marine Ecology Progress Series | Year: 2012

This study investigated the small-scale spatial distribution and temporal variability of larval fish assemblages at Saint Paul's Rocks along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Larvae were collected during 8 expeditions in 2003, 2004 and 2005 from surface horizontal plankton samples at different distances around the archipelago and inside a cove located between the main islets. Identification resulted in 80 taxa distributed across 29 families; 72 taxa represented individual species. Mycto - phidae was the most diverse family, followed by Gonostomatidae. The larvae of reef fish, such as the endemic damselfish Stegastes sanctipauli and the blenny Entomacrodus vomerinus, were most abundant. Pelagic fish larvae were also common in the samples, but at low abundances. Reef fish larvae were also the most abundant and frequent in the cove, while at distances up to 500 m and >500 m from the islets, larvae of pelagic species such as the lanternfishes Ceratoscopelus warmingii and Lampadena luminosa, and the flyingfish Oxyporhamphus micropterus were more representative. Cluster analysis superimposed on a non-metric multidimensional scaling indicated 4 significantly different groups (SIMPROF, p < 0.05) within the samples. Indicator species analysis revealed 4 fish larvae assemblages in the surface layer: a reef assemblage, a neritic assemblage, a nighttime oceanic assemblage and a daytime oceanic assemblage. Our findings illustrate the distribution of fish larvae that inhabit the surface waters around Saint Paul's Rocks and provide information about the temporal variability in larval abundance of some reef and pelagic species. © Inter-Research 2012.

De Luca Canto G.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | De Luca Canto G.,University of Alberta | Pacheco-Pereira C.,University of Alberta | Aydinoz S.,GATA Haydarpasa Teaching Hospital | And 5 more authors.
Sleep Medicine Reviews | Year: 2015

The overall validity of biomarkers in the diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) remains unclear. We conducted a scoping review to provide assessments of biomarkers characteristics in the context of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and to identify gaps in the literature. A scoping review of studies in humans without age restriction that evaluated the potential diagnostic value of biological markers (blood, exhaled breath condensate, salivary, and urinary) in the OSA diagnosis was undertaken. Retained articles were those focused on the identification of biomarkers in subjects with OSA, the latter being confirmed with a full overnight or home-based polysomnography (PSG). Search strategies for six different databases were developed. The methodology of selected studies was classified using an adaptation of the evidence quality criteria from the American Academy of Pediatrics. Additionally the biomarkers were classified according to their potential clinical application. We identified 572 relevant studies, of which 117 met the inclusion criteria. Eighty-two studies were conducted in adults, 34 studies involved children, and one study had a sample composed of both adults and children. Most of the studies evaluated blood biomarkers. Potential diagnostic biomarkers were found in nine pediatric studies and in 58 adults studies. Only nine studies reported sensitivity and specificity, which varied substantially from 43% to 100%, and from 45% to 100%, respectively. Studies in adults have focused on the investigation of IL-6, TNF-α and hsCRP. There was no specific biomarker that was tested by a majority of authors in pediatric studies, and combinatorial urine biomarker approaches have shown preliminary promising results. In adults IL-6 and IL-10 seem to have a favorable potential to become a good biomarker to identify OSA. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Feltes M.M.C.,IFC | de Oliveira D.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Block J.M.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Ninow J.L.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Food and Bioprocess Technology | Year: 2013

In light of the increasing interest in the development of functional food, several researches have focused on the production of food grade emulsifiers of nutritional interest, especially enriched in the eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acids (DHA). The aim of this paper is to make a review of the production of monoacylglycerols (MAG) and diacylglycerols (DAG) obtained from different feedstock, mainly fish oil. A section of this paper is dedicated to the raw materials used as feedstock for these emulsifiers production. The health benefits of these partial acylglycerols are outlined. The chemical and enzymatic methods for producing these esters of glycerol are discussed, focusing on glycerolysis reactions. Recent advances on the lipase-catalyzed production of these partial acylglycerols in alternative reaction media and systems are also reviewed. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Renato Rambo C.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Guiotoku M.,EMBRAPA - Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária | Hotza D.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
RSC Advances | Year: 2013

Ceramics exhibit several interesting properties, which make them the material of choice for a broad range of applications. Their physical and chemical properties are significantly improved by sub-micrometer ceramic powders with narrow particle size distribution, high chemical purity and crystallinity and no/weak agglomeration. However, powders with such superior characteristics are mostly synthesized by complex and costly processes, which are usually not ideal for production at an industrial scale. Therefore, developing simple, efficient, inexpensive and environmentally-benign processes for the preparation of high quality ceramic powders is of great interest both for the research community and industry. In this regard, this article reviews the research efforts in the preparation of ceramic nanopowders from cotton-cellulose, which is used as a sacrificial bio-template, in a glycine-nitrate process. Low processing temperatures, self-propagating nature of the reactions, high reaction rates, no necessity for extra energy and special apparatus are the characteristics of this process yielding extremely fine, homogenous and non-agglomerated powders. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

De Cezaro A.,Grande Rio University | Leitao A.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Tai X.-C.,University of Bergen
Inverse Problems | Year: 2013

We investigate level-set-type methods for solving ill-posed problems with discontinuous (piecewise constant) coefficients. The goal is to identify the level sets as well as the level values of an unknown parameter function on a model described by a nonlinear ill-posed operator equation. The PCLS approach is used here to parametrize the solution of a given operator equation in terms of a L2 level-set function, i.e. the level-set function itself is assumed to be a piecewise constant function. Two distinct methods are proposed for computing stable solutions of the resulting ill-posed problem: the first is based on Tikhonov regularization, while the second is based on the augmented Lagrangian approach with total variation penalization. Classical regularization results (Engl H W et al 1996 Mathematics and its Applications (Dordrecht: Kluwer)) are derived for the Tikhonov method. On the other hand, for the augmented Lagrangian method, we succeed in proving the existence of (generalized) Lagrangian multipliers in the sense of (Rockafellar R T and Wets R J-B 1998 Grundlehren der Mathematischen Wissenschaften (Berlin: Springer)). Numerical experiments are performed for a 2D inverse potential problem (Hettlich F and Rundell W 1996 Inverse Problems 12 251-66), demonstrating the capabilities of both methods for solving this ill-posed problem in a stable way (complicated inclusions are recovered without any a priori geometrical information on the unknown parameter). © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd.

Antunes Boca Santa R.A.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Bernardin A.M.,University of the Extreme South of Santa Catarina | Riella H.G.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Kuhnen N.C.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Journal of Cleaner Production | Year: 2013

This study deals with the development of geopolymers synthetized from industrial waste containing aluminosilicates. Geopolymers are inorganic polymers formed by the activation of amorphous aluminosilicates (Al2O 3.SiO2), which react in a strongly alkaline medium. Bottom ash (SiO2/Al2O3 = 3.3-4.5) was used as source of aluminosilicate and sodium hydroxide (NaOH = 5, 10 and 15 M) and sodium silicate (Na2SiO3, SiO2/Na2O = 1.58) were used as alkaline medium. Calcined paper sludge was used to increase the reactivity of the partially crystallized bottom ash. The solid waste was characterized by XRF and XRD and the geopolymer samples were characterized by XRF, XRD, SEM, FTIR and compressive strength tests. The best results were obtained with a solution of 15 M NaOH and sodium silicate and a mixture of 2:1 bottom ash and calcined paper sludge.

Bernardes L.S.C.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Carvalho I.,University of Sao Paulo
Current Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2013

According to World Health Organization (WHO), trypanosomiasis and leishmaniasis are the most challenging among the neglected tropical diseases. Comparative studies between Leishmania spp and Trypanosoma cruzi have been conducted aiming to find a broad spectrum antiprotozoal agent acting against both parasites. Among the potential molecular target, Trypanothione reductase (TR) is considered an ideal enzyme since it is involved in the unique thiol-based metabolism observed in the Trypanosomatidae family and is a validated target for the search of antitrypanosomatidae drugs. In this review we intend to describe the currently available therapy to treat trypanosomatidae diseases and to highlight important aspects of trypanothione reductase as a target for the search of new and selective inhibitors, such as tricyclic, diphenylsulfide, bicyclic and heterocyclic, polyamine, natural product, N-oxide and nitroheterocyclic, aryl β- aminocarbonyl and α,β-unsaturated carbonyl derivatives. © 2013 Bentham Science Publishers.

Maciel I.S.,Grande Rio University | Silva R.B.M.,Grande Rio University | Morrone F.B.,Grande Rio University | Calixto J.B.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Campos M.M.,Grande Rio University
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

This study was aimed to characterize the depression-like behaviour in the classical model of chronic inflammation induced by Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA). Male Swiss mice received an intraplantar (i.pl.) injection of CFA (50 μl/paw) or vehicle. Behavioural and inflammatory responses were measured at different time-points (1 to 4 weeks), and different pharmacological tools were tested. The brain levels of IL-1β and BDNF, or COX-2 expression were also determined. CFA elicited a time-dependent edema formation and mechanical allodynia, which was accompanied by a significant increase in the immobility time in the tail suspension (TST) or forced-swimming (FST) depression tests. Repeated administration of the antidepressants imipramine (10 mg/kg), fluoxetine (20 mg/kg) and bupropion (30 mg/kg) significantly reversed depression-like behaviour induced by CFA. Predictably, the anti-inflammatory drugs dexamethasone (0.5 mg/kg), indomethacin (10 mg/kg) and celecoxib (30 mg/kg) markedly reduced CFA-induced edema. The oral treatment with the analgesic drugs dipyrone (30 and 300 mg/kg) or pregabalin (30 mg/kg) significantly reversed the mechanical allodyinia induced by CFA. Otherwise, either dipyrone or pregabalin (both 30 mg/kg) did not significantly affect the paw edema or the depressive-like behaviour induced by CFA, whereas the oral treatment with dipyrone (300 mg/kg) was able to reduce the immobility time in TST. Noteworthy, CFA-induced edema was reduced by bupropion (30 mg/kg), and depression behaviour was prevented by celecoxib (30 mg/kg). The co-treatment with bupropion and celecoxib (3 mg/kg each) significantly inhibited both inflammation and depression elicited by CFA. The same combined treatment reduced the brain levels of IL-1β, as well as COX-2 immunopositivity, whilst it failed to affect the reduction of BDNF levels. We provide novel evidence on the relationship between chronic inflammation and depression, suggesting that combination of antidepressant and anti-inflammatory agents bupropion and celecoxib might represent an attractive therapeutic strategy for depression. © 2013 Maciel et al.

Eising R.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Signori A.M.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Domingos J.B.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Langmuir | Year: 2011

Colloidal silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) with a mean diameter of 6.1 nm and a narrow size distribution were prepared by reduction of the correspondent metal salt with injection of NaBH 4, in the presence of dextran, and characterized by UV-vis, TEM, and DLS. The concentration of all reactants involved in the formation of the nanoparticles was optimized with the use of a new multivariate method, which revealed a significant reduction in the number of experiments when compared with the vast majority of univariate methods described in the literature. The Ag-NPs-dextran composite was able to efficiently catalyze the p-nitrophenol reduction in water by NaBH 4 with a rate constant normalized to the surface area of the nanoparticles per unit volume (k 1) of 1.41 s -1 m -2 L, which is higher than values ever reported for Ag-NPs catalytic systems. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

Fonseca R.W.D.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Fonseca R.W.D.,University of California at Davis | Didone E.L.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology | Pereira F.O.R.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Pereira F.O.R.,Loughborough University
Energy and Buildings | Year: 2013

Daylighting has a recognized potential for electric energy savings when used as a complement for artificial lighting. Recent studies have indicated that artificial neural networks (ANNs) present high potential for daylighting analysis in buildings. In this study, a statistical performance method based on ANNs is evaluated. The ANN use is assessed in comparison with the multivariate linear regression (MLR) technique in order to represent the potential for energy savings through the daylighting use in office buildings. The data set was based on computer simulation results obtained with 216 models and used to develop a MLR equation. The simulations were performed with Daysim (daylighting) coupled to EnergyPlus (energy). In parallel, an approximation model using ANN was applied. The method adopted for the training and validation of the ANN was a cross-validation procedure, recommended for limited data sets. The results demonstrate that the ANN have shown a better performance in representing this problem, since it presented a lower coefficient of determination and an acceptable mean square error. In addition, the ANNs presented learning skills which allow them to perform the generalization process in a better way. After being validated, the ANN is expected to provide output results for input data which have not yet been submitted to it, providing reasonable estimates of daylighting impact on electric energy need for new environments. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Tahim A.P.N.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Pagano D.J.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Ponce E.,University of Seville
Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Decision and Control | Year: 2012

The direct current (dc) microgrids are an option to new demands for power quality and integration of renewable resources in developing regions, where the main network is unavailable. However, the dc architecture is based on multi-stage power converters where point-of-load converters can be seen by the feeder converter as constant power loads (CPLs). This nonlinear characteristic and the frequent change of the availability of energy sources and loads makes the linear control inadequate. This work addresses the nonlinear stability analysis of a stand-alone dc network. In addition, it is proposed a sliding mode controller based on a washout filter that is responsible for controlling the balance of power (load demand and generation) through a dc-dc bidirectional converter (DBC). This converter is connected to a storage device that plays the role of maintaining a constant dc bus voltage. Simulation results allow us to validate the proposed controller under variations in the availability of energy sources and loads. © 2012 IEEE.

Nazareno A.G.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Zucchi M.I.,Agencia Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegocios | dos Reis M.S.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
American Journal of Botany | Year: 2011

Premise of the study: Microsatellite markers were developed for the vulnerable palm species Butia eriospatha (Mart. ex Drude) Becc. to investigate genetic diversity, spatial genetic structure, mating system, and population dynamics. Methods and Results: From a genomic library enriched for GA/CA repeats, 14 sets of primers were isolated and characterized for 50 B. eriospatha samples from two populations. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 6 (with amplified dinucleotide repeat-based primers); the observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.000 to 1.000 and from 0.120 to 0.690, respectively. At least 86% of primers were also amplified for Butia catarinensis Noblick & Lorenzi, another threatened palm species from the Atlantic Rainforest in Brazil. Conclusions: The new marker set described here will be useful for studies of population genetics of B. eriospatha, and they have been shown to be applicable for other species from the Butia genus. © 2011 Botanical Society of America.

Romanha A.J.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy | Year: 2014

Objectives: Toevaluate in vitro interactions between paromomycin sulphateandthe antileishmanial drugs meglumine antimoniate, amphotericin B, miltefosine and azithromycin against intracellular Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi, Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis and Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis amastigotes in peritoneal mouse macrophages. Methods: First, drug susceptibilitywas assessed in 3, 5 and 7 day assays, followed by drug interaction assays with a modified fixed-ratio method. An overall mean sum fractional inhibitory concentration (∑FIC) was calculated for each combination and each Leishmania species. The nature of the interactions was classified as synergistic if the mean ∑FIC was ≤0.5, indifferent if the mean ∑FIC was <0.5-4.0 and antagonistic if the mean ∑FIC was >4.0. Results: In vitro synergismwas observed for the combinations of paromomycin plus miltefosine [at50% and 90% inhibitory concentrations (IC50 and IC90, respectively)] and paromomycin plus amphotericin B (at the IC90 level) against L. (L.) amazonensis, paromomycin plus meglumine antimoniate (at the IC50 and IC90 levels) and paromomycin plus amphotericin B (at the IC50 level) against L. (V.) braziliensis, and paromomycin plus miltefosine, paromomycin plus amphotericin B (both at the IC90 level) and paromomycin plus azithromycin (at the IC50 level) against L. (L) infantum chagasi. Conclusions: This work provides a preclinical dataset that supports future studies on multidrug treatment schedules against NewWorld leishmaniasis. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

Nazareno A.G.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Jump A.S.,University of Stirling
Molecular Ecology | Year: 2012

Predicted parallel impacts of habitat fragmentation on genes and species lie at the core of conservation biology, yet tests of this rule are rare. In a recent article in Ecology Letters, Struebig (2011) report that declining genetic diversity accompanies declining species diversity in tropical forest fragments. However, this study estimates diversity in many populations through extrapolation from very small sample sizes. Using the data of this recent work, we show that results estimated from the smallest sample sizes drive the species-genetic diversity correlation (SGDC), owing to a false-positive association between habitat fragmentation and loss of genetic diversity. Small sample sizes are a persistent problem in habitat fragmentation studies, the results of which often do not fit simple theoretical models. It is essential, therefore, that data assessing the proposed SGDC are sufficient in order that conclusions be robust. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Santos T.L.M.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Normey-Rico J.E.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Journal of Process Control | Year: 2012

Computational simplicity is one of the most important aspects to take into account in robust model predictive control (MPC). In dead-time processes, it is common to use an augmented state-space representation in order to apply robust MPC strategies but, this procedure may affect computational aspects. In this paper, explicit dead-time compensation will be used to avoid augmented representation. This technique will be analyzed in terms of robust stability and constraint satisfaction for discrete-time linear systems. The results of this discussion will be applied to a robust tube-based MPC strategy which is able to guarantee robust stability and constraint satisfaction of a dead-time system by considering a prediction model without dead-time. Moreover, taking advantage of the proposed scheme, the robust MPC will be particularized for first-order plus dead-time models which simplifies significantly controller synthesis. The proposed dead-time compensation method will be applied to different robust MPC strategies in two case studies: (i) a simulated quadruple-tank system, and (ii) an experimental scaled laboratory heater process. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All Rights Reserved.

de Cezaro A.,Grande Rio University | Leitao A.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Inverse Problems in Science and Engineering | Year: 2012

We investigate level-set-type approaches for solving ill-posed inverse problems, under the assumption that the solution is a piecewise constant function. Our goal is to identify the level sets as well as the level values of the unknown parameter function. Two distinct level-set frameworks are proposed for solving the inverse problem. Among both of them, the level-set function is assumed to be in L 2. Corresponding Tikhonov regularization approaches are derived and analysed. Existence of minimizers for the Tikhonov functionals is proven. Moreover, convergence and stability results of the variational approaches are established, characterizing the Tikhonov approaches as regularization methods. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Neto A.A.M.,Federal University of Pernambuco | Cincotto M.A.,University of Sao Paulo | Repette W.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Cement and Concrete Composites | Year: 2010

This article reports the characteristics of blast furnace slag (BFS) pastes activated with hydrated lime (5%) and hydrated lime (2%) plus gypsum (6%) in relation to compressive strength, shrinkage (autogenous and drying) and microstructure (porosity, hydrated products). The paste mixtures were characterized using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) and thermogravimetric analysis (TG/DTG). BSF activated with lime and gypsum (LG) results in larger amounts of ettringite when compared with BFS activated with lime (L). Although the porosities of the L and LG mixtures were about the same, there was a greater pore refinement for the BFS activated with lime, with an increase in mesopores volume with age. The presence of ettringite and the higher volumes of macropores cause the compressive strength of BSF activated with hydrated lime plus gypsum to be smaller than that of BFS activated with lime. For both chemical activators, compressive strength developed slowly at early ages. Autogenous and drying shrinkage were greater for the BFS activated with lime, believed to result from the more refined porous structure in comparison with the mixture activated with gypsum plus lime. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Pelisser F.,University of the Extreme South of Santa Catarina | Neto A.B.D.S.S.,Federal University of Pampa | Rovere H.L.L.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Pinto R.C.D.A.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Construction and Building Materials | Year: 2010

Plastic shrinkage cracks may occur even when standard precautions have been taken, which may impair the durability and serviceability of concrete structures. One way to prevent such cracks is by adding short fibers to the concrete mixture. The aim of this work is to evaluate the effect of the addition of synthetic fibers, such as polypropylene, glass, nylon and PET fibers in concrete cracking control. An experimental program was conducted to investigate plastic shrinkage cracking in small thin slabs, by varying the fiber volume fraction of fibers in the mixtures. Concluding remarks and a few recommendations are given at the end of the work. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Hotza D.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Garcia D.E.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Castro R.H.R.,University of California at Davis
International Materials Reviews | Year: 2015

For technological applications, zirconia is commonly blended with other oxides to stabilise the tetragonal and/or cubic phases at low temperature, being yttria the most frequently added dopant. It is generally desirable to obtain highly dense ceramics while maintaining grain sizes in the nanoscale (<100 nm). Small grains contribute to stabilise the tetragonal phase and to improve the toughness and flexural strength. Moreover, a higher ionic conductivity for cubic zirconia electrolytes is achieved with smaller grain size and lower thickness of the intergranular regions. The sintering onset temperatures required for nanometric particles are significantly reduced when compared to conventional micrometric powders. However, densification is generally accompanied by an undesirable grain coarsening. A Ramp and Hold Sintering (RHS) is the simplest densification schedule, consisting of heating up to the peak temperature followed by a holding time at that temperature. Another approach, called Two-Step Sintering (TSS) is based on the principle that the activation energy for grain growth is lower than the activation energy of densification. The key elements in this method are heating up to a high temperature to achieve a density >75% Theoretical Density (TD) to render the pores unstable, and then cooling down rapidly to a lower temperature to finish sintering and hinder grain growth. Alternatively, considerable efforts have been made in increasing the heating rate and/or reducing the hold time at the peak temperature during sintering cycles in processes that are generally referred to as 'Fast Firing' (FF) or 'rapid sintering'. This review summarises the attempts in the literature for obtaining dense monolithic nanocrystalline Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) ceramics by pressureless sintering schedules carried out in conventional furnaces. RHS, FF and TSS schedules are reported only from YSZ as starting powders, i.e. without the aid of any additional dopant or grain growth inhibitor. For the sake of comparison, the discussion is focused mainly on YSZ nanoceramics with final densities >99% TD and average grain size <100 nm. Powder and shaping effects on microstructure and properties of bulk nanoceramics are discussed. A comparison among sintering approaches is then made taking into account the microstructural development of the nanostructures and some key properties of the products. © 2015 Institute of Materials, Minerals and Mining and ASM International.

De Souza C.E.,Laboratorio Nacional Of Computacao Cientifica Lncc Mcti | Coutinho D.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Automatica | Year: 2014

This paper deals with the problems of robust stability analysis and robust control of linear discrete-time periodic systems with a delayed state and subject to polytopic-type parameter uncertainty in the state-space matrices. A robust stability criterion independent of the time-delay length as well as a delay-dependent criterion is proposed, where the former applies to the case of a constant time-delay and the latter allows for a time-varying delay lying in a given interval. The developed robust stability criteria are based on affinely uncertainty-dependent Lyapunov-Krasovskii functionals and are given in terms of linear matrix inequalities. These stability conditions are then applied to solve the problems of robust stabilization and robust H∞ control via static periodic state feedback. Numerical examples illustrate the potentials of the proposed robust stability and control methods. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Koch A.,University Hospital Bochum Bergmannsheil | Pizzichini E.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Hamilton A.,Boehringer Ingelheim | Hart L.,Boehringer Ingelheim | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of COPD | Year: 2014

Two replicate, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, Phase III studies investigated the long-term efficacy and safety of once-daily olodaterol via Respimat® versus placebo and formoterol over 48 weeks in patients with moderate to very severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease receiving usual-care background therapy. Patients received once-daily olodaterol 5 or 10 μg, twice-daily formoterol 12 μg, or placebo. Co-primary end points were forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) area under the curve from 0-3 hours response, FEV1 trough response, and Mahler transition dyspnea index total score after 24 weeks; secondary end points included St George's Respiratory Questionnaire. Overall, 904 (Study 1222.13) and 934 (Study 1222.14) patients received treatment. Olodaterol significantly improved FEV1 area under the curve from 0-3 hours versus placebo in both studies (with olodaterol 5 μg, 0.151 L and 0.129 L; with olodaterol 10 μg, 0.165 L and 0.154 L; for all comparisons P,0.0001) and FEV1 trough responses versus placebo (0.053-0.085 L; P,0.01), as did formoterol. Primary analysis revealed no significant difference in transition dyspnea index focal score for any active treatment versus placebo. Post hoc analysis using pattern mixture modeling (accounting for discontinuations) demonstrated statistical significance for olodaterol versus placebo. St George's Respiratory Questionnaire total score was significantly improved with olodaterol, but not formoterol, versus placebo. No safety signals were identified from adverse-event or other safety data. Once-daily olodaterol 5 μg and 10 μg is efficacious in patients with moderate to very severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease on usual-care maintenance therapy, with a satisfactory safety profile. © 2014 Koch et al.

Pelisser F.,University of the Extreme South of Santa Catarina | Gleize P.J.P.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Mikowski A.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Journal of Physical Chemistry C | Year: 2012

Calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H), the main product in Portland cement hydration, influences the physical and mechanical properties of most cementitious materials. However, there are no structural models that currently relate chemical composition, nanostructure, and microstructure with the physicochemical and mechanical properties. In this work, the indentation technique was used to evaluate the micro/nanomechanical properties of synthetic C-S-H with different Ca/Si (CaO/SiO 2) molar ratios. C-S-H was also characterized by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and X-ray fluorescence (XRF). Analysis of the results verified that the elastic modulus and hardness increased when the Ca/Si molar ratio of C-S-H decreased, achieving elastic modulus values of 27 and 20 GPa for Ca/Si ratios of 0.7 and 2.1, respectively, corroborating calculations based on the force field method of Manzano et al.(1) Our results also determined that micro- and nanoporosity significantly influence the outcome. The research results are limited to synthesized C-S-H, but clarify the potential of the Ca/Si ratio to modify the mechanical properties, while permitting investigation of C-S-H without the presence of other phases of hydrated Portland cement. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

Garcia M.F.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics | Year: 2012

Background Nutritional risk and malnutrition are highly prevalent among hospitalized patients. As a result, several methods have been developed to produce an adequate nutritional diagnosis. Objective We aimed to assess the relationship between nutritional risk tools and parameters derived from bioelectrical impedance analysis with a Subjective Global Assessment (SGA). Design A cross-sectional study was conducted from April to September 2010. Participants/setting The study included 124 patients admitted to the Surgical Clinic I, University Hospital, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, Brazil, to undergo elective surgery. Main outcome measures We utilized SGA and Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 (NRS 2002), Nutritional Risk Index (NRI), Fat-Free Mass Index (FFMI), Fat Mass Index (FMI), body cell mass as a percentage of the total weight (%BCM), and standardized phase angle (SPA). Statistical analysis performed The agreement was tested by κ coefficient, while bivariate associations were tested by Mann-Whitney U test. Results Prevalence of nutritional risk by NRS 2002 and NRI or malnutrition by SGA, FFMI, FMI, %BCM, and SPA was 19.3%, 69.5%, 35.5%, 12.9%, 8.1%, 46.8%, and 4.8%, respectively. The best agreement was between SGA and NRS 2002 (κ=.490), possibly because they constitute similar instruments. Patients identified as malnourished by SGA (B+C) showed considerably lower values of FFMI, FMI, BCM, and SPA. Conclusions The results suggest that the NRS 2002 and parameters derived from bioelectrical impedance analysis identify patients with impaired nutritional status. © 2012 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics.

Bresolin N.,Hospital Infantil Joana Of Gusmao | Bresolin N.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Bianchini A.P.,Institute Responsabilidade Social Sirio Libanes | Haas C.A.,Hospital Santo Antonio
Pediatric Nephrology | Year: 2013

Background: In this study we applied the pediatric version of the RIFLE criteria (pRIFLE) to an at-risk hospital population, analyzed the incidence and association of acute kidney injury (AKI) with mortality and length of stay in both the intensive care unit (ICU) and the hospital, and evaluated the applicability of pRIFLE as a prognostic tool in the ICU. Methods: This study was a prospective single-center cohort study in which 126 patients were enrolled. The affected group included patients who were diagnosed with AKI. Subgroups of the diagnosed patients were established according to their maximum pRIFLE strata, which were defined as the worst pRIFLE score attained during the study period. Results: Fifty-eight (46 %) of our patients developed AKI. The lengths of stay in the ICU and in the hospital were longer in the affected group than in the unaffected group. The advanced strata of pRIFLEmax were associated with longer stays in the ICU and hospital and higher median Pediatric Index of Mortality II scores. The hospital mortality rate of AKI patients was 12-fold higher than that of the patients without AKI (36 vs. 3 %). Conclusion: The incidence of AKI in this population was both significant and directly associated with hospital mortality and the length of stay in the ICU and hospital. The pRIFLE classification facilitated the definition of AKI, indicating that it a significant prognostic predictor. © 2012 IPNA.

Alvarez J.D.,University of Seville | Redondo J.L.,University of Granada | Camponogara E.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Normey-Rico J.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | And 2 more authors.
Energy and Buildings | Year: 2013

Energy efficiency and energy saving are important concepts bearing in mind by governments and population during the last years. There exist a widespread concern about fossil fuel depletions and the consequent sharp rise in their value. In particular, building is an area highly influenced by those issues. Studies indicate that 40% of the energy generated worldwide is consumed inside buildings, and then, measures to reduce energy consumption are required. In this work, an optimal controller for distributing the energy consumption rate inside a building and preserving, at the same time, the user welfare is proposed. More precisely, the paper presents a predictive control approach that obtains a high thermal comfort level optimizing the use of an HVAC (Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning) system by means of a cost function. The optimization procedure is based on the Lagrangian dual method, which allows the use of parallel programming paradigms in an easy way. This may reduce the computational effort proportionally to the number of processing elements when the problem to solve is large. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Dutra M.,Federal University of Fluminense | Lourenco O.,Federal University of São Carlos | Menezes D.P.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics | Year: 2016

We analyze the stellar properties of the relativistic mean-field (RMF) parametrizations shown to be consistent with the recently studied constraints related to nuclear matter, pure neutron matter, symmetry energy, and its derivatives [Phys. Rev. C 90, 055203 (2014)PRVCAN0556-281310.1103/PhysRevC.90.055203]. Our results show that only two RMF parametrizations do not allow the emergence of the direct Urca process, important aspect regarding the evolution of a neutron star. Moreover, among all approved RMF models, fourteen of them produce neutron stars with maximum masses inside the range 1.93≤M/M ≤2.05, with M being the solar mass. Only three models yield maximum masses above this range and a discussion on the inclusion of hyperons is presented. Finally, we verified that the models satisfying the neutron star maximum mass constraint do not observe the squared sound velocity bound; namely, vs2<1/3, corroborating recent findings. However, the recently proposed σ-cut scheme can make the RMF models consistent with both constraints, depending on the isoscalar-vector interaction of each parametrization. © 2016 American Physical Society.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-SICA | Phase: ENV.2007. | Award Amount: 4.28M | Year: 2008

The CLARIS LPB Project aims at predicting the regional climate change impacts on La Plata Basin (LPB) in South America, and at designing adaptation strategies for land-use, agriculture, rural development, hydropower production, river transportation, water resources and ecological systems in wetlands. In order to reach such a goal, the project has been built on the following four major thrusts. First, improving the description and understanding of decadal climate variability is of prime importance for short-term regional climate change projections (2010-2040). Second, a sound approach requires an ensemble of coordinated regional climate scenarios in order to quantify the amplitude and sources of uncertainties in LPB future climate at two time horizons: 2010-2040 for adaptation strategies and 2070-2100 for assessment of long-range impacts. Such coordination will allow to critically improve the prediction capacity of climate change and its impacts in the region. Third, adaptation strategies to regional scenarios of climate change impacts require a multi-disciplinary approach where all the regional components (climate, hydrology, land use, land cover, agriculture and deforestation) are addressed in a collaborative way. Feedbacks between the regional climate groups and the land use and hydrology groups will ensure to draw a first-order feedback of future land use and hydrology scenarios onto the future regional climate change. Fourth, stakeholders must be integrated in the design of adaptation strategies, ensuring their dissemination to public, private and governmental policy-makers. Finally, in continuity with the FP6 CLARIS Project, our project will put a special emphasis in forming young scientists in European institutes and in strengthening the collaborations between European and South American partners. The project is coordinated with the objectives of LPB, an international project on La Plata Basin that has been endorsed by the CLIVAR and GEWEX Panels.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-CA | Phase: AAT.2010.1.1-1.;AAT.2010.1.3-2. | Award Amount: 2.23M | Year: 2010

The X-NOISE EV Coordination Action, through its network structure and comprehensive workplan involving experts groups, scientific workshops, international cooperation seminars and a common information system, addresses the noise challenges faced by Aviation. To this end, it will more specifically: - Evaluate EU-funded projects results and assess their contribution to the state-of-the-art. - Formulate, through development of common strategies and complementarity with national activities, priorities and key topics for future projects aimed at noise reduction at source, low noise operations, and improved understanding and modelling of the impact of aircraft noise in the community, including environmental interdependencies. - Ensure dissemination and exploitation of research findings, including technical information aimed at Regulatory Bodies and Policymaking Agencies. - Contribute to an improved integration of the European Aviation Noise Research Community through a network of National Focal Points covering all countries with such technical interest - Identify potential reinforcement of future projects partnership through extended international networking and dedicated processes to foster new collaborations and promote novel ideas. The project scope is fully consistent with the FP7 Transport workprogramme (Aeronautics), significantly contributing to the objectives of reducing Aircraft Noise by 10 dB per operation as set by the ACARE 2020 Vision,.while addressing key factors associated with Airport Noise issues. Over 4 years, the project will involve 29 partners from 21 countries (FR, UK, ES, NL, BE, DE, SE, IT, PL, HE, HU, CZ, LT, IE, PT, RO, CH, RU, UKR, EG, BR), combining the complementary skills and expertise of industry partners, SMEs, universities and research establishments to cover the whole field of interest.

Frazzon E.M.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Hartmann J.,BIBA Bremen Institute for Production and Logistics | Makuschewitz T.,BIBA Bremen Institute for Production and Logistics | Scholz-Reiter B.,University of Bremen
Procedia CIRP | Year: 2013

The adoption of Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) in production networks enables new potential for improved efficiency, accountability, sustainability and scalability. In terms of production and transport processes, materialising this potential requires customised technological concepts, planning and control methods as well as business models. Even though CPS strongly rely on technological advancements, the creativity, flexibility and problem solving competence of human stakeholders is strongly needed for their operation. This paper introduces and reviews the social aspects of CPS and motivates future research towards Socio-Cyber-Physical Systems (SCPS) applied to production networks. In this frame, context-dependent behavioural aspects and implications related to the human stakeholders are delimitated. As a showcase for the relevance of these aspects the deficits arising from an insufficient communication among stakeholders in SCPS are analysed by means of a simulation experiment. The obtained results substantiate the dependence of SCPS on properly considering the aspects related to human stakeholders together with technology. © 2013 The Authors.

This article presents some guidelines for organizing the working process in Primary Health Care (PHC) and Family Health Strategy (FHS) concerning the challenges of providing access and balancing the everyday healthcare services activities which includes health promotion and prevention of diseases, as well as access for those suffering ill-health. Firstly, it addresses some specific ideas about the importance of access to the quality of the health care services, followed by a brief critique - based on Geoffrey Rose’s concepts - to the high-risk preventive strategy that has had high impact on health care organizational routines. Secondly, it contextualizes health promotion and its relations to individual health care in PHC/FHS, discussing the synergic potential of care and health promotion in their individual and collective dimensions to transcend the biomedical-mechanistic model. Finally, based on the above topics and concerning their operational consequences, as well as using a concrete example, it outlines general guidelines for organizing the working process and the agenda of doctors and nurses in the FHS, in order to facilitate both balance and synergy between access to health care and prevention/promotion, aiming to strengthen the FHS as local coordinator of care and main entrance of the Brazilian National Health System. © 2015, UNIV SAOPAULO. All rights reserved.

Forgerini F.L.,Federal University of Amazonas | Figueiredo W.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Physical Review E - Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics | Year: 2010

We present some results of Monte Carlo simulations for the deposition of particles of different sizes on a two-dimensional substrate. The particles are linear, height one, and can be deposited randomly only in the two x and y directions of the substrate and occupy an integer number of cells of the lattice. We show there are three different regimes for the temporal evolution of the interface width. At the initial times we observe an uncorrelated growth, with an exponent β1 characteristic of the random deposition model. At intermediate times, the interface width presents an unusual behavior, described by a growing exponent β2, which depends on the size of the particles added to the substrate. If the linear size of the particle is two we have β2 < β1, otherwise we have β2 > β1, for all other particle sizes. After the growth reaches the saturation regime where the interface width becomes constant and is described by the roughness exponent α, which is nearly independent of the size of the particle. Similar results are found in the surface growth due to the electrophoretic deposition of polymer chains. Contrary to one-dimensional results the growth exponents are nonuniversal. © 2010 The American Physical Society.

Kneur J.-L.,CNRS Charles Coulomb Laboratory | Pinto M.B.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Ramos R.O.,State University of Rio de Janeiro
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2013

The phase diagram and thermodynamic properties of the (2+1)-dimensional Gross-Neveu model are studied in the presence of a constant magnetic field. The optimized perturbation theory (OPT) is used to obtain results going beyond the large-N approximation. The free energy and the complete phase diagram of the model, in terms of temperature, chemical potential, and magnetic field are obtained and studied in details. We find that some of the main qualitative changes induced by the OPT finite N corrections concern the region of intermediate to high chemical potentials where this approximation adds a term proportional to λâŸ̈ψ +ψ⟩2/N to the free energy. Then, depending on the sign of λ (relative to the critical coupling) and magnitude of the magnetic field, we observe a weakening (when λ<0) or enhancement (when λ>0) of the chiral broken region in the magnetized fermionic system. By comparing the results from the OPT and the large-N approximation, we conclude that finite N effects favor the phenomenon of inverse magnetic catalysis when the coupling constant is negative. We show that with the OPT the value of the coexistence chemical potential at vanishing temperature tends to decrease for large values of the magnetic field. This is opposite to what is seen in the large-N approximation, where for large magnetic fields the coexistence chemical potential starts again to increase. Likewise, at finite temperature, the value of the chemical potential at the tricritical point also decreases with the magnetic field in the OPT case. Consequently, the shape of the phase diagrams predicted by the OPT and by the large-N approximation look very different in the presence of high magnetic fields. Finally, for small values of magnetic field and temperature, we identify the presence of possible intermediate nonchiral phase transitions when varying the chemical potential. We show that these phenomena are not an artifact of the large-N approximation and that they also occur within the OPT framework. These intermediate transitions are interpreted to be a consequence of the de Haas-van Alphen oscillations. We also explain why this type of phenomenon can happen in general for negative couplings but not for positive couplings. © 2013 American Physical Society.

Tesser C.D.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Norman A.H.,Durham University
Saude e Sociedade | Year: 2014

This article presents interpretative hypothesis about the absence of institutional rules for healthcare access to Primary Health Care (PHC) in Brazil, specifically in Family Health Strategy (FHS). Access now is characterized by deviation and/or undervaluation in its operational aspect of providing rapid access to longitudinal clinical care. The hypothesis for this problem has been contextualised along two main axes: SUS institutional norms and the internal debate within the Collective Health field. In the first axis we discuss the North-American influence on Brazilian public health and the understanding of PHC as a “basic package” of healthcare services; the priority given to health promotion in the institutional health policies, as well as the Embracement (the only policy to stimulate the easy access in PHC/FHS) and the sizing of users/FHS team ratio. All that gives support for expanding and resizing the users/FHS ratio. The second axis, discuss Brazil’s relative isolation from the experience of developed countries with strong PHC; the critique of the relationship between biomedicine and capitalism; the emphasis on health promotion and disease prevention as the priority working objectives in PHC/FHS; the distance kept by the academic environment of the reality of FHS services; Brazilian social stratification, which fosters the use of subsidized private health systems by elites and middle classes. Finally, we argue that easy access to longitudinal healthcare should be regarded as fundamental for achieving the four dimensions which must converge into the PHC/FHS action: the ethical-political, anthropological and epidemiological dimensions and the social determinants on health and disease. © 2014, UNIV SAOPAULO. All rights reserved.

Kneur J.-L.,CNRS Charles Coulomb Laboratory | Pinto M.B.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2015

A recently developed variant of the so-called optimized perturbation theory (OPT), making it perturbatively consistent with renormalization group (RG) properties, RGOPT, was shown to drastically improve its convergence for zero temperature theories. Here the RGOPT adapted to finite temperature is illustrated with a detailed evaluation of the two-loop pressure for the thermal scalar λφ4 field theory. We show that already at the simple one-loop level this quantity is exactly scale-invariant by construction and turns out to qualitatively reproduce, with a rather simple procedure, results from more sophisticated resummation methods at two-loop order, such as the two-particle irreducible approach typically. This lowest order also reproduces the exact large-N results of the O(N) model. Although very close in spirit, our RGOPT method and corresponding results differ drastically from similar variational approaches, such as the screened perturbation theory or its QCD-version, the (resummed) hard thermal loop perturbation theory. The latter approaches exhibit a sensibly degrading scale dependence at higher orders, which we identify as a consequence of missing RG invariance. In contrast RGOPT gives a considerably reduced scale dependence at two-loop level, even for relatively large coupling values λ/24∼O(1), making results much more stable as compared with standard perturbation theory, with expected similar properties for thermal QCD. © 2015 American Physical Society.

Horai R.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Zarate-Blades C.R.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Zarate-Blades C.R.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Dillenburg-Pilla P.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | And 10 more authors.
Immunity | Year: 2015

Activated retina-specific T cells that have acquired the ability to break through the blood-retinal barrier are thought to be causally involved in autoimmune uveitis, a major cause of human blindness. It is unclear where these autoreactive T cells first become activated, given that their cognate antigens are sequestered within the immune-privileged eye. We demonstrate in a novel mouse model of spontaneous uveitis that activation of retina-specific T cells is dependent on gut commensal microbiota. Retina-specific T cell activation involved signaling through the autoreactive T cell receptor (TCR) in response to non-cognate antigen in the intestine and was independent of the endogenous retinal autoantigen. Our findings not only have implications for the etiology of human uveitis, but also raise the possibility that activation of autoreactive TCRs by commensal microbes might be a more common trigger of autoimmune diseases than is currently appreciated. It is unknown where and how T cells reactive to self antigens residing behind blood-tissue barriers first become activated. Caspi and colleagues show that retina-specific T cells receive an activation signal in the gut from a crossreactive antigen dependent on commensal microbiota and trigger autoimmunity in the eye. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.

Kneur J.-L.,CNRS Charles Coulomb Laboratory | Pinto M.B.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2016

We use the scalar model with quartic interaction to illustrate how a nonperturbative variational technique combined with renormalization group (RG) properties efficiently resums perturbative expansions in thermal field theories. The resulting convergence and scale dependence of optimized thermodynamical quantities, here illustrated up to two-loop order, are drastically improved as compared to standard perturbative expansions, as well as to other related methods such as the screened perturbation or (resummed) hard-thermal-loop perturbation, that miss RG invariance (as we explain). Being very general and easy to implement, our method is a potential analytical alternative to dealing with the phase transitions of field theories such as thermal QCD. © 2016 American Physical Society.

Eccher J.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Eccher J.,TU Darmstadt | Faria G.C.,University of Sao Paulo | Bock H.,CNRS Paul Pascal Research Center | And 2 more authors.
ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces | Year: 2013

Discotic molecules comprising a rigid aromatic core and flexible side chains have been promisingly applied in OLEDs as self-organizing organic semiconductors. Due to their potentially high charge carrier mobility along the columns, device performance can be readily improved by proper alignment of columns throughout the bulk. In the present work, the charge mobility was increased by 5 orders of magnitude due to homeotropic columnar ordering induced by the boundary interfaces during thermal annealing in the mesophase. State-of-the-art diodes were fabricated using spin-coated films whose homeotropic alignment with formation of hexagonal germs was observed by polarizing optical microscopy. The photophysical properties showed drastic changes at the mesophase-isotropic transition, which is supported by the gain of order observed by X-ray diffraction. The electrical properties were investigated by modeling the current-voltage characteristics by a space-charge-limited current transport with a field dependent mobility. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

Strickland M.,Gettysburg College | Dexheimer V.,Gettysburg College | Dexheimer V.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Menezes D.P.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2012

We calculate the number density, energy density, transverse pressure, longitudinal pressure, and magnetization of an ensemble of spin one-half particles in the presence of a homogenous background magnetic field. The magnetic field direction breaks spherical symmetry causing the pressure transverse to the magnetic field direction to be different than the pressure parallel to it. We present explicit formulas appropriate at zero and finite temperature for both charged and uncharged particles including the effect of the anomalous magnetic moment. We demonstrate that the resulting expressions satisfy the canonical relations Ω=-Pâ̂¥ and P⊥=Pâ̂¥-MB, with M=-∂Ω/∂B being the magnetization of the system. We numerically calculate the resulting pressure anisotropy for a gas of protons and a gas of neutrons and demonstrate that the inclusion of the anomalous magnetic increases the level of pressure anisotropy in both cases. © 2012 American Physical Society.

Khan A.A.,Aligarh Muslim University | Baig U.,Aligarh Muslim University | Khalid M.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry | Year: 2013

Electrically conductive polyaniline-titanium(IV)molybdophosphate (PANI-TMP) cation exchange nanocomposite was studied as sensing material for aliphatic alcohols (methanol, ethanol and 1-propanol) at room temperature. The nanocomposite was synthesized by sol-gel mixing of polyaniline (PANI) into inorganic precipitate of titanium(IV)molybdophosphate (TMP) and characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis). The composite showed good ion-exchange capacity, electrical conductivity and resistivity response towards alcohol vapours. It was observed that the sensor show good reversible response towards methanol vapours compared to ethanol and 1-propanol vapours. These studies suggest that the nanocomposite cation exchanger could be a good sensing material for methanol vapours at room temperature (25 °C). © 2012 The Korean Society of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry.

Fontes L.P.T.L.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Triches G.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Pais J.C.,University of Minho | Pereira P.A.A.,University of Minho
Construction and Building Materials | Year: 2010

Permanent deformation or rutting, one of the most important distresses in flexible pavements, has long been a problem in asphalt mixtures, mainly in countries with high temperatures such as Brazil. Throughout the years, researchers have used different test methods to estimate the rutting performance of asphalt mixtures. One of the alternatives to reduce permanent deformation in asphalt pavement layers is through the use of mixtures produced with asphalt rubber. Crumb rubber from waste tires introduced into the asphalt is one of suitable application to dispose the tires and used as an additive to enhance the properties of the conventional asphalts. This work aims at comparing the rutting performance of asphalt rubber mixtures (with dense and gap-graded aggregate gradation) with the conventional dense graded mixture most used in Brazil. The asphalt rubber mixtures were produced by the wet process using continuous blend and terminal blend asphalt rubber. To study their performance, two laboratory tests, the Repeated Simple Shear Test at Constant Height (RSST-CH) and the Accelerated Pavement Testing Simulator Test (wheel tracking) were carried out. The testing results confirmed that the use of asphalt rubber binder improves significantly the resistance to rutting. The highest resistance is presented by the mixtures produced with continuous blend binders and gap-graded aggregate gradation. The results of both testing apparatus can be correlated by a linear relationship. The testing results allowed concluding that the characteristics of the asphalt rubber binders cannot be used to predict the permanent deformation resistance of the asphalt rubber mixtures. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Antonelli L.R.V.,National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases | Rothfuchs A.G.,National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases | Goncalves R.,University of Maryland University College | Roffe E.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Investigation | Year: 2010

Type I IFN has been demonstrated to have major regulatory effects on the outcome of bacterial infections. To assess the effects of exogenously induced type I IFN on the outcome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, we treated pathogen-exposed mice intranasally with polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid condensed with poly-L-lysine and carboxymethylcellulose (Poly-ICLC), an agent designed to stimulate prolonged, high-level production of type I IFN. Drug-treated, M. tuberculosis-infected WT mice, but not mice lacking IFN-αβ receptor 1 (IFNαβR; also known as IFNAR1), displayed marked elevations in lung bacillary loads, accompanied by widespread pulmonary necrosis without detectable impairment of Th1 effector function. Importantly, lungs from Poly-ICLC-treated M. tuberculosis-infected mice exhibited a striking increase in CD11b+F4/80+Gr1 int cells that displayed decreased MHC II expression and enhanced bacterial levels relative to the same subset of cells purified from infected, untreated controls. Moreover, both the Poly-ICLC-triggered pulmonary recruitment of the CD11b+F4/80+Gr1int population and the accompanying exacerbation of infection correlated with type I IFN-induced upregulation of the chemokine-encoding gene Ccl2 and were dependent on host expression of the chemokine receptor CCR2. The above findings suggest that Poly-ICLC treatment can detrimentally affect the outcome of M. tuberculosis infection, by promoting the accumulation of a permissive myeloid population in the lung. In addition, these data suggest that agents that stimulate type I IFN should be used with caution in patients exposed to this pathogen.

Bao H.S.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Wang R.Z.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Oliveira R.G.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Li T.X.,Shanghai JiaoTong University
Applied Energy | Year: 2012

A thermochemical resorption refrigeration system was designed and two types of application were investigated: (1) cold storage and (2) long-distance refrigeration. Manganese chloride and ammonium chloride were used as high-temperature salt (HTS) and low-temperature salt (LTS), respectively, and ammonia was utilized as reacting gas. The working performance in terms of coefficient of performance (COP) and specific cooling power (SCP) was assessed at different heat source temperature (140-170°C) and refrigeration temperature (-15 to 5°C). The COP obtained at these conditions varied between 0.20 and 0.31, whereas the SCP was from 87 to 125W per kg of MnCl2 composite sorbent, depending on the working condition and on the type of utilization. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

MacHado V.G.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Stock R.I.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Reichardt C.,University of Marburg
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2014

A study is conducted to review the syntheses, physicochemical properties, and applications of pyridinium N-phenolate betaine dyes. The investigations are concerned with the synthesis of the pyridinium N-phenolates and related compounds. The importance of the use of standard betaine 1 and other secondary betaines for studies involving the empirical determination of solvent polarities is described. The thermo-solvatochromism, halochromism, and piezochromism of these compounds are reviewed, along with their behavior as probes in the investigation of solvent mixtures. The historical context related to the concept of solvent polarity and the use of solvatochromic compounds, including the pyridinium N-phenolates, for the investigation of the polarity of solvents, is presented.

Dobigeon N.,National Polytechnic Institute of Toulouse | Tourneret J.-Y.,National Polytechnic Institute of Toulouse | Richard C.,University of Nice Sophia Antipolis | Bermudez J.C.M.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | And 2 more authors.
IEEE Signal Processing Magazine | Year: 2014

When considering the problem of unmixing hyperspectral images, most of the literature in the geoscience and image processing areas relies on the widely used linear mixing model (LMM). However, the LMM may be not valid, and other nonlinear models need to be considered, for instance, when there are multiscattering effects or intimate interactions. Consequently, over the last few years, several significant contributions have been proposed to overcome the limitations inherent in the LMM. In this article, we present an overview of recent advances in nonlinear unmixing modeling. © 1991-2012 IEEE.

Sumar R.R.,Federal University of Technology | Coelho A.A.R.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Dos Santos Coelho L.,Pontifical Catholic University of Parana
Information Sciences | Year: 2010

Despite the popularity of PID (Proportional-Integral-Derivative) controllers, their tuning aspect continues to present challenges for researches and plant operators. Various control design methodologies have been proposed in the literature, such as auto-tuning, self-tuning, and pattern recognition. The main drawback of these methodologies in the industrial environment is the number of tuning parameters to be selected. In this paper, the design of a PID controller, based on the universal model of the plant, is derived, in which there is only one parameter to be tuned. This is an attractive feature from the viewpoint of plant operators. Fuzzy and neural approaches - bio-inspired methods in the field of computational intelligence - are used to design and assess the efficiency of the PID controller design based on differential evolution optimization in nonlinear plants. The numerical results presented herein indicate that the proposed bio-inspired design is effective for the nonlinear control of nonlinear plants. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Correia M.,University of Lisbon | Veronese G.S.,University of Lisbon | Lung L.C.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on Applied Computing | Year: 2010

Byzantine consensus in asynchronous message-passing systems has been shown to require at least 3f + 1 processes to be solvable in several system models (e.g., with failure detectors, partial synchrony or randomization). Recently a couple of solutions to implement Byzantine fault-tolerant state-machine replication using only 2f + 1 replicas have appeared. This reduction from 3f + 1 to 2f + 1 is possible with a hybrid system model, i.e., by extending the system model with trusted/trustworthy components that constrain the power of faulty processes to have certain behaviors. Despite these important results, the problem of solving Byzantine consensus with only 2f + 1 processes is still far from being well understood. In this paper we present a methodology to transform crash consensus algorithms into Byzantine consensus algorithms with different characteristics, with the assistance of a reliable broadcast primitive that requires trusted/trustworthy components to be implemented. We exemplify the methodology with two algorithms, one that uses failure detectors and one that is randomized. We also define a new flavor of consensus and use it to solve atomic broadcast, showing the practical interest of the transformations. © 2010 ACM.

Costa P.,University of Coimbra | Ferreira M.,University of Coimbra | Hansen H.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Menezes D.P.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Providencia C.,University of Coimbra
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2014

The location of the critical end point (CEP) in the QCD phase diagram is determined under different scenarios. The effect of strangeness, isospin/charge asymmetry and an external magnetic field is investigated. The discussion is performed within the 2+1 flavor Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model with Polyakov loop. It is shown that isospin asymmetry shifts the CEP to larger baryonic chemical potentials and smaller temperatures. At large asymmetries the CEP disappears. However, a strong enough magnetic field drives the system into a first order phase transition. © 2014 American Physical Society.

Vidal H.,University of Magallanes | Colle S.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Applied Thermal Engineering | Year: 2010

This paper describes the hourly simulation and optimization of a thermally driven cooling cycle assisted by solar energy. The double stage solar ejector cooling cycle is modelled using the TRNSYS-EES simulation tool and the typical meteorological year file containing the weather data of Florianópolis, Brazil. The first stage is performed by a mechanical compression system with R134a as the working fluid, while the second stage is performed by a thermally driven ejector cycle with R141b. Flat plate collectors and an auxiliary energy burner provide heat to the ejector cycle. The thermo-economical optimization is carried out with respect to the intercooler temperature and the flat plate solar collector area, for given specific costs of the auxiliary energy and electric energy, the capital cost of the collectors, ejector cooler, and the capital cost of equivalent mechanical compression cooler. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Ruviaro M.,WEG Equipamentos Eletricos S.A. | Runcos F.,WEG Equipamentos Eletricos S.A. | Sadowski N.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Borges I.M.,WEG Equipamentos Eletricos S.A.
IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics | Year: 2012

This paper analyzes a 90-kW brushless doubly fed three-phase induction machine in which a wound rotor circuit is connected to a rotary transformer. It presents the advantages of substituting brushes and slip rings by a rotary transformer. In addition, it shows the rotary transformer design and presents the doubly fed induction machine operation. The steady-state model considers electrical circuit techniques to provide information about current, power factor, and efficiency on load. Equivalent circuit parameters are obtained through laboratory tests under a prototype. Comparisons between simulation and measurement results attest the good performance of the adopted model. © 2011 IEEE.

Catapan R.C.,University of Lisbon | Oliveira A.A.M.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Costa M.,University of Lisbon
Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science | Year: 2011

Industrial processes where the heating of large surfaces is required lead to the possibility of using large surface porous radiant burners. This causes additional temperature uniformity problems, since it is increasingly difficult to evenly distribute the reactant mixture over a large burner surface while retaining its stability and keeping low pollutant emissions. In order to allow for larger surface area burners, a non-uniform velocity profile mechanism for flame stabilization in a porous radiant burner using a single large injection hole is proposed and analyzed for a double-layered burner operating in open and closed hot (laboratory-scale furnace, with temperature-controlled, isothermal walls) environments. In both environments, local mean temperatures within the porous medium have been measured. For lower reactant flow rate and ambient temperature the flame shape is conical and anchored at the rim of the injection hole. As the volumetric flow rate or furnace temperature is raised, the flame undergoes a transition to a plane flame stabilized near the external burner surface. However, the stability range envelope remains the same in both regimes. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.

Da Silva Coqueiro R.,State University of Southwest Bahia | Ferreti Borgatto A.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Journal of Nutrition, Health and Aging | Year: 2010

Objective: To assess the association of nutritional status with sex, age, race/color, education, smoking, physical activity, hypertension, diabetes, and hospitalization in older adults residing in the city of Havana, Cuba. Methods: This was a cross-sectional, population-based household survey. A total of 1,905 persons (1,197 women and 708 men; ≥ 60 years) were examined between 1999 and 2000, selected by probabilistic sampling. Nutritional status was assessed by body mass index (BMI): BMI < 22,0 kg/m2 = underweight; BMI > 27,0 kg/m2 = overweight. Multinomial logistic regression analysis (crude and adjusted) was used. Results: The estimation of the prevalence of underweight was 33.0% and that of overweight was 29.6%. The adjusted regression model showed that the probability of underweight was higher in older age groups (OR = 1.63, 70-79 years; OR = 2.05, ≥ 80 years) and among smokers (OR = 1.83). There was negative association between underweight, and hypertension and diabetes. Hypertension (OR = 1.99) was positively associated with overweight. The lower likelihood of overweight was observed among men, smokers, and those aged 80 years and more. Conclusion: The elderly population of Havana presents a vulnerable nutritional status in view of the prevalence of underweight and overweight. Increasing age, smoking, gender, and hypertension are the factors positively associated with vulnerable nutritional status. © 2010 Serdi and Springer Verlag France.

Frenking G.,University of Marburg | Caramori G.F.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2015

Hydrogen bonds: An approach based on energy decomposition analysis is discussed in the analysis of the bonding energy in hydrogen-bonded anion-anion and cation-cation complexes (see picture). The electrostatic Coulombic energy between the two fragments in the complexes is calculated based on the electron density distribution and not based on point charges. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Neves M.A.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Binder M.,Clark University | Halling R.,New York Botanical Garden | Hibbett D.,Clark University | Soytong K.,King Mongkut's University of Technology Thonburi
Fungal Diversity | Year: 2012

The phylogeny of Phylloporus (Boletaceae) has not been well studied, and the taxonomic relationships of this genus have varied considerably among authors. The following study presents phylogenetic relationships of Phylloporus based on two nuclear ribosomal DNA regions, ITS and LSU. The ITS dataset includes 39 collections and the LSU dataset contains 50 collections of Phylloporus. A combined analysis of both genes did not resolve the deeper nodes in the phylogeny, but the results suggest that Phylloporus is monophyletic and a sister group of the Xerocomus subtomentosus group. The lamellate hymenophore configuration is a synapomorphy that distinguishes Phylloporus from the other genera in the family. The placement of a lamellate genus within Boletaceae suggests that hymenophore evolution is not well understood in the family. This is the first phylogeny of Phylloporus and includes 20 species from different geographic regions. Six taxa of Phylloporus from the Old World are here presented. Phylloporus cyanescens is a new combination for an Australasian taxon formerly named as a variety of P. bellus (Massee) Corner. Phylloporus pumilus is described from Indonesia, and 4 species are described from Thailand: P. castanopsidis, P. dimorphus, P. infuscatus, and P. rubiginosus. © The Mushroom Research Foundation 2012.

Borgstein E.H.,Mitsidi Projetos | Lamberts R.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Energy and Buildings | Year: 2014

The energy consumption of buildings is an area of increasing importance, and developing economies like Brazil must start to consider the energy performance of existing buildings. The publication of national energy benchmarks is a fundamental step for understanding energy consumption in commercial buildings and developing energy efficiency programmes. A voluntary data gathering initiative by the Brazilian Sustainable Construction Council (CBCS) is producing the data necessary to develop national benchmarks. A methodology for benchmark development is proposed, using both statistical data and energy audit data to benchmark end-use energy consumption, with the use of wet-bulb cooling degree hours for climate correction. Benchmarks and climate corrections are developed for the energy consumption of bank branches in Brazil. A simple linear regression analysis of data from 1890 bank branches in 57 different climates provides the energy consumption benchmark, while thermal simulation of building performance is used to validate the results and provide an end-use breakdown in the different climates studied. This work provides the foundation for further work to develop and publish national benchmarks in other typologies. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Thiago S.D.C.S.,Prefeitura Municipal de Florianopolis | Thiago S.D.C.S.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Tesser C.D.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Revista de Saude Publica | Year: 2011

Objective: To analyze Estratégia de Saúde da Família (Family Health Strategy) professionals' perception of complementary and integrative therapies. Methods: A study with 177 doctors and nurses was conducted in 2008, based on a self-administered questionnaire. The outcome variables were "interest in complementary and integrative therapies" and "agreement with the National Policy on Complementary and Integrative Therapies. Sex, age, graduate level of education, postgraduate level of education, length of time since graduation, length of time of work, having children, providing complementary and integrative therapies in the workplace, and using homeopathy or acupuncture comprised the independent variables. Data were analyzed using Chi-square test and Fisher's exact test. Results: A total of 17 health centers provided complementary and integrative therapies; 12.4% of professionals had a specialization in homeopathy or acupuncture; 43.5% of doctors were specialists in family and community medicine/family health. Of all participants, 88.7% did not know the national directives for this area, although 81.4% agreed with their inclusion in the Sistema Único de Saúde (Unified Health System). The majority (59.9%) showed an interest in qualifications and all agreed that these therapies should be approached during the graduate course. Agreement with the inclusion of such therapies was significantly associated with the fact of being a nurse (p = 0.027) and using homeopathy for oneself (p = 0.019). Interest in complementary therapies was associated with the use of homeopathy for oneself (p = 0.02) and acupuncture by family members (p = 0.013). Conclusions: Complementary and integrative therapies are accepted by the professionals studied. This acceptance is associated with previous contact with such therapies and, probably, with residency/specialization in family and community medicine/family health. © Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo.

Dittrich N.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | De Lucas R.D.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Beneke R.,University of Marburg | Guglielmo L.G.A.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance | Year: 2014

The purpose of this study was to determine and compare the time to exhaustion (TE) and the physiological responses at continuous and intermittent (ratio 5:1) maximal lactate steady state (MLSS) in well-trained runners. Ten athletes (32.7 6.9 y, VO2max 61.7 3.9 mL • kg-1 • min-1) performed an incremental treadmill test, three to five 30-min constant-speed tests to determine the MLSS continuous and intermittent (5 min of running, interspaced by 1 min of passive rest), and 2 randomized TE tests at such intensities. Two-way ANOVA with repeated measures was used to compare the changes in physiological variables during the TE tests and between continuous and intermittent exercise. The intermittent MLSS velocity (MLSS int = 15.26 0.97 km/h) was higher than in the continuous model (MLSScon = 14.53 0.93 km/h), while the TE at MLSScon was longer than MLSSint (68 11 min and 58 15 min, P .05). Regarding the cardiorespiratory responses, VO2 and respiratory-exchange ratio remained stable during both TE tests while heart rate, ventilation, and rating of perceived exertion presented a significant increase in the last portion of the tests. The results showed a higher tolerance to exercising during MLSScon than during MLSSint in trained runners. Thus, the training volume of an extensive interval session (ratio 5:1) designed at MLSS intensity should take into consideration this higher speed at MLSS and also the lower TE than with continuous exercise. © 2014 Human Kinetics, Inc.

Timmer W.,CRS Clinical Research Services Mannheim GmbH | Moroni-Zentgraf P.,Boehringer Ingelheim | Cornelissen P.,Boehringer Ingelheim | Unseld A.,Boehringer Ingelheim | And 2 more authors.
Respiratory Medicine | Year: 2015

Introduction: Once-daily tiotropium Respimat® 5 μg is an efficacious add-on therapy to inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) with or without long-acting β2-agonists in patients with symptomatic asthma. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the dosing regimen of tiotropium (once- versus twice-daily), delivered via the Respimat® SoftMist™ inhaler, affected 24-h bronchodilator efficacy and safety versus placebo Respimat® in patients with asthma who were symptomatic despite medium-dose ICS therapy. Methods: A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study with 4-week treatment periods of tiotropium 5 μg (once-daily, evening) and 2.5 μg (twice-daily, morning and evening). The primary efficacy end point was forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) area under the curve from 0 to 24 h (AUC)(0-24h) at the end of each treatment period. Secondary end points included peak forced expiratory volume in 1 s measured within 24 h of the last evening inhalation (peak FEV1(0-24h)), trough FEV1 measured prior to evening dosing, morning and evening peak expiratory flow (PEFam and PEFpm) and pharmacokinetic assessments. Results: 94 patients were randomised (mean age 44.3 years; mean asthma duration 21.3 years) and 89 (94.7%) completed the study. Significant and comparable bronchodilation was achieved over a 24-h period with both tiotropium dosing regimens. FEV1 AUC(0-24h) response (mean ± standard error) was significantly greater with both tiotropium dosing regimens (once-daily 5 μg: 158 ± 24 mL; twice-daily 2.5 μg; 149 ± 24 mL; both p < 0.01) when compared with placebo. Improvements in peak FEV1(0-24h), trough FEV1 and pre-dose PEFam/pm with both dosing regimens versus placebo were statistically significant (all p < 0.01), with no statistically significant differences between the tiotropium treatment regimens. Total systemic exposure and tolerability were comparable between treatment regimens. Conclusions: Lung function improvements with tiotropium Respimat® add-on to medium-dose ICS were sustained and similar for once-daily 5 μg and twice-daily 2.5 μg, supporting tiotropium Respimat® 5 μg as a once-daily bronchodilator that provides efficacy over the whole 24-h dosing interval in patients with symptomatic asthma. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01152450. © 2015 The Authors.

Trapani Jr. A.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Goncalves L.F.,Oakland University | Pires M.M.D.S.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology | Year: 2011

Objectives To evaluate the effect of transdermal nitroglycerin on Doppler velocity waveforms of the uterine, umbilical and fetal middle cerebral arteries in patients with severe pre-eclampsia. Methods This was a prospective study of 30 singleton pregnancies (gestational age range: 24-31 weeks) with severe pre-eclampsia and abnormal uterine and umbilical artery Doppler waveforms. We compared maternal blood pressure as well as the resistance index (RI) and the pulsatility index (PI) of the uterine, umbilical and fetal middle cerebral arteries before and after application of a transdermal nitroglycerin patch (average dose 0.4 mg/h) for a period of 3 days. Intra-day comparisons before and after administration of nitroglycerin and a comparison between days 0 (no patch) and 3 after administration of the first dose of nitroglycerin were performed using ANOVA for paired samples. Results A significant decrease in the PI and RI of the uterine (25.3 ± 4.9% and 21.2 ± 6.2%, respectively, P < 0.001) and umbilical (23.1 ± 6.9% and 19.7 ± 6.1%, respectively, P < 0.001) arteries was noted when comparing the first day without medication against the third day with the patch. No significant change in the PI and RI of the middle cerebral artery was observed. The mean arterial blood pressure decreased from 119.5 ± 4.5 mmHg to 114.8 ± 4.4 mmHg (P < 0.05). Conclusion The use of transdermal nitroglycerin in patients with severe pre-eclampsia is associated with a significant reduction in the RI and PI of the uterine and umbilical arteries, as well as of maternal blood pressure. Transdermal nitroglycerin does not affect the RI and PI of the fetal middle cerebral artery. © 2011 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Bini R.R.,Auckland University of Technology | Diefenthaeler F.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Sports Biomechanics | Year: 2010

Technique changes in cyclists are not well described during exhaustive exercise. Therefore the aim of the present study was to analyze pedaling technique during an incremental cycling test to exhaustion. Eleven cyclists performed an incremental cycling test to exhaustion. Pedal force and joint kinematics were acquired during the last three stages of the test (75%, 90% and 100% of the maximal power output). Inverse dynamics was conducted to calculate the net joint moments at the hip, knee and ankle joints. Knee joint had an increased contribution to the total net joint moments with the increase of workload (5-8% increase, p < 0.01). Total average absolute joint moment and knee joint moment increased during the test (25% and 39%, for p < 0.01, respectively). Increases in plantar flexor moment (32%, p < 0.01), knee (54%, p < 0.01) and hip flexor moments (42%, p = 0.02) were found. Higher dorsiflexion (2%, for p =0.03) and increased range of motion (19%, for p = 0.02) were observed for the ankle joint. The hip joint had an increased flexion angle (2%, for p < 0.01) and a reduced range of motion (3%, for p = 0.04) with the increase of workload. Differences in joint kinetics and kinematics indicate that pedaling technique was affected by the combined fatigue and workload effects. © 2010 Taylor & Francis.

Ferreira M.,University of Coimbra | Costa P.,University of Coimbra | Menezes D.P.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Menezes D.P.,University of Alicante | And 4 more authors.
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2014

The behavior of the quark condensates at zero chemical potential and finite temperature subject to an external magnetic field is studied within the three flavor Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model with Polyakov loop (PNJL) and its extension, the so-called entangled PNJL model (EPNJL). A comparison with recent lattice QCD data is performed and it is shown that at T=0 MeV the light quark condensates are in quantitative agreement. At finite temperature, although there is an overall reasonable agreement with several lattice results, it is shown that in the lattice calculations the effect due to the electric charge quark difference is stronger and the restoration of the u quark chiral symmetry starts at lower temperatures. When considering the entangled PNJL model with a Polyakov loop scale parameter that depends on the magnetic field, it is possible to obtain an earlier rise of the Polyakov loop with the increase of the magnetic field and due to the entanglement, the inverse magnetic catalysis is found as in the lattice QCD calculations. © 2014 American Physical Society.

Leite da Silva A.M.,Federal University of Itajubá | Rezende L.S.,Federal University of Itajubá | Honorio L.M.,Federal University of Juiz de fora | Manso L.A.F.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
IET Generation, Transmission and Distribution | Year: 2011

This study presents a performance comparison of metaheuristics to solve transmission expansion planning (TEP) problems in power systems. The proposed methodology includes the search for the least cost solution, bearing in mind investments and operational costs related to ohmic transmission losses. The multi-stage nature of the TEP is also taken into consideration. Case studies on a small system and on a real sub-transmission network are presented and discussed. © 2011 © The Institution of Engineering and Technology.

Zoccal D.B.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | MacHado B.H.,University of Sao Paulo
Current Hypertension Reports | Year: 2011

Enhanced sympathetic outflow to the heart and resistance vessels greatly contributes to the onset and maintenance of neurogenic hypertension. There is a consensus that the development of hypertension (clinical and experimental) is associated with an impairment of sympathetic reflex control by arterial baroreceptors. More recently, chronic peripheral chemoreflex activation, as observed in obstructive sleep apnea, has been proposed as another important risk factor for hypertension. In this review, we present and discuss recent experimental evidence showing that changes in the respiratory pattern, elicited by chronic intermittent hypoxia, play a key role in increasing sympathetic activity and arterial pressure in rats. This concept parallels results observed in other models of neurogenic hypertension, such as spontaneously hypertensive rats and rats with angiotensin II-salt-induced hypertension, pointing out alterations in the central coupling of respiratory and sympathetic activities as a novel mechanism underlying the development of neurogenic hypertension. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Piucco R.O.,Whirlpool Corp. | Hermes C.J.L.,Federal University of Paraná | Melo C.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Applied Thermal Engineering | Year: 2011

This paper evaluates a theoretical criterion to predict whether frost will form on the inner liners of refrigerated compartments. In-situ experiments were carried out using a 'Combi' top-mount refrigerator tested within a climatized chamber with rigid control of the temperature and humidity. Two experimental tests were performed, one keeping the doors closed and another using an automatic door-opening device. During the tests, both the liner surface temperature and supercooling degree were monitored at different locations within the refrigerated cabinet. After the test period, the cabinet was opened and photographed to identify the sites of frost nucleation. In addition, samples of different liner materials were extracted from the refrigerated cabinet in order to measure the contact angle. For each surface, the maximum supercooling degree observed experimentally was plotted as a function of the contact angle and thus compared to the nucleation limits provided by a theoretical model introduced in a previous study [1]. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Cantor M.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Pires M.M.,University of Sao Paulo | Longo G.O.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Guimaraes P.R.,University of Sao Paulo | Setz E.Z.F.,University of Campinas
Oikos | Year: 2013

Despite recent findings on the ecological relevance of within population diet variation far less attention has been devoted to the role diet variation for ecological services. Seed dispersal is a key ecological service, affecting plant fitness and regeneration based on foraging by fruit-eating vertebrates. Here we used a network approach, widely used to understand how seed-dispersal is organized at the species level, to gain insights into the patterns that emerge at the individual-level. We studied the individual fruit consumption behavior of a South American didelphid Didelphis albiventris, during the cool-dry and warm-wet seasons. In species-species networks the heterogeneity in specialization levels generates patterns such as nestedness and asymmetry. Because generalist populations may be comprised of specialized individuals, we hypo thesized that network structural properties, such as nestedness, should also emerge at the individual level. We detected variation in fruit consumption that was not related to resource availability, ontogenetic or sexual factors or sampling biases. Such variation resulted in the structural patterns often found in species-species seed-dispersal networks: low connectance, a high degree of nestedness and the absence of modules. Moreover structure varied between the warm-wet and cool-dry seasons, presumably as a consequence of seasonal fluctuation in fruit availability. Our findings suggest individuals may differ in selectivity causing asymmetries in seed dispersal efficiency within the population. In this sense the realized dispersal would differ from the expected dispersal estimated from their average dispersal potential. Additionally the results suggest possible frequency-dependent effects on seed dispersal that might affect individual plant performance and plant community composition. © 2012 The Authors. Oikos © 2012 Nordic Society Oikos.

Ruther R.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Zilles R.,University of Sao Paulo
Energy Policy | Year: 2011

In the developed world, grid-connected photovoltaics (PVs) are the fastest-growing segment of the energy market. From 1999 to 2009, this industry had a 42% compound annual growth-rate. From 2009 to 2013, it is expected to grow to 45%, and in 2013 the achievement of grid parity - when the cost of solar electricity becomes competitive with conventional retail (including taxes and charges) grid-supplied electricity - is expected in many places worldwide. Grid-connected PV is usually perceived as an energy technology for developed countries, whereas isolated, stand-alone PV is considered as more suited for applications in developing nations, where so many individuals still lack access to electricity. This rationale is based on the still high costs of PV when compared with conventional electricity. We make the case for grid-connected PV generation in Brazil, showing that with the declining costs of PV and the rising prices of conventional electricity, urban populations in Brazil will also enjoy grid parity in the present decade. We argue that governments in developing nations should act promptly and establish the mandates and necessary conditions for their energy industry to accumulate experience in grid-connected PV, and make the most of this benign technology in the near future. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Blends of citric acid-modified thermoplastic starch (TPS) and low density polyethylene (LDPE) were prepared by reactive extrusion (REX) and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the fragile fracture surfaces, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), water absorption in 53% relative humidity environment and by X-ray diffraction. The modified TPS was prepared by the reactive extrusion of a mixture of corn starch, citric acid and glycerol (30%). TPS-LDPE blends were then prepared by the processing of TPS and PEBD both in pellets in a single screw extruder. It was observed an important compatibilization effect, attributed to the reduction of TPS melt viscosity and consequently the reduction of the interfacial tension between TPS and PEBD phases. The FTIR spectra showed shifting of starch bands confirming the compatibilization effect of citric acid. Important change on blend morphology as function of the TPS modification were observed, in particular for the blends prepared with the addition of 1,0 - 1,5% AC which showed a more homogeneous and finer dispersed phase.

Stern C.A.J.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Gazarini L.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Takahashi R.N.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Guimaraes F.S.,University of Sao Paulo | Bertoglio L.J.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Neuropsychopharmacology | Year: 2012

The search for reconsolidation blockers may uncover clinically relevant drugs for disrupting memories of significant stressful life experiences, such as those underlying the posttraumatic stress disorder. Considering the safety of systemically administered cannabidiol (CBD), the major non-psychotomimetic component of Cannabis sativa, to animals and humans, the present study sought to investigate whether and how this phytocannabinoid (3-30 mg/kg intraperitoneally; i.p.) could mitigate an established memory, by blockade of its reconsolidation, evaluated in a contextual fear-conditioning paradigm in rats. We report that CBD is able to disrupt 1-and 7-days-old memories when administered immediately, but not 6 h, after their retrieval for 3 min, with the dose of 10 mg/kg being the most effective. This effect persists in either case for at least 1 week, but is prevented when memory reactivation was omitted, or when the cannabinoid type-1 receptors were antagonized selectively with AM251 (1.0 mg/kg). Pretreatment with the serotonin type-1A receptor antagonist WAY100635, however, failed to block CBD effects. These results highlight that recent and older fear memories are equally vulnerable to disruption induced by CBD through reconsolidation blockade, with a consequent long-lasting relief in contextual fear-induced freezing. Importantly, this CBD effect is dependent on memory reactivation, restricted to time window of 6 h, and is possibly dependent on cannabinoid type-1 receptor-mediated signaling mechanisms. We also observed that the fear memories disrupted by CBD treatment do not show reinstatement or spontaneous recovery over 22 days. These findings support the view that reconsolidation blockade, rather than facilitated extinction, accounts for the aforementioned CBD results in our experimental conditions. © 2012 American College of Neuropsychopharmacology. All rights reserved.

Fontana E.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Mancusi E.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Mancusi E.,University of Sannio | Ulson De Souza A.A.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Guelli Ulson De Souza S.M.A.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Journal of Power Sources | Year: 2013

The chemical species distribution inside a fuel cell is crucial to determining the cell performance. The use of tapered flow channels is recommended to improve the reactant distribution since it increases the pressure at the end of the channel, where the reactant concentration is reduced. In this study, a two-dimensional dynamic and isothermal model was used to numerically investigate the liquid water transport inside a tapered flow channel. Typical operational conditions were considered and the numerical mesh was constructed to represent the real fuel cell configuration, with several liquid water inlets characterizing the gas diffusion layer (GDL) structure. It was found that the liquid water distribution and transport inside the channel are dependent on the air velocity; different behaviors have been found along the channel. Near the channel outlet, the formation of a liquid film on the GDL surface is observed; in the central part and near the channel inlet the main form of liquid water transport is as slugs. Although responsible for an increase in the pressure drop, the slugs act as the main mechanism of water removal, removing attached droplets as they move toward the channel outlet and helping to reduce the water saturation inside the channel. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Brandao M.C.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Koettker A.G.,University of Sao Paulo | Freire A.S.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Marine Ecology | Year: 2013

We investigated the effect of interannual variation on the biodiversity and distribution of decapod larvae at Saint Paul's Rocks, an isolated small group of equatorial islands linked to the Atlantic Mid-Ocean ridge. Zooplankton samples were collected between 2003 and 2005 from a range of different environments off the archipelago. Horizontal surface hauls were conducted in the inlet and at three increasing distances from the archipelago, both in the morning and at night, using a 200-μm mesh net. Decapod larvae collected included 11 species and 37 individual taxa. Seven of them have not previously been recorded in the area. Samples taken at the shortest distance from the archipelago exhibited a significantly greater abundance than samples taken further away. No significant differences were detected between months in terms of decapod larvae abundance in the inlet. However, in the open ocean at night, the mean abundance was much higher in May and July. Decapod larvae abundance was much higher at night for both the open ocean and the inlet. Brachyuran and caridean larvae exhibited the greatest abundance and frequency in the inlet, mainly represented by the first-stage larvae of: Grapsus grapsus, Plagusia depressa, Platypodiella spectabilis and Alpheidae. In contrast, Sergestidae holopelagic shrimps were the most abundant and the most frequent larvae in the surface waters of the open ocean. The composition, abundance and distribution of decapod larvae were very similar during the 2 years sampled. Species accumulation curves indicate that even greater diversity exists, demonstrating that long-term research is important for acquiring accurate knowledge about the biodiversity of dynamic ecosystems such as those at Saint Paul's Rocks. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

Altimari P.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Mancusi E.,University of Sannio | Mancusi E.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Chemical Engineering and Processing: Process Intensification | Year: 2013

We study the stabilisation of travelling temperature wave trains in periodically forced networks of catalytic reactors where methanol synthesis takes place. Temperature wave train solutions reproduce the inter-stage cooling effect of multistage fixed bed reactors and are therefore particularly attractive in terms of methanol conversion. However, these solutions are generally stable within narrow operating windows and always coexist with solutions characterised by lower methanol conversion. We implement a feedback control strategy with the switching time as a manipulated variable to ensure the stability of temperature wave trains. The reaction front velocity is estimated during each cycle based on temperature measurements. This allows the switching time to be computed so that the reaction front does not cross a prescribed set-point position. Indications on how to place temperature sensors and to select the set-point and controller parameters are provided. Numerical simulations demonstrating the ability of the implemented control law to prevent the transition to undesired solutions in the presence of disturbances both in the operating regime and during start-up are reported. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Rodrigues R.R.,University of Sao Paulo | Rodrigues R.R.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Haarsma R.J.,Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute | Campos E.J.D.,University of Sao Paulo | Ambrizzi T.,University of Sao Paulo
Journal of Climate | Year: 2011

In this study, observations and numerical simulations are used to investigate how different El Niño events affect the development of SST anomalies in the Atlantic and how this relates to the Brazilian northeast (NE) precipitation. The results show that different types of El Niño have different impacts on the SST anomalies of the equatorial and tropical South Atlantic but a similar SST response in the tropical North Atlantic. Strong and long (weak and short) El Niños with the main heating source located in the eastern (central) Pacific generate cold (warm) anomalies in the cold tongue and Benguela upwelling regions during boreal winter and spring. When the SST anomalies in the eastern equatorial and tropical South Atlantic are cold (warm), the meridional SST gradient across the equator is positive (negative) and the ITCZ is not allowed (allowed) to move southward during the boreal spring; as a consequence, the precipitation is below (above) the average over the NE. Thus, strong and long (weak and short) El Niños are followed by dry (wet) conditions in the NE. During strong and long El Niños, changes in the Walker circulation over the Atlantic and in the Pacific-South Atlantic (PSA) wave train cause easterly wind anomalies in the western equatorial Atlantic, which in turn activate the Bjerknes mechanism, establishing the cold tongue in boreal spring and summer. These easterly anomalies are also responsible for the Benguela upwelling. During short and weak El Niños, westerly wind anomalies are present in the western equatorial Atlantic accompanied by warm anomalies in the eastern equatorial and tropical South Atlantic; a positive phase of the South Atlantic dipole develops during boreal winter. The simulations highlight the importance of ocean dynamics in establishing the correct slope of the equatorial thermocline and SST anomalies, which in turn determine the correct rainfall response over the NE. © 2011 American Meteorological Society.

Lopez R.H.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Beck A.T.,University of Sao Paulo
Journal of the Brazilian Society of Mechanical Sciences and Engineering | Year: 2012

In deterministic optimization, the uncertainties of the structural system (i.e. dimension, model, material, loads, etc) are not explicitly taken into account. Hence, resulting optimal solutions may lead to reduced reliability levels. The objective of reliability based design optimization (RBDO) is to optimize structures guaranteeing that a minimum level of reliability, chosen a priori by the designer, is maintained. Since reliability analysis using the First Order Reliability Method (FORM) is an optimization procedure itself, RBDO (in its classical version) is a double-loop strategy: the reliability analysis (inner loop) and the structural optimization (outer loop). The coupling of these two loops leads to very high computational costs. To reduce the computational burden of RBDO based on FORM, several authors propose decoupling the structural optimization and the reliability analysis. These procedures may be divided in two groups: (i) serial single loop methods and (ii) unilevel methods. The basic idea of serial single loop methods is to decouple the two loops and solve them sequentially, until some convergence criterion is achieved. On the other hand, uni-level methods employ different strategies to obtain a single loop of optimization to solve the RBDO problem. This paper presents a review of such RBDO strategies. A comparison of the performance (computational cost) of the main strategies is presented for several variants of two benchmark problems from the literature and for a structure modeled using the finite element method. Copyright © 2012 by ABCM.

Muller D.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Rambo C.R.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Porto L.M.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Schreiner W.H.,Federal University of Paraná | Barra G.M.O.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Carbohydrate Polymers | Year: 2013

An electrically conducting composite based on bacterial cellulose (BC) and polypyrrole (PPy) was prepared through in situ oxidative polymerization of pyrrole (Py) in the presence of BC membrane using ammonium persulfate (APS), as an oxidant. The electrical conductivity, morphology, mechanical properties and thermal stability of the composites obtained using APS (BC/PPy·APS) were evaluated and compared with BC/PPy composites prepared using as oxidant agent Iron III chloride hexahydrate (FeCl3·6H2O). The morphology of the BC/PPy·APS composites is characterized by spherical conducting nanoparticles uniformly distributed on the BC nanofiber surface, while the composites produced with FeCl3·6H2O (BC/PPy·FeCl3) is composed of a continuous conducting polymer layer coating the BC-nanofibers. The electrical conductivity of BC/PPy·FeCl3 was 100-fold higher than that found for BC/PPy·APS composites. In order to understand the site-specific interaction between PPy and BC functional groups, both composites were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (attenuated total reflectance mode) spectroscopy attenuation reflectance (FTIR-ATR) and X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS). The affinity between functional groups of PPy·FeCl3 and BC is higher than that found for BC/PPy·APS composite. In addition, the tensile properties were also influenced by the chemical affinity of both components in the polymer composites. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Da Silva D.L.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Hermes C.J.L.,Federal University of Paraná | Melo C.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Applied Thermal Engineering | Year: 2011

Compact tube-fin evaporators have been extensively used in refrigeration cassettes for light commercial applications. Such refrigeration systems are space constrained and, therefore, the heat exchangers (condenser and evaporator) must have a large area-to-volume ratio. In addition, such applications require a subfreezing evaporating temperature that induces the growth of a frost layer on the finned surface, which may block the evaporator if a proper defrost strategy is not used. Before completely blocking the evaporator, the frost layer depletes the heat exchanger performance by adding an extra thermal resistance and also by reducing the fan-supplied air flow rate. Understanding the way the frost forms on these compact heat exchangers and also the way the fan is affected by frost clogging is mandatory for the design of robust refrigeration systems and also to devise more efficient defrost strategies. In this study an experimental investigation on the frost accretion of tube-fin evaporators considering the fan characteristics is carried out. To this end, a specially designed, constructed and calibrated closed-loop wind-tunnel facility was used. Experimental tests were carried out with four different (three wavy-fin and one louvered-fin) evaporator coils under different conditions. It was found that the frost formation rate increases with the air flow rate, supercooling degree and the density of fins. A strict relation between accumulated mass of frost, air-side pressure drop and cooling capacity was also observed. It was also noted that the fan characteristics play an important role on the evaporator thermal performance, indicating that under frosting conditions the fan-evaporator pair must be designed as a coupled system. Furthermore, for the same operating conditions, the louvered-fin evaporator showed to be more sensitive to the frost formation effects than the wavy-fin coils. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

De Franca J.A.,State University Londrina | Stemmer M.R.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Franca M.B.D.M.,State University Londrina | Piai J.C.,State University Londrina
Pattern Recognition | Year: 2012

In computer vision, camera calibration is a necessary process when the retrieval of information such as angles and distances is required. This paper addresses the multi-camera calibration problem with a single dimension calibration pattern under general motions. Currently, the known algorithms for solving this problem are based on the estimation of vanishing points. However, this estimate is very susceptible to noise, making the methods unsuitable for practical applications. Instead, this paper presents a new calibration algorithm, where the cameras are divided into binocular sets. The fundamental matrix of each binocular set is then estimated, allowing to perform a projective calibration of each camera. Then, the calibration is updated for the Euclidean space, ending the process. The calibration is possible without imposing any restrictions on the movement of the pattern and without any prior information about the cameras or motion. Experiments on synthetic and real images validate the new method and show that its accuracy makes it suitable also for practical applications. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Mafra Jr. L.L.,Federal University of Paraná | Tavares C.P.S.,Federal University of Paraná | Schramm M.A.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Journal of Applied Phycology | Year: 2014

In southern Brazil, mixotrophic dinoflagellates belonging to the Dinophysis acuminata complex have recently been involved in diarrheic shellfish poisoning episodes through the production of lipophilic toxins such as okadaic acid (OA) and dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX-1). The present investigation used a combination of laboratory cultures and field surveys at three large estuarine systems in that region to examine toxin retention in Dinophysis spp. cells under optimum or growth-limiting conditions. This study represents the first successful culture of a Dinophysis isolate from the Atlantic South America region. Starved D. acuminata complex cells reached 5.6-fold higher cellular OA quotas (up to 18 pg cell-1) than Mesodinium rubrum-fed cultures 20 days after inoculation in the laboratory. Moreover, in field samples, light-limited cells at the bottom of a stratified water column were less abundant, yet 6.6- to 11-fold more toxic (up to 26.4 pg OA and 1.7 pg DTX-1 cell-1) than those located at the illuminated surface. This phenomenon of toxin retention by slow-dividing cells may partially explain the enormous variation in cell toxin quota found within Dinophysis spp. populations from a single location, and it may have serious implications for cell count-based monitoring program in bivalve aquaculture areas. In fact, only low to moderate OA levels were detected in the digestive glands of oysters Crassostrea spp. (up to 17.8 ng g-1) and the guts and livers of filter-feeding fish (44.7 ng g-1) during the present study, despite the relatively high Dinophysis cell densities (up to 19,500 cells L-1) found in the field. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Da Silva D.L.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Hermes C.J.L.,Federal University of Paraná | Melo C.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Applied Thermal Engineering | Year: 2011

The present paper investigates the frost formation on air-supplied tube-fin evaporator coils under typical operating conditions of light commercial refrigerating appliances. To this end, a first-principles simulation model based on air-side mass, energy and momentum balances was put forward to predict the evaporator frosting over time. Experiments were also carried out to gather key data for the model validation exercise. The numerical results were compared with the experimental air-side pressure drop, air-flow rate, cooling capacity, and accumulated frost mass, with all predictions falling within the experimental uncertainty range. The model was then used to investigate the evaporator thermal-hydraulic performance under frosting conditions accounting for the non-linear effect induced by the combination of the frosted evaporator and the fan-supplied air-flow rate. The effects of progressive frost clogging and low conductivity frost layer on the overall thermal resistance were also assessed. It was found that the former is the main cause of cooling capacity reduction under frosting conditions. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Waltrich M.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Hermes C.J.L.,Federal University of Paraná | Melo C.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Applied Energy | Year: 2011

A model-driven design and optimization methodology for sizing the components of refrigeration cassettes for light commercial applications (i.e., cooling capacities ranging from 0.5 to 1.5. kW) is presented. Mathematical models were devised for each of the system components and their numerical results were compared with experimental data taken with different cassettes. It was found that the model predictions for the working pressures, power consumption, cooling capacity and coefficient of performance (COP) showed maximum deviations of ±10%. A genetic optimization algorithm was used to design the condenser and evaporator and also to select the compressor model based on an objective function which considers both the COP and cost. The optimization led to two improved cassette designs, which were assembled and tested. One of the optimized cassettes showed a COP/cost ratio approximately 50% higher than that of the baseline system. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Boing A.F.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Antunes J.L.F.,University of Sao Paulo
Ciencia e Saude Coletiva | Year: 2011

This study sought to describe the main characteristics of epidemiological studies that investigated the association between socioeconomic conditions and head and neck cancer. Research was carried out on the Medline (International Science Literature), Lilacs (Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature) and Scielo (Scientific Electronic Library Online) databases, as well as the references cited in the articles obtained through the primary search of the aforementioned databases. The publication period considered included 38 years (1970-2007) and the analysis was restricted to articles in Spanish, English or Portuguese. Twenty-five studies were selected, 15 that outlined case-control, four ecological and six that combined information from official databases, such as censuses and cancer or death records. Most cases reported an association between lower socioeconomic conditions and head and neck cancer. The most used indexes were occupation and education. Few studies investigated medication, aiming to point out which proximal factors operate in the investigated association. Additional studies, with uniform criteria to effect the adjustments in the regression models and sufficient samples, are required to inquire this dimension.

Borges B.N.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Hermes C.J.L.,Federal University of Paraná | Goncalves J.M.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Melo C.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Applied Energy | Year: 2011

This paper outlines a simulation model for the cycling behavior of household refrigerators and, therefore, for predicting their energy consumption. The modeling methodology follows a quasi-steady approach, where the refrigeration system and also the refrigerated compartments are modeled following steady-state and transient approaches, respectively. The mass, energy and momentum conservation principles were used to put forward the equation set, whereas experimental data were collected and used to reduce the model closing parameters such as the thermal conductances and capacitances. The experiments were carried out using a controlled temperature and humidity environmental chamber. The model predictions were compared to experimental data, when it was found that the energy consumption is well predicted by the model with a maximum deviation of ±2%. A sensitivity analysis was also carried out to identify opportunities for energy savings. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Waltrich P.J.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Barbosa Jr. J.R.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Hermes C.J.L.,Federal University of Paraná
Applied Thermal Engineering | Year: 2011

This paper reports an investigation on the impact of an alternative evaporator design, the so-called Accelerated Flow Evaporator (AFE), on the performance of household refrigerators. In this novel evaporator concept, the air-side cross-section area decreases with the distance from the air flow inlet, accelerating the air as it flows across the tubes and hence improving the air-side local heat transfer coefficient. An AFE heat transfer and pressure drop calculation method proposed elsewhere [1] has been incorporated into an overall system simulation model [2] to assess the impact of the evaporator geometry on the system COP. The results were compared with experimental data obtained in a top-mount refrigerator. The predictions of working pressures, power consumption, cooling capacity and COP agreed with the experimental data to within ±10% error bands. The model was subsequently used in an optimization exercise of the AFE geometry that considered both the system COP and the evaporator mass of material. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Della-Bianca B.E.,University of Sao Paulo | Basso T.O.,University of Sao Paulo | Basso T.O.,Novozymes AS | Stambuk B.U.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | And 2 more authors.
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology | Year: 2013

The production of fuel ethanol from sugarcane-based raw materials in Brazil is a successful example of a large-scale bioprocess that delivers an advanced biofuel at competitive prices and low environmental impact. Two to three fed-batch fermentations per day, with acid treatment of the yeast cream between consecutive cycles, during 6-8 months of uninterrupted production in a nonaseptic environment are some of the features that make the Brazilian process quite peculiar. Along the past decades, some wild Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains were isolated, identified, characterized, and eventually, reintroduced into the process, enabling us to build up knowledge on these organisms. This information, combined with physiological studies in the laboratory and, more recently, genome sequencing data, has allowed us to start clarifying why and how these strains behave differently from the better known laboratory, wine, beer, and baker's strains. All these issues are covered in this minireview, which also presents a brief discussion on future directions in the field and on the perspectives of introducing genetically modified strains in this industrial process. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Muller C.M.O.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Muller C.M.O.,State University Londrina | Laurindo J.B.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Yamashita F.,State University Londrina
Carbohydrate Polymers | Year: 2012

The aim of this study was to produce thermoplastic starch (TPS) films and to enhance their properties by reinforcing them with hydrophilic and hydrophobic nanoclays. TPS films were prepared by extrusion and thermopressing, and their crystallinity, water vapor permeability (WVP), and mechanical properties were studied. The hydrophilic nanoclay lowered the material WVP due to the formation of an intercalated composite. The hydrophobic nanoclays increased the rigidity of the films but did not alter the tensile strength. The blending of nanoclays with thermoplastic starch modifies the mechanical properties and WVP, and these changes are strongly associated with the dispersion of nanoclay in the polymer matrix. The dispersion, in turn, depends on the compatibility of the matrix and the nanoclay in terms of the hygroscopicity and the concentration in which the nanoclay is used. The addition of nanoclays to starch-based films is a promising way to enhance them for industrial manufacture. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Barros C.C.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Hama Y.,University of Sao Paulo
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2011

Experiments at RHIC have shown that in 200 GeV Au-Au collisions, the Λ and ̄Λ- hyperons are produced with very small polarizations (Abelev et al., 2007) [1], almost consistent with zero. These results can be understood in terms of a model that we proposed (Barros and Hama, 2008) [2]. In this Letter, we show how this model may be applied in such collisions, and also will discuss the relation of our results with other models, in order to explain the experimental data. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Zoccal D.B.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Machado B.H.,University of Sao Paulo
Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology | Year: 2010

It is well known that the respiration modulates sympathetic outflow in basal conditions. Recordings of sympathetic nerve activity demonstrated that central respiratory activity produces rhythmical oscillations in sympathetic discharge that appear mainly during inspiratory phase. This led us to hypothesize that changes in the mechanisms regulating the central entrainment between respiratory and sympathetic activities may contribute to sympathetic overactivity and hypertension. This issue was addressed using rats submitted to chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH), in which we evaluated whether or not the sympathetic overactivity and hypertension observed in these animals were linked to changes in respiratory pattern. We verified that under baseline conditions, CIH rats exhibited a reduction in post-inspiratory activity of vagus nerve and an enhanced late-expiratory activity in abdominal motor nerve. As a consequence of this altered expiratory pattern, we observed that CIH rats showed an additional burst in sympathetic activity phase-locked with the enhanced late-E expiratory activity. These findings pointed out that the entrainment between pontine-medullary expiratory and sympathetic neurons of CIH rats is strengthened, indicating for the first time in this experimental model that changes in the coupling of respiratory and sympathetic activities may contribute to hypertension. Subsequent studies performed in other models of hypertension also demonstrated similar changes, supporting the concept that alterations in central mechanisms of respiratory-sympathetic coupling is a novel and important mechanism to be considered in the pathogenesis of hypertension. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Heidemann I.T.S.B.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Almeida M.C.P.,University of Sao Paulo
Public Health Nursing | Year: 2011

Objective: The study analyzes the possibility of incorporating health promotion measures into the work processes of Family Health Program teams at a primary health care clinic in Brazil. Design and Sample: We used the participatory research concept developed in 1968 by Freire. The study sample comprised the end-users of the health care system, together with 3 multidisciplinary teams. A total of 77 health care users and 55 health professionals participated in the study. Measures: Culture circles composed of health care professionals, and users from different areas investigated generative topics, encoded/decoded topics, and engaged in critical probing for clarification. Topics affecting quality of life and health were heuristically evaluated. Results: Although most topics were related to changing the focus of health care facilities, some were related to subsidizing community-based interventions, improving environmental strategies, individual skills, and public policies. Incorporating the novel health promotion measures and creating an expanded full-treatment clinic are important steps toward that goal. Conclusions: Topics that can stimulate dialogue among the members of the culture circles include creating an environment of closer cultural contact, with repercussions for work processes, family health models, and general health models, as well as the inclusion of social aspects in the decision-making processes related to health issues that affect the living conditions of the population. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Bottion A.J.B.,Federal Center for Technological Education of Minas Gerais | Barbi I.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics | Year: 2015

This paper proposes a modular isolated dc-dc converter, based on the input-series and output-series association of the full-bridge PWM dc-dc converter with capacitive filter. The main attribute of the proposed architecture is its ability to provide self-balance of the input and output voltages across the individual converters, without voltage loop control scheme, both in the steady-state and transient operations. Circuit operation, theoretical analysis, and modeling are included in this paper, along with experimental results taken from a laboratory prototype with four modules, 1600-Vdc total input voltage, 1600-Vdc total output voltage, 4-kW output power, and 40-kHz switching frequency. Possible applications include high-voltage power supplies, solid-state transformers, dc current distribution systems, and renewable electric energy systems. © 2015 IEEE.

Knabben F.T.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Hermes C.J.L.,Federal University of Paraná | Melo C.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
International Journal of Refrigeration | Year: 2011

The present paper advances an in-situ study of frosting and defrosting processes in tube-fin evaporators of household refrigerators and freezers. Frost growth experiments were carried out using a purpose-built test facility comprised of a refrigerated cabinet placed inside a climatized chamber, and a vapor compression refrigeration loop that controls both the evaporating temperature and the evaporator superheating. A first-principles two-dimensional simulation model was put forward to predict the evaporator blocking over time, and also the heat and mass transfer rates. The model validation exercise has shown that the model follows well the experimental trends of pressure drop, frost mass, cooling capacity and air flow rate, with all predictions falling inside ±10% error bounds. The model was then used to assess the impact of several design parameters on both the evaporator blockage and defrost efficiency. It was found that a nearly ideal defrost efficiency is achieved when the defrosting process is performed by two simultaneous heaters. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and IIR. All rights reserved.

Giglio T.,State University Londrina | Lamberts R.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Energy and Buildings | Year: 2016

The inclusion of solar water heaters available through subsidies of the Brazilian government has benefited more than 300,000 low-income families. Although these subsidies are important for wide implementation of this technology, the actual system performance is unclear. Moreover, it is unclear whether the performance is affected by user behavior in the context of complex socioeconomic issues. The objective of this research is to assess the influence of human behavior on the potential savings induced by solar water heaters. The research strategy integrated qualitative and quantitative measurements. We applied the cluster analysis technique to identify five homogeneous subgroups for a case study in Londrina, Brazil, in which a detailed measurement procedure was implemented to gather data on these subgroups over one year. The measurements were conducted to gain a better understanding of the factors affecting electricity consumed by showering. This study shows that the benefits of solar heaters vary according to the user and use of the technology. The annual energy savings averaged 9.51–18.6 kWh per person. A lack of technological understanding and the difficulty in effectively mixing hot and cold water were the main factors contributing to the inefficient use of the system. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

Cabrera F.L.,Federal University of Itajubá | De Sousa F.R.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques | Year: 2016

This paper presents the design and measurement of an inductive link for transferring energy to a fully integrated wireless power receiver. The power receiver design was focused on optimizing each factor that contributes to the link efficiency while its size was constrained to 1.5 mm x 1.5 mm in a conventional CMOS 180-nm process. On the power transmitter side, the primary inductor is printed on an FR4 board and its dimensions are selected so as to optimize its quality factor and the magnetic coupling factor. A strategy is proposed to experimentally determine the performance of the entire system. Using the proposed strategy, we measured a link efficiency of-25.4 dB at a frequency of 986 MHz, with a primary inductor of average diameter 22 mm and distance 15 mm from the receiver. Considering the characteristics of the receiver: monolithic implementation, chip area, link efficiency, and distance to the transmitter, the designed wireless power transfer system exhibits a better performance than state-of-The-Art systems. © 1963-2012 IEEE.

Ern A.,University Paris Est Creteil | Mozolevski I.,University Paris Est Creteil | Mozolevski I.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Schuh L.,University of Sao Paulo
Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering | Year: 2010

We design and investigate a sequential discontinuous Galerkin method to approximate two-phase immiscible incompressible flows in heterogeneous porous media with discontinuous capillary pressures. The nonlinear interface conditions are enforced weakly through an adequate design of the penalties on interelement jumps of the pressure and the saturation. An accurate reconstruction of the total velocity is considered in the Raviart-Thomas(-Nédélec) finite element spaces, together with diffusivity-dependent weighted averages to cope with degeneracies in the saturation equation and with media heterogeneities. The proposed method is assessed on one-dimensional test cases exhibiting rough solutions, degeneracies, and capillary barriers. Stable and accurate solutions are obtained without limiters. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Badin A.A.,Federal University of Paraná | Barbi I.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics | Year: 2011

This paper proposes an isolated three-phase rectifier power-factor correction using two single-phase buck preregulators in continuous conduction mode. The use of the Scott transformer renders a simple and robust rectifier to operate with unity power factor. With only two active switches, the rectifier is able to generate symmetrical currents in the line and a regulated voltage output without any necessary synchronous switches. The proposed control technique with sinusoidal pulse width modulation uses a feedforward of the output inductor current and only one voltage control regulates the output. Complete simulation results under closed-loop operation are given and a 12-kW prototype has been implemented in the laboratory, which demonstrated to operate successfully with excellent performance, and thus can feasibly be implemented in higher power applications. © 2010 IEEE.

Gallegos E.A.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Senise C.R.,Federal University of Pampa | Da Silva A.J.,University of Sao Paulo
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2013

We deform the well-known three-dimensional N=1 Wess-Zumino model by adding higher derivative operators (Lee-Wick operators) to its action. The effects of these operators are investigated both at the classical and quantum levels. © 2013 American Physical Society.

Santos T.L.M.,Federal University of Bahia | Flesch R.C.C.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Normey-Rico J.E.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Journal of Process Control | Year: 2014

This paper discusses about a unified implementation structure of the filtered Smith predictor (FSP) for MIMO processes with multiple time delays. Two kinds of dead-time free models are analyzed in order to extend the original properties of the SISO Smith predictor to MIMO processes with multiple time delays. It is demonstrated that FSP strategy can be applied to control open-loop unstable processes with multiple time delays by considering a model without any input, output or internal coupling delays. Moreover, for open-loop stable processes, it is shown that the FSP scheme can be used to speed-up disturbance rejection of processes with multiple time delays by using a nominal model without delay. Different simulation examples are used to illustrate the proposed strategy properties and advantages over other MIMO time-delay compensators. The results may be considered to control either square or non-square processes. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Moyano C.F.,Queensland University of Technology | Salgado R.S.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Electric Power Systems Research | Year: 2010

This work proposes a parameterized formulation of the optimal power flow (OPF) problem, which is aimed at preventing the divergence of the OPF iterative process. A parameter, whose function is to adjust the power demand and/or operational limits in case of absence of feasible solutions, is added to the objective function of the original optimization problem. This modified problem is solved through the nonlinear version of the predictor-corrector interior point method. Besides indicating the potential reasons for non-convergence of the iterative process, the proposed methodology also provides the possible actions that could be taken to determine an operational solution. Numerical results obtained with test systems of different sizes illustrate the application of the proposed strategy. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

D'Orsi E.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Xavier A.J.,University of South Santa Catarina | Ramos L.R.,University of Sao Paulo
Revista de Saude Publica | Year: 2011

OBJECTIVE: To identify risk factors for functional capacity loss in elderly people. METHODS: Epidoso (Epidemiology of the Elderly) cohort study with elderly people living in São Paulo (Southeastern Brazil). A total of 326 participants in the first interview (1991-1992) who were independent or had mild dependence (one or two activities of daily living) were selected. Those who presented functional loss in the second (1994-1995) or third interviews (1998-1999) were compared to those who did not present it. The incidence of functional loss was calculated according to sociodemographic variables, life habits, cognitive status, morbidity, hospitalization, self-rated health, tooth loss, social support and leisure activities. Crude and adjusted relative risks with 95% confidence intervals were estimated through bivariate and multiple analyses with Poisson regression. The criterion for the inclusion of the variables in the model was p < 0.20 and for exclusion, p > 0.10. RESULTS: The incidence of functional loss was 17.8% (13.6; 21.9). The risk factors in the final model were: age group 70-74 years RR=1.9 (0.9;3.9); age group 75-79 years RR=2.8 (I.4;5.5); age group 80 years or older RR=5.4 (3.0;9.6); score in the mini-mental state examination <24 RR=1.8 (1.1;2.9); asthma RR=2.3 (1.3;3.9); hypertension RR= 1.7 (1.1;2.6); and diabetes RR=1.7 (0.9;3.0). The protective factors were: paid work RR=0.3 (0.1; 1.0); monthly relationship with friends RR=0.5 (0.3;0.8); watching TV RR=0.5 (0.3;0.9); and handcrafting RR=0.7 (0.4; 1.0). CONCLUSIONS: The prevention of functional loss should include adequate control of chronic diseases, like hypertension, asthma and diabetes, as well as cognitive stimulation. Work, leisure and relationships with friends should be valued due to their protective effect.

Bedendo G.C.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Jardim I.C.S.F.,University of Campinas | Jardim I.C.S.F.,Instituto Nacional Of Ciencias E Tecnologias Analiticas Avanadas | Carasek E.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Carasek E.,Instituto Nacional Of Ciencia E Tecnologia Of Bioanalitica
Talanta | Year: 2012

A procedure involving hollow fiber microporous membrane liquid-liquid extraction (HF-MMLLE) and detection by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry was developed and applied. The extraction is based on liquid-liquid microextraction with a polypropylene porous membrane as a solid support for the solvent. On the membrane walls the solvent forms a renewable liquid membrane which improves the trueness of the method and promotes the sample clean-up. The applicability of this method was evaluated through the simultaneous extraction of 18 pesticides of different classes: polar organophosphates, carbamates, neonicotinoids, amides, pyrimidines, benzimidazoles and triazoles in industrial and fresh orange juice. The parameters affecting the extraction efficiency were optimized by multivariable designs. Under optimized conditions, analytes were concentrated onto 1.5 cm long microporous membranes placed directly into the sample containing 9 mL of juice at pH 7.0, 4 g of ammonium sulfate and 400 μL of toluene:ethyl acetate (85:15, v/v). The best extraction conditions were achieved at 25 °C with 35 min of extraction time. The analyte desorption was carried out using 50 μL of methanol:acetone (50:50, v/v) for 2 min in an ultrasonic bath. Limits of detection ranging between 0.003-0.33 mg L -1, 0.003-0.35 mg L -1 and 0.003-0.15 mg L -1 were obtained for the carton orange juice, carton light orange juice and fresh orange juice samples, respectively. Good repeatability (lower than 7.6%) was obtained for all three sample types. The method was applied to five different juice samples containing soybean extract, orange pulp, nectar, light juice and fresh orange juice. The results suggest that the proposed method represents a very simple and low-cost alternative microextraction procedure rendering adequate limits of quantification for the determination of these pesticides in juice samples. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Beck C.C.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | da Silva Lopes A.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Pitanga F.J.G.,Federal University of Bahia
Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia | Year: 2011

Background: Hypertension is related to increased body fat, which can be evaluated by anthropometric indicators. Objective: To determine the predictive power of anthropometric indicators and establish their cutoff points as discriminators of high blood pressure. Methods: Cross-sectional study with a sample of 660 adolescents aged 14 to 19 including 51.9% girls. We considered the following anthropometric indicators: body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio and conicity index. High blood pressure was characterized by values above the 90th percentile for systolic and/or diastolic blood pressure. To identify predictors of high blood pressure, we adopted the analysis of receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC) with a confidence interval of 95%. Subsequently, we identified the cutoff points with their relevant sensitivities and specificities. Results: The areas under the ROC curves with confidence intervals were: boys - waist circumference = 0.80 (0.72 to 0.89); BMI = 0.79 (0.68 to 0.89), waist-to-height ratio = 0.77 (0.66 to 0.88); conicity index = 0.69 (0.56 to 0.81) and for girls - waist circumference = 0.96 (0.92 to 1.00); BMI 0.95 (0.87 to 1.00), waist-to-height ratio = 0.93 (0.85 to 1.00); conicity index = 0.74 (0.50 to 0.98). The different cutoff points of anthropometric indicators with better predictive power and their relevant sensitivities and specificities were identified. Conclusion: Although the waist-to-height ratio and BMI have shown good areas under the ROC curve, we suggest the use of waist circumference to predict high blood pressure.

Pimenta F.M.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Assireu A.T.,Federal University of Itajubá
Renewable Energy | Year: 2015

A wind-hydro hybrid system is proposed to improve Brazil's use of its renewable energy portfolio. In this scheme, winds from local or remote locations supply extra generation, so that the hydroelectric outflow can be reduced accordingly to wind production. The water savings, in turn, lead to a significant improvement of the reservoir's storage. A simple model is developed and applied to the Itumbiara hydroelectric reservoir of midwest Brazil. Scenarios for different wind contributions are compared to historical observations from 1994 to 2011. Results suggest that, if implemented, the hybrid system should improve the country's energy security. Hydroelectric reservoirs might be able to confront interannual climate variability without risks to the energy supply. A positive impact on the multiple use of reservoirs is expected for fish-farming, irrigation, recreation, navigation and water supply. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Martins P.V.,Federal University of Bahia | Caponi S.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Ciencia e Saude Coletiva | Year: 2010

This article describes historical notes about leprosy, from the discovery of the bacillus to the treatment done today. In this text we try to analyze the perception of some women, former leprosy patients, residents of Santa Teresa Hospital, located in the city of São Pedro de Alcântara, Santa Catarina State, on the stigma, prejudice and exclusion they suffered and still suffer today. We used the oral history of three women for research purposes and we found as a result of this "excluding" treatment over the years, that it built some kind of rejection about the disease. The search and affirmation of the identity of the stigmatized subject has become a constant. The model of social acceptance and the fact of being recognized as different and not discriminated is the main issue.

Betioli A.M.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Gleize P.J.P.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | John V.M.,University of Sao Paulo | Pileggi R.G.,University of Sao Paulo
Cement and Concrete Composites | Year: 2012

The improved workability effect of latex in dry mortars has not been fully clarified. The purpose of this research was to investigate the influence of the EVA copolymer on the cement hydration and on the rheological properties of cement pastes. The results pointed to a minor influence of EVA on cement hydration and to a ball-bearing effect. In fact, the shear thinning behavior of reference paste at 15 min after mixing changed to shear thickening owing to the EVA addition. This behavior could be explained by the decrease in the interparticle separation distance as consequence of the solid content increase in case of shearing detachment of weakly adhered EVA particles from the cement particles surfaces. The expected EVA plasticizing effect was observed at 60 min. Such behavior points to the stabilization of EVA on the cement particles surfaces, thus resulting in a steric barrier effect. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Daura-Jorge F.G.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Daura-Jorge F.G.,Federal University of Paraná | Simoes-Lopes P.C.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Diseases of Aquatic Organisms | Year: 2011

Lobomycosis is a chronic dermal infection affecting humans and small cetaceans. In 1993, a study identified the presence of the etiologic agent of lobomycosis in a resident population of Tursiops truncatus (bottlenose dolphin) in Laguna, Brazil. Until now, no additional information relating to the persistence or prevalence of this pathogen in this population has been available. Numbering less than 60 animals, the residency of these dolphins in an impacted lagoon system has raised concerns about the health and viability of this small population. Using photo-identification data collected between September 2007 and September 2009, this study evaluated the occurrence of lobomycosis- like disease (LLD) throughout this population. Of 47 adult dolphins and 10 calves identified, 7 (12%) presented some form of epidermal lesion and 5 (9%) had evidence of LLD. The lesions were stable in all but 2 cases, in which a progressive development was recorded in a presumed adult female and her calf (referred to here as the LLD pair). During the first few months of observation, the lesion grew slowly and at a constant rate on the adult. However, in the fourteenth month, the growth rate increased rapidly and the first lesions appeared on the calf. Compared to the rest of the population, the LLD pair also presented a different spatial ranging pattern, suggesting a possible social or geographic factor. Current and previous records of LLD or lobomycosis indicate that the disease is endemic in this population. These findings highlight the importance of monitoring both the health of these cetaceans and the quality of their habitat. © Inter-Research 2011.

Filho V.C.B.,Federal University of Paraná | De Campos W.,Federal University of Paraná | Lopes A.D.S.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Revista de Saude Publica | Year: 2012

Objective: To analyze alcohol and tobacco use among Brazilian adolescents and identify higher-risk subgroups. Methods: A systematic review of the literature was conducted. Searches were performed using four databases (LILACS, MEDLINE /PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar), specialized websites and the references cited in retrieved articles. The search was done in English and Portuguese and there was no limit on the year of publication (up to June 2011). From the search, 59 studies met all the inclusion criteria: to involve Brazilian adolescents aged 10-19 years; to assess the prevalence of alcohol and/or tobacco use; to use questionnaires or structured interviews to measure the variables of interest; and to be a school or population-based study that used methodological procedures to ensure representativeness of the target population (i.e. random sampling). Results: The prevalence of current alcohol use (at the time of the investigation or in the previous month) ranged from 23.0% to 67.7%. The mean prevalence was 34.9% (refl ecting the central trend of the estimates found in the studies). The prevalence of current tobacco use ranged from 2.4% to 22.0%, and the mean prevalence was 9.3%. A large proportion of the studies estimated prevalences of frequent alcohol use (66.7%) and heavy alcohol use (36.8%) of more than 10%. However, most studies found prevalences of frequent and heavy tobacco use of less than 10%. The Brazilian literature has highlighted that environmental factors (religiosity, working conditions, and substance use among family and friends) and psychosocial factors (such as confl icts with parents and feelings of negativeness and loneliness) are associated with the tobacco and alcohol use among adolescents. Conclusions: The results suggest that consumption of alcohol and tobacco among adolescents has reached alarming prevalences in various localities in Brazil. Since unhealthy behavior tends to continue from adolescence into adulthood, public policies aimed towards reducing alcohol and tobacco use among Brazilians over the medium and long terms may direct young people and the subgroups at higher risk towards such behavior.

Martendal E.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Carasek E.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Carasek E.,Instituto Nacional Of Ciencia E Tecnologia Of Bioanalitica
Journal of Chromatography A | Year: 2011

This study describes a new approach to cold-fiber solid-phase microextraction (CF-SPME) based on a combination of different extraction modes in the same extraction procedure. Also, the high quantity of water required to facilitate both the desorption of analytes from the matrix and their transport to the fiber coating is reported. The extraction mode was changed from the direct to the headspace mode in a single extraction while manipulating the extraction times and coating temperature to improve the extraction of compounds with different volatilities. Compounds with low volatility were better extracted in the direct mode, while the headspace mode was more appropriate for volatile compounds. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and phthalic acid esters (PEs) in sand or soil samples were used as model compounds and matrices in this study. The optimized conditions were: sample pH in the range of 4-7, addition of 12mL of 194gL-1 aqueous NaCl solution in a 15mL vial, and 80min total extraction time with a sample temperature of 90°C (50min in direct mode with coating at 90°C followed by 30min in headspace mode with coating at 30°C). The proposed procedure was compared with conventional CF-SPME (with and without addition of water) and was found to be more effective for all the analytes, since it is capable of extracting both heavier and lighter compounds from soil samples in a single extraction procedure. The use of an excess of water and a combination of extraction modes in the same CF-SPME procedure are the main factors responsible for this enhancement. The proposed method was applied to the extraction of PAHs and PEs in spiked soil samples and excellent results were obtained for most of the compounds evaluated. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Torres J.R.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Gulminelli F.,National Engineering School of Caen | Menezes D.P.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics | Year: 2016

Background: The advent of new dedicated experimental programs on hyperon physics is rapidly boosting the field, and the possibility of synthesizing multiple strange hypernuclei requires the addition of the strangeness degree of freedom to the models dedicated to nuclear structure and nuclear matter studies at low energy. Purpose: We want to settle the influence of strangeness on the nuclear liquid-gas phase transition. Because of the large uncertainties concerning the hyperon sector, we do not aim at a quantitative estimation of the phase diagram but rather at a qualitative description of the phenomenology, as model independent as possible. Method: We analyze the phase diagram of low-density matter composed of neutrons, protons, and Λ hyperons using a relativistic mean field (RMF) model. We largely explore the parameter space to pin down generic features of the phase transition, and compare the results to ab initio quantum Monte Carlo calculations. Results: We show that the liquid-gas phase transition is only slightly quenched by the addition of hyperons. Strangeness is seen to be an order parameter of the phase transition, meaning that dilute strange matter is expected to be unstable with respect to the formation of hyperclusters. Conclusions: More quantitative results within the RMF model need improved functionals at low density, possibly fitted to ab initio calculations of nuclear and Λ matter. © 2016 American Physical Society.

Castro L.B.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Castro L.B.,Federal University of Maranhão | De Oliveira L.P.,University of Sao Paulo
Advances in High Energy Physics | Year: 2014

We point out a misleading treatment in the recent literature regarding analytical solutions for nonminimal vector interaction for spin-one particles in the context of the Duffin-Kemmer-Petiau (DKP) formalism. In those papers, the authors use improperly the nonminimal vector interaction endangering in their main conclusions. We present a few properties of the nonminimal vector interactions and also present the correct equations to this problem. We show that the solution can be easily found by solving Schrödinger-like equations. As an application of this procedure, we consider spin-one particles in presence of a nonminimal vector linear potential. © 2014 L. B. Castro and L. P. de Oliveira.

Lourenco E.M.,Federal University of Paraná | Costa A.S.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Ribeiro Jr. R.,Federal University of Paraná
IEEE Transactions on Power Systems | Year: 2010

This paper extends the conventional power flow formulation in order to enable the solution of networks modeled at the bus section level. The proposed extension is centered on a methodology to represent zero impedance branches successfully employed in state estimation studies. Accordingly, the active and reactive power flows through switches and circuit breakers are treated as new state variables along with the complex voltage at the network nodes. Information regarding device statuses is included into the power flow problem as new (and linear) equations, producing a solvable non-redundant set of algebraic equations. Applications of the proposed modifications in connection with the power flow solution via Newton-Raphson's method are presented and discussed. The proposed approach provides an efficient tool to directly determine the power flow distribution over selected substations of the network, avoiding unreliable artifices and tedious post-processing procedures required when a conventional power flow formulation is applied. The IEEE 24-bus and IEEE 30-bus test systems are employed to illustrate and evaluate the proposed approach, considering distinct substation layouts. © 2009 IEEE.

Cappelletti B.M.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Reginatto V.,University of Sao Paulo | Amante E.R.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Antonio R.V.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Renewable Energy | Year: 2011

This work reports on the effect of initial substrate concentration on COD consumption, pH, and H 2 production during cassava processing wastewater fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824. Five initial COD wastewater concentrations, namely 5.0, 7.5, 10.7, 15.0, and 30.0 g/L, were used. The results showed that higher substrate concentrations (30.0 and 15.0 COD/L) led to lower H 2 yield as well as less efficient substrate conversion into H 2. On the other hand, initial COD concentrations of 10.7, 7.5 and 5 g/L furnished 1.34, 1.2 and 2.41 mol H 2/mol glucose, with efficiency of glucose conversion into H 2 of 34, 30, and 60% (mol/mol), respectively. These results demonstrate that cassava processing wastewater, a highly polluting effluent, can be successfully employed as substrate for H 2 production by C. acetobutylicum at lower COD concentrations. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Goncalves V.P.,Federal University of Pelotas | Kugeratski M.S.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Navarra F.S.,University of Sao Paulo
Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics | Year: 2010

Heavy quark production has been very well studied over the last years both theoretically and experimentally. Theory has been used to study heavy quark production in ep collisions at HERA, in pp collisions at Tevatron and RHIC, in pA and dA collisions at RHIC, and in AA collisions at CERN-SPS and RHIC. However, to the best of our knowledge, heavy quark production in eA has received almost no attention. With the possible construction of a high energy electron-ion collider, updated estimates of heavy quark production are needed. We address the subject from the perspective of saturation physics and compute the heavy quark production cross section with the dipole model. We isolate shadowing and nonlinear effects, showing their impact on the charm structure function and on the transverse momentum spectrum. © 2010 The American Physical Society.

Hermes C.J.L.,Federal University of Paraná | Melo C.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Knabben F.T.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Applied Thermal Engineering | Year: 2013

This paper outlines an alternative test method to evaluate the energy consumption of frost-free refrigerators and freezers for residential applications. While the standardized methods require the refrigerating appliance to be kept running according to its onboard control system, which usually drives the refrigerator through an on-off cycling pattern, the proposed approach assesses the refrigerator energy performance in the steady-state regime, being therefore much faster and more reliable. In this procedure, the cooling capacity is matched to the cooling loads by PID-controlled electrical heaters installed within the refrigerated compartments, so that the compartment temperatures are kept at the desired standardized levels. Comparisons between the experimental results obtained using the steady-state energy test and the standardized procedures showed that the former follows closely the trends observed for the latter. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Barreto S. J.C.L.,Federal University of Bahia | Conceicao A.G.S.,Federal University of Bahia | Dorea C.E.T.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte | Martinez L.,Federal University of Bahia | De Pieri E.R.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics | Year: 2014

This paper presents and discusses the implementation results of a model-predictive control (MPC) scheme with friction compensation applied to trajectory following of an omnidirectional three-wheeled robot. A cascade structure is used with an inverse kinematics block to generate the velocity references given to the predictive controller. Part of the control effort is used to compensate for the effects of static friction, allowing the use of efficient algorithms for linear MPC with constraints. Experimental results show that the proposed strategy is efficient in compensating for frictional effects as well as for tracking predefined trajectories. © 2013 IEEE.

Bershad N.J.,University of California at Irvine | Eweda E.,National Knowledge Center | Bermudez J.C.M.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing | Year: 2014

This paper studies the stochastic behavior of the LMS and NLMS algorithms for a system identification framework when the input signal is a cyclostationary white Gaussian process. The input cyclostationary signal is modeled by a white Gaussian random process with periodically time-varying power. Mathematical models are derived for the mean and mean-square-deviation (MSD) behavior of the adaptive weights with the input cyclostationarity. These models are also applied to the non-stationary system with a random walk variation of the optimal weights. Monte Carlo simulations of the two algorithms provide strong support for the theory. Finally, the performance of the two algorithms is compared for a variety of scenarios. © 2014 IEEE.

The objective of this study was to validate the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) for a river population in the Brazilian Amazon. The original English version of AUDIT was translated into Portuguese, using the procedure recommended by the World Health Organization. The text was then back-translated and submitted to a native English translator, who approved the translation. AUDIT was administered to 361 inhabitants for a total of three times in two weeks. Data were analyzed for test/retest reliability and internal consistency. Cronbach's alpha was 0.87 at the first interview, 0.87 at the second, and 0.86 at the third. Test/retest reliability assessed via the intra-class correlation coefficient for the total AUDIT scale was 0.93. Area under ROC was 0.805 for a cutoff of seven (sensitivity 76.4%; specificity 75%). The validated AUDIT proved to be internally consistent and stable over time, but requires further investigation of its psychometric properties.

Tenfen W.,Federal University of Paraná | Mazon K.T.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Michelin S.E.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Arretche F.,Santa Catarina State University
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2012

Using an ab initio model to account the polarization effects of molecules in the presence of slow positrons, we have obtained low-energy positron cross sections for H 2 and N 2 molecules. The polarization model proposed here is calculated with the expected values of the positron-electron interaction operator in the polarized target wave function for each fixed distance of the positron. Together with the electrostatic potential, this polarization describes the interaction potential in a static-polarization approximation. Within this interaction level, we have obtained differential and integral cross sections that are in good agreement with recent measurements of the Trento group and other theoretical approaches. © 2012 American Physical Society.

Azevedo C.L.N.,University of Campinas | Bolfarine H.,University of Sao Paulo | Andrade D.F.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Computational Statistics and Data Analysis | Year: 2011

Item response theory (IRT) comprises a set of statistical models which are useful in many fields, especially when there is interest in studying latent variables. These latent variables are directly considered in the Item Response Models (IRM) and they are usually called latent traits. A usual assumption for parameter estimation of the IRM, considering one group of examinees, is to assume that the latent traits are random variables which follow a standard normal distribution. However, many works suggest that this assumption does not apply in many cases. Furthermore, when this assumption does not hold, the parameter estimates tend to be biased and misleading inference can be obtained. Therefore, it is important to model the distribution of the latent traits properly. In this paper we present an alternative latent traits modeling based on the so-called skew-normal distribution; see Genton (2004). We used the centred parameterization, which was proposed by Azzalini (1985). This approach ensures the model identifiability as pointed out by Azevedo et al. (2009b). Also, a Metropolis-Hastings within Gibbs sampling (MHWGS) algorithm was built for parameter estimation by using an augmented data approach. A simulation study was performed in order to assess the parameter recovery in the proposed model and the estimation method, and the effect of the asymmetry level of the latent traits distribution on the parameter estimation. Also, a comparison of our approach with other estimation methods (which consider the assumption of symmetric normality for the latent traits distribution) was considered. The results indicated that our proposed algorithm recovers properly all parameters. Specifically, the greater the asymmetry level, the better the performance of our approach compared with other approaches, mainly in the presence of small sample sizes (number of examinees). Furthermore, we analyzed a real data set which presents indication of asymmetry concerning the latent traits distribution. The results obtained by using our approach confirmed the presence of strong negative asymmetry of the latent traits distribution. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Valerio A.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | da Rocha S.R.P.,Wayne State University | Araujo P.H.H.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Sayer C.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology | Year: 2014

Abstracts: The development of colloidal delivery systems from degradable polyurethanes (PU) has attracted increasing interest as the highly variable synthetic chemistry of PU may be exploited to generate polymers having properties ranging from very soft elastomers to very rigid plastics. In this work, the synthesis of PU nanoparticles using isophorone diisocyanate, castor oil, and poly(ε{lunate}-caprolactone) as monomers and containing high amounts of vegetable oils as açaí oil and crodamol GTCCwas studied. The effect of surfactants Tween 80 and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and of poly(ethylene glycol) molar masses 400, 600, and 1000g/mol on the stability, size, and nanoparticle morphology was evaluated. Stable dispersions with sizes between 50-70nm and 170-250nm were achieved when, respectively, SDS and Tween 80 were used as surfactant. The polyol type used in the step polymerization in miniemulsion had a major effect on the molar mass of the resulting PU nanoparticles. The effect of poly(ethylene glycol) molar masses was more pronounced when Castor oil and Tween 80 were employed. Increasing the molar mass of PEG increased the average particle size and the molar mass of the PU. Finally, a strong reduction of the molar mass of the PU nanoparticles was observed in degradation assays when those were maintained during 30 days at 37°C and pH 7.0. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Marangoni R.,Federal University of Paraná | Mikowski A.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Wypych F.,Federal University of Paraná
Journal of Colloid and Interface Science | Year: 2010

Zinc hydroxide nitrate (ZHN) was adsorbed with anions of blue dyes (Chicago sky blue, CSB; Evans blue, EB; and Niagara blue, NB) and intercalated with anions of orange dyes (Orange G, OG; Orange II, OII; methyl orange, MO). Transparent, homogeneous and colored nanocomposite films were obtained by casting after dispersing the pigments (dye-intercalated/adsorbed into LHSs) into commercial poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA). The films were characterized by XRD, UV-Vis spectroscopy, and mechanical testing. The mechanical properties of the PVA compounded with the dye-intercalated/adsorbed ZHN were evaluated, and reasonable increases in Young's modulus and ultimate tensile strength were observed, depending on the amount and choice of layered filler. These results demonstrate the possibility of using a new class of layered hydroxide salts intercalated and adsorbed with anionic dyes to prepare multifunctional polymer nanocomposite materials. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.

Kremer L.P.,Federal University of Paraná | Kremer L.P.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Rocha R.M.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Aquatic Invasions | Year: 2011

Didemnum perlucidum is a colonial ascidian that is cryptogenic in southern Brazil but introduced in many regions around the world. It is common in ports and marinas where it may form large colonies although its role in fouling communities is poorly understood. The goal of this study was to evaluate the role of D. perlucidum in a marine fouling community comprised mainly of non-indigenous species. Treatment pairs (D. perlucidum removal and unmanipulated controls) of experimental plates were exposed during 14 months at a mussel farm in southern Brazil. Taxonomic richness and percent cover of the species were compared between treatments (with and without D. perlucidum). D. perlucidum did not influence taxonomic richness or inhibit colonization by any species. Effects of this species on the abundance of others were sporadic, and suggest that it may be a weak competitor. The small effect of D. perlucidum in this community is explained by its low abundance and its occupation of secondary substrate without having detrimental effects on the species it grew over. Given that D. perlucidum is more abundant, and problematic, in other regions of southeastern and southern Brazil, continuous monitoring is desirable to better understand its fouling dynamics. © 2011 REABIC.

Andrade E.L.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Meotti F.C.,University of Sao Paulo | Calixto J.B.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Pharmacology and Therapeutics | Year: 2012

The necessity of safe and effective treatments for chronic pain has intensified the search for new analgesic drugs. In the last few years, members of a closely-related family of ion channels, called transient receptor potential (TRP) have been identified in different cell types and their functions in physiological and pathological conditions have been characterized. The transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1), originally called ANKTM1 (ankyrin-like with transmembrane domains protein 1), is a molecule that has been conserved in different species during evolution; TRPA1 is a cation channel that functions as a cellular sensor, detecting mechanical, chemical and thermal stimuli, being a component of neuronal, epithelial, blood and smooth muscle tissues. In mammals, TRPA1 is largely expressed in primary sensory neurons that mediate somatosensory processes and nociceptive transmission. Recent studies have described the role of TRPA1 in inflammatory and neuropathic pain. However, its participation in cold sensation has not been agreed in different studies. In this review, we focus on data that support the relevance of the activation and blockade of TRPA1 in pain transmission, as well as the mechanisms underlying its activation and modulation by exogenous and endogenous stimuli. We also discuss recent advances in the search for new analgesic medicines targeting the TRPA1 channel. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Yacubian E.M.,University of Sao Paulo | Wolf P.,Danish Epilepsy Center | Wolf P.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Seizure | Year: 2015

Purpose There is increasing awareness that reflex epileptic mechanisms provide unique insight into ictogenesis in human epilepsies. Among the complex triggers of seizures, this review considers orofacial reflex myocloni (ORM) from the aspects of history and delineation, clinical and electroencephalographic presentation, syndromatic relations, prevalence, mechanisms of ictogenesis and nosological implications, treatment and prognosis. Methods We reviewed all published articles and case reports on ORM in order to clarify clinical and electroencephalographic findings, treatment and outcome. Results ORM, besides Reading Epilepsy (RE), is closely related to idiopathic generalized epilepsies especially Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy (JME) where hyperexcitability of the network supporting linguistic communication seems to provide the precondition for eliciting reflex myocloni in the perioral muscles active in the precipitating task. Conclusion The conclusions on ictogenesis derived from ORM support the concept of both, RE and JME, as system disorders of the brain. © 2015 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Frazao P.,University of Sao Paulo | Peres M.A.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Cury J.A.,University of Campinas
Revista de Saude Publica | Year: 2011

This paper aimed to analyze the fluoride concentration in drinking water, taking into account the balance between the benefits and risks to health, in order to produce scientific backing for the updating of the Brazilian legislation. Systematic reviews studies, official documents and meteorological data were examined. The temperatures in Brazilian state capitals indicate that fluoride levels should be between 0.6 and 0.9 mg F/l in order to prevent dental caries. Natural fluoride concentration of 1.5 mg F/l is tolerated for consumption in Brazil if there is no technology with an acceptable cost-benefit ratio for adjusting/removing the excess. Daily intake of water with a fluoride concentration > 0.9 mg F/l presents a risk to the dentition among children under the age of eight years, and consumers should be explicitly informed of this risk. In view of the expansion of the Brazilian water fluoridation program to regions with a typically tropical climate, Ordinance 635/75 relating to fluoride added to the public water supply should be revised.

Vieira A.A.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Gallardo H.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Barbera J.,University of Zaragoza | Romero P.,University of Zaragoza | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Materials Chemistry | Year: 2011

Five new V-shaped acids derived from 1,3,4-oxadiazole are described. These compounds were used to prepare supramolecular complexes via hydrogen bonding interactions with 2,4-diamino-6-dodecylamino-1,3,5-triazine in a 3:1 ratio. The formation of the complexes was evidenced by infrared and NMR techniques. All the complexes were studied by polarizing optical microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and small-angle X-ray diffraction. Rectangular and hexagonal columnar mesophases were observed for the complexes at room temperature, without signs of crystallization. Circular dichroism studies demonstrated that, in the liquid crystalline state, these materials show supramolecular optical activity. It is proposed that this phenomenon arises due to a helical columnar organization. Furthermore, the complexes display strong blue light emission in solution, with good photoluminescence quantum yields, and in the mesophase. These materials could therefore be promising candidates for optoelectronic applications. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Langdon E.J.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Wiik F.B.,State University Londrina
Revista Latino-Americana de Enfermagem | Year: 2010

This article presents a reflection as to how notions and behavior related to the processes of health and illness are an integral part of the culture of the social group in which they occur. It is argued that medical and health care systems are cultural systems consonant with the groups and social realities that produce them. Such a comprehension is fundamental for the health care professional training.

de Oliveira C.R.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | dos Santos D.,University of Sao Paulo | dos Santos Madureira L.A.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | de Marchi M.R.R.,São Paulo State University
Journal of Hazardous Materials | Year: 2010

For the first time, organotin compounds were determined in surface sediment samples collected from São Francisco do Sul, Itajaí-Navegantes and Imbituba Harbors, located in Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Butyltins (BTs) were determined by gas chromatography with a pulsed flame photometric detector (GC-PFPD) after being modified using the Grignard derivatization method. The concentrations of BTs derivatives ranged from n.d. to 1136.6ng (Sn)g-1 of dry weight (dw) sediment for tributyltin (TBT), n.d. to 394.4ng (Sn)g-1 dw for dibutyltin (DBT) and n.d. to 312.2ng (Sn)g-1 dw for monobutyltin (MBT). The highest concentration of total BTs was found at the Itajaí-Açu River dockyard, indicating intense inputs of antifouling paints to the environment. The relative difference in the BTs levels is a particular characteristic of sediments from harbors and may be related to the shipyards and the boat traffic which still use TBT-based antifouling paints. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Salazar J.P.L.C.,Cornell University | Salazar J.P.L.C.,International Collaboration for Turbulence Research | Salazar J.P.L.C.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Collins L.R.,Cornell University | Collins L.R.,International Collaboration for Turbulence Research
Journal of Fluid Mechanics | Year: 2012

In the present study, we investigate the scaling of relative velocity structure functions, of order two and higher, for inertial particles, both in the dissipation range and the inertial subrange using direct numerical simulations (DNS). Within the inertial subrange our findings show that contrary to the well-known attenuation in the tails of the one-point acceleration probability density function (p.d.f.) with increasing inertia (Bec et al., J. Fluid Mech., vol. 550, 2006, pp. 349-358), the opposite occurs with the velocity structure function at sufficiently large Stokes numbers. We observe reduced scaling exponents for the structure function when compared to those of the fluid, and correspondingly broader p.d.f.s, similar to what occurs with a passive scalar. DNS allows us to isolate the two effects of inertia, namely biased sampling of the velocity field, a result of preferential concentration, and filtering, i.e. the tendency for the inertial particle velocity to attenuate the velocity fluctuations in the fluid. By isolating these effects, we show that sampling is playing the dominant role for low-order moments of the structure function, whereas filtering accounts for most of the scaling behaviour observed with the higher-order structure functions in the inertial subrange. In the dissipation range, we see evidence of so-called "crossing trajectoriesa", the "sling effect" or "caustics", and find good agreement with the theory put forth by Wilkinson et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 97, 2006, 048501) and Falkovich & Pumir (J. Atmos. Sci., vol. 64, 2007, 4497) for Stokes numbers greater than 0.5. We also look at the scaling exponents within the context of the model proposed by Bec et al. (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 646, 2010, pp. 527-536). Another interesting finding is that inertial particles at low Stokes numbers sample regions of higher kinetic energy than the fluid particle field, the converse occurring at high Stokes numbers. The trend at low Stokes numbers is predicted by the theory of Chun et al. (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 536, 2005, 219-251). This work is relevant to modelling the particle collision rate (Sundaram & Collins, J. Fluid Mech., vol. 335, 1997, pp. 75-109), and highlights the interesting array of phenomena induced by inertia. © 2012 Cambridge University Press.

Gleisner H.,Analytik Jena AG | Welz B.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Welz B.,Federal University of Bahia | Einax J.W.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
Spectrochimica Acta - Part B Atomic Spectroscopy | Year: 2010

The determination of fluorine using the molecular absorption of gallium mono-fluoride (GaF) at the 211.248 nm rotational line has been optimized using a commercially available high-resolution continuum source atomic absorption spectrometer with a transversely heated graphite tube furnace. The electron excitation spectrum of GaF was generated by adding 500 μg Ga per injection into the graphite tube as molecule forming reagent. Best results were obtained by applying Zr as a permanent modifier and a mixed Pd/Zr modifier, thermally pretreated before each sample injection together with the Ga reagent at 1100 °C. The use of sodium acetate and Ru(III) nitrosyl nitrate as additional modifiers injected together with the sample further improved the performance. This way a maximum pyrolysis temperature of 550 °C could be used, and the optimum molecule forming temperature was 1550 °C. Several drinking water samples, a mineral water sample, and two certified reference materials were analyzed using the standard calibration technique; the absence of potential matrix effects was verified by measuring different dilutions and spiking with known fluorine mass. The results were in good agreement with the certified values and those measured by ion selective electrode; the recovery rate for the spiking experiments was between 97% and 106%. The results show that there was no matrix influence for that kind of samples containing relatively high concentrations of Ca, Mg and chloride, which are known to cause interference in GaF molecule absorption. The limit of detection and the characteristic mass of the method were 5.2 and 7.4 pg F, respectively, and were both about a factor of two better than recently published values. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

De Oliveira M.R.F.,University of Brasilia | De Castro Gomes A.,University of Sao Paulo | Toscano C.M.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Malaria Journal | Year: 2010

Background. In areas with limited structure in place for microscopy diagnosis, rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) have been demonstrated to be effective. Method. The cost-effectiveness of the Optimal® and thick smear microscopy was estimated and compared. Data were collected on remote areas of 12 municipalities in the Brazilian Amazon. Data sources included the National Malaria Control Programme of the Ministry of Health, the National Healthcare System reimbursement table, hospitalization records, primary data collected from the municipalities, and scientific literature. The perspective was that of the Brazilian public health system, the analytical horizon was from the start of fever until the diagnostic results provided to patient and the temporal reference was that of year 2006. The results were expressed in costs per adequately diagnosed cases in 2006 U.S. dollars. Sensitivity analysis was performed considering key model parameters. Results. In the case base scenario, considering 92% and 95% sensitivity for thick smear microscopy to Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax, respectively, and 100% specificity for both species, thick smear microscopy is more costly and more effective, with an incremental cost estimated at US$549.9 per adequately diagnosed case. In sensitivity analysis, when sensitivity and specificity of microscopy for P. vivax were 0.90 and 0.98, respectively, and when its sensitivity for P. falciparum was 0.83, the RDT was more cost-effective than microscopy. Conclusion. Microscopy is more cost-effective than OptiMal® in these remote areas if high accuracy of microscopy is maintained in the field. Decision regarding use of rapid tests for diagnosis of malaria in these areas depends on current microscopy accuracy in the field. © 2010 de Oliveira et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Balestero J.P.R.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Tofoli F.L.,Federal University of Säo João del Rei | Fernandes R.C.,Jacto S A | Torrico-Bascope G.V.,GTB Power Electronics Research and Technology AB | Mendes De Seixas F.J.,São Paulo State University
IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics | Year: 2012

The need for solid-state ac-dc converters to improve power quality in terms of power factor correction, reduced total harmonic distortion at input ac mains, and precisely regulated dc output has motivated the investigation of several topologies based on classical converters such as buck, boost, and buck-boost converters. Boost converters operating in continuous-conduction mode have become particularly popular because reduced electromagnetic interference levels result from their utilization. Within this context, this paper introduces a bridgeless boost converter based on a three-state switching cell (3SSC), whose distinct advantages are reduced conduction losses with the use of magnetic elements with minimized size, weight, and volume. The approach also employs the principle of interleaved converters, as it can be extended to a generic number of legs per winding of the autotransformers and high power levels. A literature review of boost converters based on the 3SSC is initially presented so that key aspects are identified. The theoretical analysis of the proposed converter is then developed, while a comparison with a conventional boost converter is also performed. An experimental prototype rated at 1 kW is implemented to validate the proposal, as relevant issues regarding the novel converter are discussed. © 2011 IEEE.

Girardi-Schappo M.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Kinouchi O.,University of Sao Paulo | Tragtenberg M.H.R.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Physical Review E - Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics | Year: 2013

Many different kinds of noise are experimentally observed in the brain. Among them, we study a model of noisy chemical synapse and obtain critical avalanches for the spatiotemporal activity of the neural network. Neurons and synapses are modeled by dynamical maps. We discuss the relevant neuronal and synaptic properties to achieve the critical state. We verify that networks of functionally excitable neurons with fast synapses present power-law avalanches, due to rebound spiking dynamics. We also discuss the measuring of neuronal avalanches by subsampling our data, shedding light on the experimental search for self-organized criticality in neural networks. © 2013 American Physical Society.

Martendal E.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Carasek E.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Carasek E.,Instituto Nacional Of Ciencia E Tecnologia Of Bioanalitica
Journal of Chromatography A | Year: 2011

This study describes a new optimization strategy for internally cooled solid-phase microextraction based on a multivariate approach. The coating temperature was changed in an extraction while manipulating the extraction times to improve the extraction of compounds with different volatilities. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and phthalic acid esters (PEs) and adipate were used as model compounds in this study. The optimization strategy was in two steps: (1) multivariate optimization of extraction time and initial coating temperature and (2) multivariate optimization of total extraction time and the time required to cool the coating to a lower temperature as determined in step 1. The observed analytical response in relation to the coating temperature was found to be dependent on the analyte volatility and size. The optimized extraction condition for PEs was 23. min extraction while maintaining the coating at 140 °C, followed by 7. min of cooling the coating at 10 °C. For the PAHs the coating temperature was maintained at 60 °C for the first 20. min and at 5 °C in the last 20. min of extraction. Comparisons have been made between the proposed optimized conditions with the conventional internally cooled fiber approach and the results thoroughly discussed. The proposed optimization strategy was found to be more effective for all the analytes, especially for the semi-volatiles, compared to the conventional method. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Correa E.O.,Federal University of Itajubá | Santos J.N.,Federal University of Itajubá | Klein A.N.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
International Journal of Refractory Metals and Hard Materials | Year: 2010

In this paper the influence of the Ni binder metal and silicon as an additional alloying element on the microstructure and mechanical properties of WC-based cemented carbides processed by conventional powder metallurgy was studied. Microstructural examinations of specimens indicated the presence of a very low and even distributed porosity and the presence of islands of metal binder in the microstructure of the cemented carbides. Furthermore, despite the addition of silicon and carbon in the cemented carbides, it was not observed the presence of small fractions of undissolved SiC and free graphite nodules in their microstructure. Vickers hardness and Flexural strength tests indicated that the cemented carbide WC-Ni-Si with 10 wt.% of binder presented bulk hardness similar to the conventional WC-Co cemented carbides and superior flexure strength and fracture toughness. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Cardoso A.J.,Federal Institute of Education | De Carli L.G.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Galup-Montoro C.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Schneider M.C.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers | Year: 2012

This paper describes a simple analytical model of the rectifier circuit valid down to very low voltage operation (input voltage below the thermal voltage). Steady-state and transient analyses of the rectifier with the diode described by an exponential I-V characteristic are presented. We provide formulas for the dc output voltage level, the output voltage ripple, and the power conversion efficiency. We also give a compact expression for the charging time of the load capacitor. The models of the rectifier and the voltage doubler for input voltages down to the thermal voltage are verified with simulations and measurements using circuits built with off-the-shelf 1N4148 diodes. © 2011 IEEE.

Gomes W.J.S.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Beck A.T.,University of Sao Paulo
Structural Safety | Year: 2014

Pipeline systems can be safely designed and operated by using conservative safety margins and approximations. However, when expected consequences of failure are accounted for, optimal designs or optimal inspection/maintenance plans cannot be found using overly conservative assumptions. Specifically, pipeline corrosion cannot be modeled using popular but overly conservative linear corrosion growth models. In this paper, a novel polynomial chaos corrosion growth model is constructed from extensive field data, and employed in the optimal design of an example buried pipeline. The optimal corrosion thickness, time to first inspection and time between successive inspections are considered as design variables. The design objective is to minimize total expected life-cycle costs, which include costs of construction, inspections and repair, and expected costs of failure. Expected numbers of failures, repairs and replacements are evaluated by a probabilistic analysis using Latinhypercube sampling, and a novel approach is presented in order to smoothen these expected numbers w.r.t. design variables. The resulting objective function is discontinuous, and presents many local minima; hence, global optimization algorithms are required. A multi-start simplex algorithm is employed, but results are also compared with a crude exhaustive search. Results are obtained for several cost configurations, reflecting different failure consequence scenarios. A discussion is presented with respect to the optimal inspection schedules and optimum corrosion thicknesses found herein. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Queiroz L.P.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Friedman D.I.,University of Rochester | Rapoport A.M.,University of California at Los Angeles | Purdy R.A.,Dalhousie University
Cephalalgia | Year: 2011

Background: Migraine aura, made up of one or more neurological symptoms arising from the cortex or brainstem, is a complex neurological phenomenon. Visual aura is the most frequent aura manifestation. Studying the subjective components of visual aura makes it possible to identify common characteristics. Objective: To thoroughly describe the characteristics of migraine visual aura in patients with migraine with aura. Methods: We performed a retrospective, descriptive study of the visual aura of 122 migraine patients collected at two headache clinics in the Americas. This study was designed to determine the characteristics of a typical visual aura. Results: The most common features of the visual aura in our study are that it occurs before the headache with a gap of less than 30 minutes, lasts 5 to 30 minutes, has a gradual onset, usually begins peripherally, is unilateral, and shimmers. Furthermore, the location of typical visual aura in the visual field has no fixed relationship to headache laterality, is slightly more often without color, and is often described as small bright dots and zigzag lines. Blurred vision, not typically considered to be an aura phenomenon of cortical origin, is in fact the most frequently reported visual symptom. Conclusions: Migraine visual aura is heterogeneous and pleomorphic, and some of our findings run contrary to common beliefs. © International Headache Society 2011.

This systematic review analyzed the prevalence of physical inactivity, sedentary behaviors and unhealthy eating habits among Brazilian adolescents. Searches were conducted in five databases (Lilacs, SciELO, Medline, Web of Science, and Google Scholar) and in the references cited in the articles retrieved. The literature search yielded 5,872 potentially relevant titles and a total of 69 studies met all the inclusion criteria. The risk behavior most often evaluated was physical inactivity (48/69; 69.6%), and its prevalence rate ranged from 2.3% to 93.5%. Twenty-eight studies estimated the prevalence of physical inactivity at over 50%. Most studies observed the prevalence of greater physical inactivity among girls. The prevalence of sedentary behaviors (lengthy screen time or TV use) was also frequently over 50%. Several variables were used to identify unhealthy eating habits, and some criteria/studies have indicated unhealthy eating habit estimates at close to 100% among adolescents. In conclusion, the estimates of these risk behaviors among Brazilians adolescents were very close to or even greater than those found in developed countries in several studies analyzed in this review.

Salazar J.P.L.C.,Cornell University | Salazar J.P.L.C.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Collins L.R.,Cornell University
Physics of Fluids | Year: 2012

In this study, we investigate the effect of "biased sampling," i.e., the clustering of inertial particles in regions of the flow with low vorticity"filtering," i.e., the tendency of inertial particles to attenuate the fluid velocity fluctuations, on the probability density function of inertial particle accelerations. In particular, we find that the concept of "biased filtering" introduced by Ayyalasomayajula et al. ["Modeling inertial particle acceleration statistics in isotropic turbulence," Phys. Fluids20, 0945104 (2008)10.1063/1.2976174], in which particles filter stronger acceleration events more than weaker ones, is relevant to the higher order moments of acceleration. Flow topology and its connection to acceleration is explored through invariants of the velocity-gradient, strain-raterotation-rate tensors. A semi-quantitative analysis is performed where we assess the contribution of specific flow topologies to acceleration moments. Our findings show that the contributions of regions of high vorticity and low strain decrease significantly with Stokes number, a non-dimensional measure of particle inertia. The contribution from regions of low vorticity and high strain exhibits a peak at a Stokes number of approximately 0.2. Following the methodology of Ooi et al. ["A study of the evolution and characteristics of the invariants of the velocity-gradient tensor in isotropic turbulence," J. Fluid Mech.381, 141 (1999)10.1017/S0022112098003681], we compute mean conditional trajectories in planes formed by pairs of tensor invariants in time. Among the interesting findings is the existence of a stable focus in the plane formed by the second invariants of the strain-rate and rotation-rate tensors. Contradicting the results of Ooi et al. , we find a stable focus in the plane formed by the second and third invariants of the strain-rate tensor for fluid tracers. We confirm, at an even higher Reynolds number, the conjecture of Collins and Keswani ["Reynolds number scaling of particle clustering in turbulent aerosols," New J. Phys.6, 119 (2004)10.1088/1367-2630/6/1/119] that inertial particle clustering saturates at large Reynolds numbers. The result is supported by the theory presented in Chun et al. ["Clustering of aerosol particles in isotropic turbulence," J. Fluid Mech.536, 219 (2005)10.1017/S0022112005004568]. © 2012 American Institute of Physics.

Vriesmann L.C.,Federal University of Paraná | de Mello Castanho Amboni R.D.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | De Oliveira Petkowicz C.L.,Federal University of Paraná
Industrial Crops and Products | Year: 2011

The composition of cacao pod husks (CPHs), the main waste product of cocoa production, and some of the characteristics of their water-soluble pectins were investigated. Milled and dried CPHs were submitted to hot aqueous extractions (50 and 100°C, 90min, 1:25, w/v). The obtained fractions (labeled 50W and BW, respectively) yielded 7.5 and 12.6% pectins, respectively. The monosaccharide composition revealed the predominance of uronic acid, followed by galactose, rhamnose and arabinose, characteristic of pectins. Chemical and spectroscopic analyses (FT-IR and 13C NMR) showed that both fractions contained high acetyl contents (DA 29.0 and 19.2%, respectively) and are composed of low methoxyl homogalacturonans (DE 37.0 and 42.3%, respectively) with rhamnogalacturonan insertions carrying side chains containing mainly galactose. Rheological analyses were carried out with 50W and BW. Solutions of both fractions at 5% (w/v) had a non-Newtonian shear-thinning behavior, however that of 50W showed higher apparent viscosity than that of BW. Dynamic oscillatory analyses showed that 5% (w/w) 50W pectin had weak gel behavior whereas at the same concentration, BW pectin behaved as a concentrated solution. Although further investigations are required, CPH seems be a potential source of both pectins and other natural agents such as fibers and phenolics, and its use is particularly justified by growing environmental awareness. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Muller C.M.O.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Muller C.M.O.,State University Londrina | Laurindo J.B.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Yamashita F.,State University Londrina
Industrial Crops and Products | Year: 2011

The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of nanoclay incorporation procedure on the mechanical and water vapor barrier properties of starch/nanoclay composite films. Cassava starch films were prepared with (nanocomposite) and without nanoclay (control) in two steps: firstly the production of extruded pellets and secondly thermo-pressing. The nanocomposite films were prepared via two different methods: in D samples the nanoclay was dispersed in glycerol and subsequently incorporated into the starch; and in ND samples all ingredients were added in a single step before the extrusion. All the composite-films were prepared with cassava starch using 0.25g of glycerol/g of starch and 0.03g of nanoclay/g of starch. Control samples showed VA-type crystallinity induced by the manufacturing process and the nanocomposites presented a semicrystalline and intercalated structure. The nanoclay improved the water vapor barrier properties of the starch film and this effect was more pronounced in D samples, where the water vapor permeability (Kw) was 60% lower than that of the control samples. The Kw reduction was associated with decreases in the effective diffusion coefficient (approximately 61%) and in the coefficient of solubility (approximately 22-32%). On the other hand, the incorporation of nanoclay increased the tensile strength and the rigidity of the films and this effect was more significant when the nanoclay was dispersed in glycerol. Thus, the incorporation of nanoclay into starch-based films is a promising way to manufacture films with better mechanical and water vapor barrier properties. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Gonzaga C.C.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Karas E.W.,Federal University of Paraná | Rossetto D.R.,University of Sao Paulo
SIAM Journal on Optimization | Year: 2013

We describe two algorithms for solving differentiable convex optimization problems constrained to simple sets in ℝn, i.e., sets on which it is easy to project an arbitrary point. The algorithms are optimal in the sense that they achieve an absolute precision of ε in relation to the optimal value in O(1/√ε) iterations using only first-order information. This complexity depends on an (unknown) Lipschitz constant L* for the function derivatives and on a (known) strong convexity constant μ* ≥ 0. The algorithms are extensions of well-known methods devised by Nesterov [Introductory Lectures on Convex Optimization, Kluwer Academic, Boston, 2004], without the need for estimates of L* and including (in the second algorithm) line searches and an adaptive procedure for estimating a strong convexity constant. The algorithms are such that all computed points are feasible, and the complexity analysis follows a simple geometric approach. Numerical tests for box-constrained quadratic problems are presented. © 2013 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

Gonzaga C.C.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Karas E.W.,Federal University of Paraná
Mathematical Programming | Year: 2013

We modify the first order algorithm for convex programming described by Nesterov in his book (in Introductory lectures on convex optimization. A basic course. Kluwer, Boston, 2004). In his algorithms, Nesterov makes explicit use of a Lipschitz constant L for the function gradient, which is either assumed known (Nesterov in Introductory lectures on convex optimization. A basic course. Kluwer, Boston, 2004), or is estimated by an adaptive procedure (Nesterov 2007). We eliminate the use of L at the cost of an extra imprecise line search, and obtain an algorithm which keeps the optimal complexity properties and also inherit the global convergence properties of the steepest descent method for general continuously differentiable optimization. Besides this, we develop an adaptive procedure for estimating a strong convexity constant for the function. Numerical tests for a limited set of toy problems show an improvement in performance when compared with the original Nesterov's algorithms. © 2012 Springer and Mathematical Optimization Society.

Megias E.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Menezes D.P.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Deppman A.,University of Sao Paulo
Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications | Year: 2015

The non extensive thermodynamics of an ideal gas composed by bosons and/or fermions is derived from its partition function for systems with finite chemical potentials. It is shown that the thermodynamical quantities derived in the present work are in agreement with those obtained in previous works when μ≤m. However some inconsistencies of previous references are corrected when μ>m. A discontinuity in the first derivatives of the partition function and its effects are discussed in detail. We show that at similar conditions, the non extensive statistics provide a harder equation of state than that provided by the Boltzmann-Gibbs statistics. ©2014 Elsevier B.V.

Pavesi E.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Canteras N.S.,University of Sao Paulo | Carobrez A.P.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Neuropsychopharmacology | Year: 2011

In the present work, we sought to mimic the internal state changes in response to a predator threat by pharmacologically stimulating the brain circuit involved in mediating predator fear responses, and explored whether this stimulation would be a valuable unconditioned stimulus (US) in an olfactory fear conditioning paradigm (OFC). The dorsal premammillary nucleus (PMd) is a key brain structure in the neural processing of anti-predatory defensive behavior and has also been shown to mediate the acquisition and expression of anti-predatory contextual conditioning fear responses. Rats were conditioned by pairing the US, which was an intra-PMd microinjection of isoproterenol (ISO; Β-adrenoceptor agonist), with amyl acetate odorthe conditioned stimulus (CS). ISO (10 and 40 nmol) induced the acquisition of the OFC and the second-order association by activation of Β-1 receptors in the PMd. Furthermore, similar to what had been found for contextual conditioning to a predator threat, atenolol (Β-1 receptor antagonist) in the PMd also impaired the acquisition and expression of OFC promoted by ISO. Considering the strong glutamatergic projections from the PMd to the dorsal periaqueductal gray (dPAG), we tested how the glutamatergic blockade of the dPAG would interfere with the OFC induced by ISO. Accordingly, microinjections of NMDA receptor antagonist (AP5, 6 nmol) into the dPAG were able to block both the acquisition, and partially, the expression of the OFC. In conclusion, we have found that PMd Β-1 adrenergic stimulation is a good model to mimic predatory threat-induced internal state changes, and works as a US able to mobilize the same systems involved in the acquisition and expression of predator-related contextual conditioning. © 2011 American College of Neuropsychopharmacology. All rights reserved.

Hermes C.J.L.,Federal University of Paraná | Barbosa J.R.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Applied Energy | Year: 2012

The present study compares the thermodynamic performance of four small-capacity portable coolers that employ different cooling technologies: thermoelectric, Stirling, and vapor compression using two different compressors (reciprocating and linear). The refrigeration systems were experimentally evaluated in a climatized chamber with controlled temperature and humidity. Tests were carried out at two different ambient temperatures (21 and 32 °C) in order to obtain key performance parameters of the systems (e.g., power consumption, cooling capacity, internal air temperature, and the hot end and cold end temperatures). These performance parameters were compared using a thermodynamic approach that splits the overall 2nd law efficiency into two terms, namely, the internal and external efficiencies. In doing so, the internal irreversibilities (e.g., friction in the working fluid in the Stirling and vapor compression machines, Joule heating and heat conduction in the thermoelectric devices of the Peltier cooler) were separated from the heat exchanger losses (external irreversibilities), allowing the comparison between different refrigeration technologies with respect to the same thermodynamic baseline. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Marinho F.A.M.,University of Sao Paulo | Oliveira O.M.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers: Geotechnical Engineering | Year: 2012

A central goal in unsaturated soil mechanics research is to create a smooth transition between traditional soil mechanics approaches and an approach that is applicable to unsaturated soils. Undrained shear strength and the liquidity index of reconstituted or remoulded saturated soils are consistently correlated, which has been demonstrated by many studies. In the liquidity index range from 1 (at w l) to 0 (at w p), the shear strength ranges from approximately 2 kPa to 200 kPa. Similarly, for compacted soil, the shear strength at the plastic limit ranges from 150 kPa to 250 kPa. When compacted at their optimum water content, most soils have a suction that ranges from 20 kPa to 500 kPa; however, in the field, compacted materials are subjected to drying and wetting, which affect their initial suction and as a consequence their shear strength. Unconfined shear tests were performed on five compacted tropical soils and kaolin. Specimens were tested in the as-compacted condition, and also after undergoing drying or wetting. The test results and data from prior literature were examined, taking into account the roles of void ratio, suction, and relative water content. An interpretation of the phenomena that are involved in the development of the undrained shear strength of unsaturated soils in the contexts of soil water retention and Atterberg limits is presented, providing a practical view of the behaviour of compacted soil based on the concept of unsaturated soil. Finally, an empirical correlation is presented that relates the unsaturated state of compacted soils to the unconfined shear strength.

Pagliosa P.R.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Pagliosa P.R.,University of Sao Paulo
Database : the journal of biological databases and curation | Year: 2014

Networks can greatly advance data sharing attitudes by providing organized and useful data sets on marine biodiversity in a friendly and shared scientific environment. NONATObase, the interactive database on polychaetes presented herein, will provide new macroecological and taxonomic insights of the Southwestern Atlantic region. The database was developed by the NONATO network, a team of South American researchers, who integrated available information on polychaetes from between 5°N and 80°S in the Atlantic Ocean and near the Antarctic. The guiding principle of the database is to keep free and open access to data based on partnerships. Its architecture consists of a relational database integrated in the MySQL and PHP framework. Its web application allows access to the data from three different directions: species (qualitative data), abundance (quantitative data) and data set (reference data). The database has built-in functionality, such as the filter of data on user-defined taxonomic levels, characteristics of site, sample, sampler, and mesh size used. Considering that there are still many taxonomic issues related to poorly known regional fauna, a scientific committee was created to work out consistent solutions to current misidentifications and equivocal taxonomy status of some species. Expertise from this committee will be incorporated by NONATObase continually. The use of quantitative data was possible by standardization of a sample unit. All data, maps of distribution and references from a data set or a specified query can be visualized and exported to a commonly used data format in statistical analysis or reference manager software. The NONATO network has initialized with NONATObase, a valuable resource for marine ecologists and taxonomists. The database is expected to grow in functionality as it comes in useful, particularly regarding the challenges of dealing with molecular genetic data and tools to assess the effects of global environment change. Database URL: http://nonatobase.ufsc.br/.

Daura-Jorge F.G.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Cantor M.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Ingram S.N.,University of Plymouth | Lusseau D.,University of Aberdeen | Simoes-Lopes P.C.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Biology Letters | Year: 2012

Diverse andlocalized foragingbehaviourshavebeen reported in isolated populations of many animal species around the world. In Laguna, southern Brazil, a subset of resident bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) uses a foraging tactic involving cooperative interactions with local, beach-casting fishermen.We used individual photo-identification data to assess whether cooperative and noncooperative dolphins were socially segregated. The social structure of the population was found to be a fission-fusion system with few non-random associations, typical for this species.However, association values were greater among cooperative dolphins than among non-cooperative dolphins or between dolphins from different foraging classes. Furthermore, the dolphin social network was divided into three modules, clustering individuals that shared or lacked the cooperative foraging tactic. Spaceuse patterns were not sufficient to explain this partitioning, indicating a behavioural factor. The segregation of dolphins using different foraging tactics could result from foraging behaviour driving social structure,while the closer association between dolphins engaged in the cooperation could facilitate the transmission and learning of this behavioural trait from conspecifics. This unique case of a dolphin-human interaction represents a valuable opportunity to explore hypotheses on the role of social learning in wild cetaceans. © 2011 The Royal Society.

Daura-Jorge F.G.,Federal University of Paraná | Ingram S.N.,University of Plymouth | Simoes-Lopes P.C.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Marine Mammal Science | Year: 2013

A subgroup of a population of Tursiops truncatus in southern Brazil is known for a cooperative behavior with artisanal fishermen whereby the dolphins shoal fish towards net-casting fishermen. Combining photo-identification data collected between September 2007 and 2009 with mark-recapture and Pollock's robust design models, we assessed abundance within seasons and survival and temporary emigration rates of dolphins between seasons. We also reanalyzed a previous data set collected during 1989-1991, and Cormack-Jolly-Seber models were applied to estimate survival rates for each of the study periods. The abundance of marked "cooperative" dolphins varied between seasons from 18 (CI: 17-24) to 21 (CI: 20-24). The total abundance varied from 59 in the winter of 2008 (CI: 49-72) to 50 in the autumn of 2009 (CI: 40-62). The annual adult survival was estimated to be 0.917 (CI: 0.876-0.961), close to that estimated from data collected in the 1990s (0.941; CI: 0.888-0.998). The emigration probability was low (0.031; CI: 0.011-0.084) and different capture probabilities between the "cooperative" and "noncooperative" dolphins indicated a degree of behavioral segregation. The precision of our estimates is likely to provide sufficient power to detect population change, but we recommend a precautionary management approach to protect this vulnerable dolphin community and its unique cooperative feeding tradition. © 2012 by the Society for Marine Mammalogy.

News Article | November 3, 2016
Site: www.eurekalert.org

An international research team led by Carnegie Mellon University has found that when the brain "reads" or decodes a sentence in English or Portuguese, its neural activation patterns are the same. Published in NeuroImage, the study is the first to show that different languages have similar neural signatures for describing events and scenes. By using a machine-learning algorithm, the research team was able to understand the relationship between sentence meaning and brain activation patterns in English and then recognize sentence meaning based on activation patterns in Portuguese. The findings can be used to improve machine translation, brain decoding across languages and, potentially, second language instruction. "This tells us that, for the most part, the language we happen to learn to speak does not change the organization of the brain," said Marcel Just, the D.O. Hebb University Professor of Psychology and pioneer in using brain imaging and machine-learning techniques to identify how the brain deciphers thoughts and concepts. "Semantic information is represented in the same place in the brain and the same pattern of intensities for everyone. Knowing this means that brain to brain or brain to computer interfaces can probably be the same for speakers of all languages," Just said. For the study, 15 native Portuguese speakers -- eight were bilingual in Portuguese and English -- read 60 sentences in Portuguese while in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanner. A CMU-developed computational model was able to predict which sentences the participants were reading in Portuguese, based only on activation patterns. The computational model uses a set of 42 concept-level semantic features and six markers of the concepts' roles in the sentence, such as agent or action, to identify brain activation patterns in English. With 67 percent accuracy, the model predicted which sentences were read in Portuguese. The resulting brain images showed that the activation patterns for the 60 sentences were in the same brain locations and at similar intensity levels for both English and Portuguese sentences. Additionally, the results revealed the activation patterns could be grouped into four semantic categories, depending on the sentence's focus: people, places, actions and feelings. The groupings were very similar across languages, reinforcing the organization of information in the brain is the same regardless of the language in which it is expressed. "The cross-language prediction model captured the conceptual gist of the described event or state in the sentences, rather than depending on particular language idiosyncrasies. It demonstrated a meta-language prediction capability from neural signals across people, languages and bilingual status," said Ying Yang, a postdoctoral associate in psychology at CMU and first author of the study. Discovering that the brain decodes sentences the same in different languages is one of the many brain research breakthroughs to happen at Carnegie Mellon. CMU has created some of the first cognitive tutors, helped to develop the Jeopardy-winning Watson, founded a groundbreaking doctoral program in neural computation, and is the birthplace of artificial intelligence and cognitive psychology. Building on its strengths in biology, computer science, psychology, statistics and engineering, CMU launched BrainHub, an initiative that focuses on how the structure and activity of the brain give rise to complex behaviors. In addition to Just and Yang, the research team included CMU's Jing Wang and Vladimir Cherkassky and Cyntia Bailer of the Federal University of Santa Catarina in Brazil. The Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI), Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity (IARPA), via the U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), funded this research.

Soares S.R.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Finotti A.R.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Prudencio da Silva V.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Alvarenga R.A.F.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Alvarenga R.A.F.,Ghent University
Waste Management | Year: 2013

The establishment of rules to manage Health Care Waste (HCW) is a challenge for the public sector. Regulatory agencies must ensure the safety of waste management alternatives for two very different profiles of generators: (1) hospitals, which concentrate the production of HCW and (2) small establishments, such as clinics, pharmacies and other sources, that generate dispersed quantities of HCW and are scattered throughout the city. To assist in developing sector regulations for the small generators, we evaluated three management scenarios using decision-making tools. They consisted of a disinfection technique (microwave, autoclave and lime) followed by landfilling, where transportation was also included. The microwave, autoclave and lime techniques were tested at the laboratory to establish the operating parameters to ensure their efficiency in disinfection. Using a life cycle assessment (LCA) and cost analysis, the decision-making tools aimed to determine the technique with the best environmental performance. This consisted of evaluating the eco-efficiency of each scenario. Based on the life cycle assessment, microwaving had the lowest environmental impact (12.64Pt) followed by autoclaving (48.46Pt). The cost analyses indicated values of US-0.12kg-1 for the waste treated with microwaves, US-1.10kg-1 for the waste treated by the autoclave and US-1.53kg-1 for the waste treated with lime. The microwave disinfection presented the best eco-efficiency performance among those studied and provided a feasible alternative to subsidize the formulation of the policy for small generators of HCW. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Orofino Kreuger M.R.,Vale do Itajai University | Grootjans S.,Ghent University | Biavatti M.W.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Vandenabeele P.,Ghent University | D'Herde K.,Ghent University
Anti-Cancer Drugs | Year: 2012

Sesquiterpene lactones (SLs) constitute a large and diverse group of biologically active plant compounds that possess anti-inflammatory and antitumor activity. The subclass germacranolides is one of the major groups of SLs. It includes parthenolide, a highly cytotoxic SL that is being tested in clinical trials as an anti-cancer agent. In this review, we focus on SL antitumor activity related to cell-cycle arrest, differentiation, apoptosis induction through the intrinsic pathway, and sensitization of the extrinsic pathway. We also address the regression of tumors in response to cotreatment with conventional chemotherapeutics. We review the nuclear factor-κB-targeted anti-inflammatory activity in vitro and in vivo and relate it to the SL structural features involved in the molecular mechanisms. It is obvious that SLs are emerging as promising anticancer agents, but more investigations are required to fully understand the molecular mechanisms of known SLs in different cell death modalities and how these mechanisms contribute toward the potent antitumor and anti-inflammatory activities of SLs. © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Ramos C.F.,State University of Rio de Janeiro | Zamoner A.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Frontiers in Endocrinology | Year: 2014

Leptin is primarily expressed in white adipose tissue; however, it is expressed in the hypothalamus and reproductive tissues as well. Leptin acts by activating the leptin receptors (Ob-Rs). Additionally, the regulation of several neuroendocrine and reproductive functions, including the inhibition of glucocorticoids and enhancement of thyroxine and sex hormone concentrations in human beings and mice are leptin functions. It has been suggested that thyroid hormones (TH) could directly regulate leptin expression. Additionally, hypothyroidism compromises the intracellular integration of leptin signaling specifically in the arcuate nucleus. Two TH receptor isoforms are expressed in the testis, TRa and TRb, with TRa being the predominant one that is present in all stages of development. The effects of TH involve the proliferation and differentiation of Sertoli and Leydig cells during development, spermatogenesis, and steroidogenesis. In this context, TH disorders are associated with sexual dysfunction. An endocrine and/or direct paracrine effect of leptin on the gonads inhibits testosterone production in Leydig cells. Further studies are necessary to clarify the effects of both hormones in the testis during hypothyroidism. The goal of this review is to highlight the current knowledge regarding leptin and TH in the testis. © 2014 Ramos and Zamoner.

Luiz O.J.,Macquarie University | Madin J.S.,Macquarie University | Ross Robertson D.,Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute | Rocha L.A.,Golden Gate | And 2 more authors.
Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences | Year: 2012

How do biogeographically different provinces arise in response to oceanic barriers to dispersal? Here, we analyse how traits related to the pelagic dispersal and adult biology of 985 tropical reef fish species correlate with their establishing populations on both sides of two Atlantic marine barriers: the Mid-Atlantic Barrier (MAB) and the Amazon-Orinoco Plume (AOP). Generalized linear mixed-effects models indicate that predictors for successful barrier crossing are the ability to raft with flotsam for the deep-water MAB, non-reef habitat usage for the freshwater and sediment-rich AOP, and large adult-size and large latitudinal-range for both barriers. Variation in larval-development mode, often thought to be broadly related to larval-dispersal potential, is not a significant predictor in either case. Many more species of greater taxonomic diversity cross the AOP than the MAB. Rafters readily cross both barriers but represent a much smaller proportion of AOP crossers than MAB crossers. Successful establishment after crossing both barriers may be facilitated by broad environmental tolerance associated with large body size and wide latitudinal-range. These results highlight the need to look beyond larval-dispersal potential and assess adult-biology traits when assessing determinants of successful movements across marine barriers. © 2011 The Royal Society.

Cancino L.R.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Cancino L.R.,University of Duisburg - Essen | Fikri M.,University of Duisburg - Essen | Oliveira A.A.M.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Schulz C.,University of Duisburg - Essen
Fuel | Year: 2011

Ignition delay times for binary (ethanol/iso-octane, 25%/75% by liquid volume) and quinary (iso-octane/toluene/n-heptane/diisobutylene/ethanol, 30%/25%/22%/13%/10%) gasoline surrogate fuels in air were measured under stoichiometric conditions behind reflected shock waves. The investigated post-shock temperature ranges from 720 to 1220 K at pressures of 10 bar for the binary mixture and 10 bar and 30 bar for the quinary mixture. Ignition delay times were evaluated using side-wall detection of CH* chemiluminescence (λ = 431.5 nm). Multiple regression analysis of the data indicates global activation energy of ∼124 kJ/mol for the binary mixture and ∼101 kJ/mol for the quinary mixture and a pressure dependence exponent of -1.0 was obtained for the quinary mixture. The measurements were compared to predictions using a proposed detailed kinetics model for multicomponent mixtures that is based on the reference fuels (PRF) model as a kernel and incorporates sub-mechanisms to account for the chemistry of ethanol, toluene and diisobutylene. The model was tested using the measured ignition delay times for the surrogate fuels. Additional comparisons are based on literature data for other fuel combinations of the single constituents forming the quinary surrogate to insure that the modified mechanism still correctly predicts the behavior of simple fuels. The proposed model reproduces the trend of the experimental data for all pure fuels and blends investigated in this work, including the pressure dependence. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Farias R.L.S.,Federal University of Säo João del Rei | Farias R.L.S.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Gomes K.P.,Federal University of Säo João del Rei | Krein G.,São Paulo State University | Pinto M.B.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics | Year: 2014

Although asymptotic freedom is an essential feature of QCD, it is absent in effective chiral quark models like the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio and linear sigma models. In this work we advocate that asymptotic freedom plays a key role in the recently observed discrepancies between results of lattice QCD simulations and quark models regarding the behavior of the pseudocritical temperature Tpc for chiral-symmetry restoration in the presence of a magnetic field B. We show that the lattice predictions that Tpc decreases with B can be reproduced within the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model if the coupling constant G of the model decreases with B and the temperature. Without aiming at numerical precision, we support our claim by considering a simple ansatz for G that mimics the asymptotic-freedom behavior of the QCD coupling constant 1/αs∼ln(eB/ΛQCD2) for large values of B. © 2014 American Physical Society.

Zonin V.J.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Valle Antunes J.A.,University of the Rio dos Sinos Valley | Pinto Leis R.,University of the Rio dos Sinos Valley
Energy Policy | Year: 2014

Energy crises reverberate within societies and encourage worldwide change in this industry. In this context, Brazil has been consolidating the National Program for the Production and Use of Biodiesel (Programa Nacional de Produção e Uso do Biodiesel-PNPB). This article analyzes BSBIOS and PETROBRAS BIOFUELS, which is a company that is incorporated under the PNPB. After providing an overview, the manuscript focuses on the criteria used for the selection of the agricultural raw materials used in the biodiesel industry. A reference model that considered the economic, technological, and social dimensions was developed; these dimensions were analyzed in relation to the production matrices of the soybean, canola, sunflower, and castor plants. The company strategically opted to establish programs for promoting the production of only soybean and canola. In the short term, the company has accepted the evidence that the main source of raw materials is soybean production. This decision was made considering the multicriteria analysis that was developed, which involved a number of economic, technological, and social aspects. Consequently, this analysis used in the decision-making process exhibits both a macro (the national and international environment) and a micro perspective (the companies' reality). © 2014 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Comim S.R.R.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Madella K.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Oliveira J.V.,URI Integrated Regional University Brazil | Ferreira S.R.S.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Journal of Supercritical Fluids | Year: 2010

Supercritical fluid extraction from dried banana peel (Musa spp., subgroup Prata, genomic group AAB, popularly known in Brazil as Enxerto) was studied. The aspects investigated were: overall extraction curve (OEC), mass transfer modeling of the yield curves, economical analysis of the process and phase equilibrium data for the pseudo-ternary system of banana peel extract, carbon dioxide and ethanol. The extraction operating conditions evaluated were: pressure ranging from 100 bar to 300 bar, temperature from 40 to 50 °C and constant solvent flow rate of 5.0 gCO2/min. Experimental extraction data were correlated using three kinetic models based on mass transfer equations (logistic, diffusion and Esquível models). Phase equilibrium measurements were performed using pressure from 64.9 bar to 239.9 bar and mass fraction of supercritical extract from 0.52 to 3.55 wt%. Yield results ranged from 0.6 to 6.9% d.b. (dry basis). The lowest deviation between experimental and correlated data was obtained by the Logistic model, except for the curve at 300 bar and 40 °C which was best represented by the Esquível model. The economical analysis identified the possibility to apply the supercritical fluids to obtain extracts from banana peel in an industrial scale. Phase equilibrium for the supercritical extract from banana peel with carbon dioxide modified by ethanol exhibited liquid-liquid, vapor-liquid (bubble point) and vapor-liquid-liquid phase transitions. A crossover phenomenon for the systems evaluated was observed for pressures between 200 bar and 240 bar, for both groups of assays, i.e., supercritical extraction and phase equilibrium. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Bastos J.L.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Faerstein E.,State University of Rio de Janeiro | Celeste R.K.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Barros A.J.D.,Federal University of Pelotas
Revista de Saude Publica | Year: 2012

Objective: To develop an instrument to assess discrimination effects on health outcomes and behaviors, capable of distinguishing harmful differential treatment effects from their interpretation as discriminatory events. Methods: Successive versions of an instrument were developed based on a systematic review of instruments assessing racial discrimination, focus groups and review by a panel comprising seven experts. The instrument was refined using cognitive interviews and pilot-testing. The final version of the instrument was administered to 424 undergraduate college students in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil, in 2010. Structural dimensionality, two types of reliability and construct validity were analyzed. Results: Exploratory factor analysis corroborated the hypothesis of the instrument's unidimensionality, and seven experts verified its face and content validity. The internal consistency was 0.8, and test-retest reliability was higher than 0.5 for 14 out of 18 items. The overall score was higher among socially disadvantaged individuals and correlated with adverse health behaviors/conditions, particularly when differential treatments were attributed to discrimination. Conclusions: These findings indicate the validity and reliability of the instrument developed. The proposed instrument enables the investigation of novel aspects of the relationship between discrimination and health.

Cahan P.,Boston Childrens Hospital | Cahan P.,Harvard University | Cahan P.,Harvard Stem Cell Institute | Li H.,Rochester College | And 10 more authors.
Cell | Year: 2014

Somatic cell reprogramming, directed differentiation of pluripotent stem cells, and direct conversions between differentiated cell lineages represent powerful approaches to engineer cells for research and regenerative medicine. We have developed CellNet, a network biology platform that more accurately assesses the fidelity of cellular engineering than existing methodologies and generates hypotheses for improving cell derivations. Analyzing expression data from 56 published reports, we found that cells derived via directed differentiation more closely resemble their in vivo counterparts than products of direct conversion, as reflected by the establishment of target cell-type gene regulatory networks (GRNs). Furthermore, we discovered that directly converted cells fail to adequately silence expression programs of the starting population and that the establishment of unintended GRNs is common to virtually every cellular engineering paradigm. CellNet provides a platform for quantifying how closely engineered cell populations resemble their target cell type and a rational strategy to guide enhanced cellular engineering. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

This article addresses conceptual and methodological aspects of the relations between discrimination and health from an epidemiological perspective. Definitions of discrimination and related constructs are reviewed, and the main theories underlying their association with health are presented. Scales developed to assess discrimination are discussed, in conjunction with a new instrument, devised to operationalize the concept in Brazilian epidemiological surveys. As a relatively unpredictable and uncontrollable source of psychosocial stress, discrimination has been consistently associated with adverse health outcomes and behaviors, particularly mental disorders, smoking, and alcohol use. However, progress in the area depends partly on dealing with aspects related to the assessment of the phenomenon, such as the definition of a construct map and simultaneous measurement of different types of discrimination. Research involving these aspects will enhance our understanding of discrimination and its health consequences, thus increasing our ability to reduce its social occurrence.

Bogaerts P.,Biocontrol | Coutinho D.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Computers and Chemical Engineering | Year: 2014

This paper proposes a robust nonlinear observer for bioreactors combining the classical asymptotic observer and a nonlinear Luenberger-like observer. The resulting hybrid observer considers a new definition of the hybridization parameter which reflects the kinetic model confidence. The nonlinear observer is tuned on the basis of robust H-infinity approach and the differential-algebraic representation (DAR) of nonlinear systems. A simulated case study concerning fed-batch animal cell cultures is presented to demonstrate the potentials and advantages of the proposed approach for state estimation of bioreactors. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Barros A.J.D.,Federal University of Pelotas | Bastos J.L.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Damaso A.H.,University of the Rio dos Sinos Valley
Cadernos de Saude Publica | Year: 2011

The objective of this study was to estimate catastrophic healthcare expenditure in Brazil, using different definitions, and to identify vulnerability indicators. Data from the 2002-2003 Brazilian Household Budget Survey were used to derive total household consumption, health expenditure and household income. Socioeconomic position was defined by quintiles of the National Economic Indicator using reference cut-off points for the country. Analysis was restricted to urban households. Catastrophic health expenditure was defined as expenditure in excess of 10% and 20% of total household consumption, and in excess of 40% of household capacity to pay. Catastrophic health expenditure varied from 2% to 16%, depending on the definition. For most definitions, it was highest among the poorer. The highest proportions of catastrophic health expenditure were found to be in the Central region of Brazil, while the South and the Southeast had the lowest. Presence of an elderly person, health insurance and socioeconomic position were associated with the outcome, and coverage by health insurance did not protect from catastrophic health expenditure.

Balestero J.P.R.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Tofoli F.L.,Federal University of Säo João del Rei | Torrico-Bascope G.V.,Eltek | De Seixas F.J.M.,São Paulo State University
IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics | Year: 2013

This paper presents a pulsewidth modulation dc-dc nonisolated buck converter using the three-state switching cell, constituted by two active switches, two diodes, and two coupled inductors. Only part of the load power is processed by the active switches, reducing the peak current through the switches to half of the load current, as higher power levels can then be achieved by the proposed topology. The volume of reactive elements, i.e., inductors and capacitors, is also decreased since the ripple frequency of the output voltage is twice the switching frequency. Due to the intrinsic characteristics of the topology, total losses are distributed among all semiconductors. Another advantage of this converter is the reduced region for discontinuous conduction mode when compared to the conventional buck converter or, in other words, the operation range in continuous conduction mode is increased, as demonstrated by the static gain plot. The theoretical approach is detailed through qualitative and quantitative analyses by the application of the three-state switching cell to the buck converter operating in nonoverlapping mode $(D < 0.5)$. Besides, the mathematical analysis and development of an experimental prototype rated at 1 kW are carried out. The main experimental results are presented and adequately discussed to clearly identify its claimed advantages. © 1986-2012 IEEE.

Fontana E.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Silva A.D.,Federal University of Säo João del Rei | Mariani V.C.,Pontifical Catholic University of Parana
International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer | Year: 2011

A steady buoyancy-driven flow of air in a partially open square 2D cavity with internal heat source, adiabatic bottom and top walls, and vertical walls maintained at different constant temperatures is investigated numerically in this work. A heat source with 1% of the cavity volume is present in the center of the bottom wall. The cold right wall contains a partial opening occupying 25%, 50% or 75% of the wall. The influence of the temperature gradient between the verticals walls was analyzed for Ra e = 10 3-10 5, while the influence of the heat source was evaluated through the relation R = Ra i/Ra e, investigated at between 400 and 2000. Interesting results were obtained. For a low Rayleigh number, it is found that the isotherm plots are smooth and follow a parabolic shape indicating the dominance of the heat source. But as the Ra e increases, the flow slowly becomes dominated by the temperature difference between the walls. It is also observed that multiple strong secondary circulations are formed for fluids with a small Ra e whereas these features are absent at higher Ra e. The comprehensive analysis is concluded with horizontal air velocity and temperature plots for the opening. The numerical results show a significant influence of the opening on the heat transfer in the cavity. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Garcez R.C.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Garcez R.C.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Le Douarin N.M.,Academie des science | Creuzet S.E.,French National Center for Scientific Research
Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences | Year: 2014

The combinatorial expression of Hox genes is an evolutionarily ancient program underlying body axis patterning in all Bilateria. In the head, the neural crest (NC) - a vertebrate innovation that contributes to evolutionarily novel skeletal and neural features - develops as a structure free of Hox-gene expression. The activation of Hoxa2 in the Hox-free facial NC (FNC) leads to severe craniofacial and brain defects. Here, we show that this condition unveils the requirement of three Six genes, Six1, Six2, and Six4, for brain development and morphogenesis of the maxillo-mandibular and nasofrontal skeleton. Inactivation of each of these Six genes in FNC generates diverse brain defects, ranging from plexus agenesis to mild or severe holoprosencephaly, and entails facial hypoplasia or truncation of the craniofacial skeleton. The triple silencing of these genes reveals their complementary role in face and brain morphogenesis. Furthermore, we show that the perturbation of the intrinsic genetic FNC program, by either Hoxa2 expression or Six gene inactivation, affects Bmp signaling through the downregulation of Bmp antagonists in the FNC cells. When upregulated in the FNC, Bmp antagonists suppress the adverse skeletal and cerebral effects of Hoxa2 expression. These results demonstrate that the combinatorial expression of Six1, Six2, and Six4 is required for the molecular programs governing craniofacial and cerebral development. These genes are crucial for the signaling system of FNC origin, which regulates normal growth and patterning of the cephalic neuroepithelium. Our results strongly suggest that several congenital craniofacial and cerebral malformations could be attributed to Six genes' misregulation. © 2013 Springer Basel.

Zimmermann M.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Schaffner D.W.,Rutgers University | Aragao G.M.F.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
LWT - Food Science and Technology | Year: 2013

High hydrostatic pressure processing (HHP) have been widely studied as a means to reduce and/or eliminate microbial spoilage and the presence of pathogenic microorganism. The present study evaluated the combined effect of HHP and moderate temperature on inactivation kinetics of Bacillus coagulans spore in tomato pulp. Pressures from 300 to 600 MPa and temperatures of 50 and 60 °C were applied. Inactivation kinetic parameters were obtained through the application of a primary biphasic model and classical secondary models to describe the influence of pressure and temperature on spore inactivation. Processes of 300 MPa combined with temperatures of 50 and 60 °C showed 2 and 2.4. log reductions, respectively, after 15 min of treatment. For processes at 600 MPa and 50 or 60 °C temperatures with the same holding time, the reductions were 3.1 and 5.7. log reductions, respectively. These findings illustrate the improved efficiency of HHP with the application of moderate temperatures on the inactivation of B. coagulans spores, and how variations in pressure and temperature impact the effectiveness of the process. Results shown in this study may help in the design of processes for food preservation based on HHP technology. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Moraes J.,State University of Rio de Janeiro | Assreuy J.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Canetti C.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Barja-Fidalgo C.,State University of Rio de Janeiro
Atherosclerosis | Year: 2010

Vascular injury leads to a local inflammatory response, characterized by endothelial damage, extracellular matrix exposition and aggregation/adhesion of platelets and circulating leukocytes. The release of inflammatory mediators amplifies the process, and can induce vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC) migration and proliferation. Released by leukocytes, leukotriene B4 (LTB4) induces reactive oxygen species production and SMC chemotaxis. This study was conducted to elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved in the effect of LTB4 on SMC migration, and a rat linage of vascular SMC (A7r5) were used throughout. The chemotactic effect of LTB4 was dependent on the concentration used, being comparable to AngII at 100nM. Migration induced by LTB4 was inhibited in the presence of pertussis toxin, CP-105696, a BLT1 receptor antagonist, and by LY294002 or PD98059, two inhibitors of PI3K and MEK1/2, respectively. Stimulation of SMC with LTB4 triggered integrin-associated signaling pathways, inducing focal adhesion kinase (FAK) phosphorylation, mobilization of actin cytoskeleton, association of FAK to PI3K, ERK-2 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation, and also NFκB pathway activation. Pretreatment of SMC with a selective ligand of αvβ3 integrin, kistrin, inhibited LTB4-induced chemotaxis, FAK phosphorylation, FAK-PI3K association, and also inhibited ERK-2 and NFκB pathways activation. Taken together, the data demonstrated, for the first time, that the effect of LTB4 on SMC migration is modulated by integrin signaling activation, suggesting that these adhesion molecules might be important target for therapeutic intervention in cardiovascular diseases. © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Whirlpool Corp., Federal University of Santa Catarina and Lupatech SA | Date: 2012-11-21

The metallurgical composition comprises a main particulate metallic material, for example iron or nickel, and at least one alloy element for hardening the main metallic material, which form a structural matrix (10); a particulate solid lubricant (20), such as graphite, hexagonal boron nitride or mixture thereof; and a particulate alloy element which is capable of forming, during the sintering of the composition conformed by compaction or by injection molding, a liquid phase, agglomerating the solid lubricant (20) in discrete particles. The composition may comprise an alloy component to stabilize the alpha-iron matrix phase, during the sintering, in order to prevent the graphite solid lubricant from being solubilized in the iron. The invention further refers to a self-lubricating sintered product, obtained from the composition, and to the process for obtaining said product.

Whirlpool Corp., Federal University of Santa Catarina and Lupatech SA | Date: 2015-12-04

The metallurgical composition comprises a main particulate metallic material, for example iron or nickel, and at least one alloy element for hardening the main metallic material, which form a structural matrix; a particulate solid lubricant, such as graphite, hexagonal boron nitride or mixture thereof; and a particulate alloy element which is capable of forming, during the sintering of the composition conformed by compaction or by injection molding, a liquid phase, agglomerating the solid lubricant in discrete particles. The composition may comprise an alloy component to stabilize the alpha-iron matrix phase, during the sintering, in order to prevent the graphite solid lubricant from being solubilized in the iron. The invention further refers to the process for obtaining a self-lubricating sintered product.

Boissier O.,Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines de Saint - Etienne CMP | Bordini R.H.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Hubner J.F.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Ricci A.,University of Bologna | Santi A.,University of Bologna
Science of Computer Programming | Year: 2013

This paper brings together agent oriented programming, organisation oriented programming and environment oriented programming, all of which are programming paradigms that emerged out of research in the area of multi-agent systems. In putting together a programming model and concrete platform called JaCaMo which integrates important results and technologies in all those research directions, we show in this paper, with the combined paradigm, that we prefer to call "multi-agent oriented programming", the full potential of multi-agent systems as a programming paradigm. JaCaMo builds upon three existing platforms: Jason for programming autonomous agents, Moise for programming agent organisations, and CArtAgO for programming shared environments. This paper also includes a simple example that illustrates the approach and discusses some real-world applications that have been or are being developed with JaCaMo. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Cardemil J.M.,Diego Portales University | Da Silva A.K.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Applied Thermal Engineering | Year: 2016

This thermodynamically based study focuses on the thermal performance of power cycles using CO2 as the working fluid. The work considers numerous aspects that can influence the cycle's performance, such as the type of cycle (i.e., Rankine or Brayton), its configuration (i.e., with and without a recuperator), and different operational conditions (i.e., heat source temperature and the upper and lower operating pressures of the CO2). To account for all possible scenarios, a thermodynamic routine was especially implemented and linked to a library that contained all the thermodynamics properties of CO2. The results are mostly presented in terms of the absolute and relative 1st and 2nd Law efficiencies of CO2 as well as the cycle's scale, here represented by the global conductance (UA) of the heat exchangers used within the cycle. For the relative performance assessment, four other working fluids, commonly used in energy conversion cycles, were considered (i.e., ethane, toluene, D4 siloxane and water). As expected, the absolute performance results indicate a strong dependence of the cycle's efficiencies on the operational conditions. As for the relative performance, the results suggest that while the CO2's 1st Law efficiency might be lower than other fluids, its exergetic efficiency can be significantly higher. Furthermore, the calculations also indicate that the CO2's needed global conductance is potentially lower than competing fluids (e.g., toluene) for certain operational conditions, which suggests that CO2-based power plants can be more compact, since they might require smaller heat exchangers to produce a reference power output of 1 kW. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Soeiro T.B.,ETH Zurich | Petry C.A.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Fagundes J.C.D.S.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Barbi I.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics | Year: 2011

The focus of this paper is the study of direct alternating-current (ac)ac converters, beginning by buck, half-bridge, full-bridge, and pushpull converters. From the basic converters, we apply a simple methodology to make the use of switches in commercial configurations possible. Following that, eight voltage restorers supplied either on the line side or on the load side are proposed. A comparative evaluation of these topologies concerning implementation, complexity, and component effort is presented. It is notable that some of the studied topologies are known in the literature and others are new. For one of the presented topologies, the design of a 3-kVA voltage restorer is developed, and experimental results are shown, certifying the correct operation of the drive strategy used. © 2006 IEEE.

Almeida K.C.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Senna F.S.,Operador Nacional do Sistema Eletrico ONS
IEEE Transactions on Power Systems | Year: 2011

This paper proposes an active-reactive power dispatch procedure that is expressed via a bilevel optimization problem whose upper and lower level criteria are, respectively, the minimum opportunity cost and minimum offered price of active power. It analyzes the impact of minimizing such criteria on system operation, and it investigates the behavior of marginal prices and opportunity costs and their use in mechanisms to compensate generators for power provision. The bilevel problem is solved using a version of interior point methods derived for mathematical programs with complementarity constraints. Results obtained with three test systems are analyzed. © 2006 IEEE.

Parreira W.D.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Bermudez J.C.M.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Richard C.,University of Nice Sophia Antipolis | Tourneret J.-Y.,French National Center for Scientific Research
IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing | Year: 2012

The kernel least-mean-square (KLMS) algorithm is a popular algorithm in nonlinear adaptive filtering due to its simplicity and robustness. In kernel adaptive filters, the statistics of the input to the linear filter depends on the parameters of the kernel employed. Moreover, practical implementations require a finite nonlinearity model order. A Gaussian KLMS has two design parameters, the step size and the Gaussian kernel bandwidth. Thus, its design requires analytical models for the algorithm behavior as a function of these two parameters. This paper studies the steady-state behavior and the transient behavior of the Gaussian KLMS algorithm for Gaussian inputs and a finite order nonlinearity model. In particular, we derive recursive expressions for the mean-weight-error vector and the mean-square-error. The model predictions show excellent agreement with Monte Carlo simulations in transient and steady state. This allows the explicit analytical determination of stability limits, and gives opportunity to choose the algorithm parameters a priori in order to achieve prescribed convergence speed and quality of the estimate. Design examples are presented which validate the theoretical analysis and illustrates its application. © 1991-2012 IEEE.

Gracioli G.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Frohlich A.A.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Pellizzoni R.,University of Waterloo | Fischmeister S.,University of Waterloo
Real-Time Systems | Year: 2013

In this work, we provide an experimental comparison between Global-EDF and Partitioned-EDF, considering the run-time overhead of a real-time operating system (RTOS). Recent works have confirmed that OS implementation aspects, such as the choice of scheduling data structures and interrupt handling mechanisms, impact real-time schedulability as much as scheduling theoretic aspects. However, these studies used real-time patches applied into a general-purpose OS. By measuring the run-time overhead of an RTOS designed from scratch, we show how close the schedulability ratio of task sets is to the theoretical hard real-time schedulability tests. Moreover, we show how a well-designed object-oriented RTOS allows code reuse of scheduling components (e.g., thread, scheduling criteria, and schedulers) and easy real-time scheduling extensions. We compare our RTOS to a real-time patch for Linux in terms of the task set schedulability ratio of several generated task sets. In some cases, Global-EDF considering the overhead of the RTOS is superior to Partitioned-EDF considering the overhead of the patched Linux, which clearly shows how different OSs impact hard real-time schedulers. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Mohedano R.A.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Costa R.H.R.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Tavares F.A.,Brazilian Company of Agricultural and Livestock Research EMBRAPA | Belli Filho P.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2012

Duckweed ponds have been successfully used in swine waste polishing, generating a biomass with high protein content. Therefore, the present study evaluated the efficiency of two full-scale duckweed ponds considering nutrient recovery from a piggery farm effluent (produced by 300 animals), as well as the biomass yield and crude protein (CP) content. A significant improvement in the effluent quality was observed, with the removal of 98.0% of the TKN (Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen) and 98.8% of the TP (Total Phosphorous), on average. The observed nitrogen removal rate is one of the highest reported (4.4g/m 2day of TKN). Additionally, the dissolved oxygen level rose from 0.0 to 3.0mg/L, on average. The two ponds together produced over 13tons of biomass (68t/hayear of dry biomass), with 35% crude protein content. Because of the excellent nutrient removal and protein biomass production, the duckweed ponds revealed a great potential for the polishing and valorisation of swine waste, under the presented conditions. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Heldwein M.L.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Ertl H.,Vienna University of Technology | Biela J.,ETH Zurich | Kolar J.W.,ETH Zurich
IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics | Year: 2010

This paper presents a study and practical implementation of an active filter employing a high-frequency (HF) power amplifier and passive-filter components to be connected to the ac power lines in order to mitigate common-mode conducted emissions of three-phase pulsewidth modulation converter systems. The filter topology is chosen from different possibilities listed in a literature survey and studied regarding practical implementation issues, where requirements for an HF power amplifier to be applied in active filtering are derived. Special attention is put on the stability analysis where the challenges for the feedback are discussed, and a simple feedback structure is proposed. Other feedback concepts are analyzed, and limitations posed by stability requirements are presented. A prototype is designed and built, from which mathematical and experimental results are obtained demonstrating the potential and limitations of such a system. © 2006 IEEE.

Salmoria G.V.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Paggi R.A.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Lago A.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Beal V.E.,Servio
Polymer Testing | Year: 2011

To determine the potential properties of commercial polyamide 12 (PA12) used in the selective laser sintering (SLS) process, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were dispersed in the polyamide powder by mechanical mixing to prepare a composite (PA/MWCNTs). Specimens of PA12 and PA/MWCNTs were manufactured by the SLS process. Infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and dynamic mechanical analysis were used to assess the structural and mechanical properties of the materials. Stress-strain tests showed higher values for flexural modulus and ultimate strength for the composite when compared to PA12 specimens. Changes in the viscoelastic properties suggest intermolecular interaction between the PA12 and MWCNTs. Fatigue tests show an improvement in the composite strength with the addition of MWCNTs, retarding the creep failure mechanism. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Dupin E.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Calloni G.W.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Calloni G.W.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Le Douarin N.M.,French National Center for Scientific Research
Cell Cycle | Year: 2010

In the amniote embryo, the neural crest (NC) has the unique capacity to give rise to neuronal and glial cells in the peripheral nervous system (PNS), melanocytes and mesenchymal cells including those forming the head skeleton and connective tissues. In the trunk, mesenchymal cells are derived from the mesoderm. The question was raised whether the NC-derived head mesenchyme arises from a lineage separate from the neuralmelanocytic one, or if both skeletogenic and neural-melanocytic derivatives originate from a common putative stem cell in the early cephalic NC. We discuss here these issues and present experimental data that provide evidence for the multipotency of NC cells (NCC), focusing on those at the origin of the craniofacial skeleton. Recent work of in vitro clonal culture revealed that the vast majority (92% of clonogenic cells) of the cephalic quail NCC are capable to yield osteo-blasts together with neurones, glial cells and melanocytes. A common pluripotent progenitor for chondrocytes, osteocytes, neurones, glial cells, melanocytes and myofibroblasts has been identified and is present in the early cephalic NC at the frequency of 7 to 13% of clonogenic cells depending on the environmental conditions. Together with recent reports that multipotent NC-related progenitors persist in adult tissues in rodents and humans, these results reinforce a stem cell model for the generation and maintenance of NC-derived lineages during embryogenesis and in adult tissue homeostasis. © 2010 Landes Bioscience.

Brunelli J.C.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Sakovich S.,National Academy of Sciences of Belarus
Journal of Mathematical Physics | Year: 2013

We obtain the bi-Hamiltonian structure for some of the two-component short pulse equations proposed in the literature to generalize the original short pulse equation when polarized pulses propagate in anisotropic media. © 2013 American Institute of Physics.

Heldwein M.L.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Dalessandro L.,ALSTOMPower Thermal Products Turbogenerators | Kolar J.W.,ETH Zurich
IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics | Year: 2011

This paper presents a comprehensive physical characterization and modeling of the three-phase common-mode (CM) inductors along with the equivalent circuits that are relevant for their design. Modeling issues that are treated sparsely in previous literature are explained in this paper, and novel insightful aspects are presented. The calculation of the leakage inductance is reviewed, along with the magnetic core saturation issues, and a new expression for the leakage flux path is derived. The influence of the core material characteristics on the performance of the component is discussed, and a new method for the selection of the material for the minimized volume CM inductors is proposed in order to simplify the design procedure. Experimental results which validate the model are presented. © 2009 IEEE.

Choo K.,University of Maryland University College | Galante R.M.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Ohadi M.M.,University of Maryland University College
Energy and Buildings | Year: 2014

Experimental, numerical, and simulation studies were performed to evaluate the energy efficiency performance, develop energy conservation measures (ECMs), and conduct overall energy analysis of a medium-size data center at the campus of the University of Maryland, College Park. Based on the analysis, the PUE (power usage effectiveness) of the data center was found to be 2.73, suggesting ample opportunity for energy saving measures. The IT, cooling, and electrical loads consume 36.6%, 32.9%, and 21.7% of the total data center energy consumption, respectively. Four ECMs are suggested to reduce energy consumption by optimizing the thermo-fluid flow in the data center: (1) eliminate unnecessary CRACs (computer room air conditioning units); (2) increase the return air temperature at the CRACs; (3) add cold aisle containment; (4) implement fresh air cooling. In addition, a transient analysis was performed under a total power failure scenario of all cooling systems, as well as failure of individual CRACs as a separate analysis, to predict the corresponding temperature increase with time in the data center and electronics. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Mazzarino L.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Borsali R.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Lemos-Senna E.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences | Year: 2014

Mucoadhesive films containing curcumin-loaded nanoparticles were developed, aiming to prolong the residence time of the dosage form in the oral cavity and to increase drug absorption through the buccal mucosa. Films were prepared by the casting method after incorporation of curcumin-loaded chitosan-coated polycaprolactone nanoparticles into plasticized chitosan solutions. Different molar masses of mucoadhesive polysaccharide chitosan and concentrations of plasticizer glycerol were used to optimize the preparation conditions. Films obtained using medium and high molar mass chitosan were found to be homogeneous and flexible. Curcumin-loaded nanoparticles were uniformly distributed on the film surface, as evidenced by atomic force microscopy and high-resolution field-emission gun scanning electron microscopy (FEG-SEM) images. Analyses of film cross sections using FEG-SEM demonstrate the presence of nanoparticles inside the films. In addition, films proved to have a good rate of hydration in simulated saliva solution, displaying a maximum swelling of around 80% and in vitro prolonged-controlled delivery of curcumin. These results indicate that the mucoadhesive films containing nanoparticles offer a promising approach for buccal delivery of curcumin, which may be particularly useful in the treatment of periodontal diseases that require a sustained drug delivery. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

Polian A.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Gauthier M.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Souza S.M.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Triches D.M.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | And 2 more authors.
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2011

A structural peculiarity of the electronic topological transition (ETT) occurring within the pressure stability range of the low-pressure rhombohedral phase I has been evidenced in Bi2Te3. On both sides of the ETT the structure remains unchanged. Nevertheless, precise investigation of x-ray diffraction patterns allows us to conclude that this ETT obeys the lamellar character of this compound but in a counterintuitive way. Indeed, the signature of this ETT can be detected only in the layers' plane in the pressure variation of the lattice parameter a with a 25% increase of the lattice modulus and a 68% decrease of its pressure derivative. On the contrary, no singularity occurs perpendicularly to the layers of the Bi2Te3 structure. © 2011 American Physical Society.

This qualitative study sought to analyze the meanings attributed to domestic violence against the elderly by professionals in Primary Healthcare. A total of 10 health professionals from different backgrounds from a renowned health unit for care of the elderly took part, and the data was collected through semi-structured interviews. Taking the Grounded Theory as a benchmark, the data were integrated and organized into categories, subcategories and elements of analysis. The results revealed the participants' expectation that the family acts as support and protection for the elderly and that domestic violence violates this principle. The significance of abuse of the elder was found to be grounded in the idea "of the frail and dependent elderly person," limiting the viewing of cases that do not fit this profile.

Brunelli J.C.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Sakovich S.,National Academy of Sciences of Belarus
Physics Letters, Section A: General, Atomic and Solid State Physics | Year: 2012

We show how the Yao-Zeng system of coupled short-pulse equations is related to the original short-pulse equation and obtain the correct zero-curvature representation of the Yao-Zeng system via this relationship. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Mattila K.K.,University of Jyväskylä | Mattila K.K.,Tampere University of Technology | Hegele L.A.,Santa Catarina State University | Philippi P.C.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Physical Review E - Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics | Year: 2015

The lattice-Boltzmann (LB) method is commonly used for the simulation of fluid flows at the hydrodynamic level of description. Due to its kinetic theory origins, the standard LB schemes carry more degrees of freedom than strictly needed, e.g., for the approximation of solutions to the Navier-stokes equation. In particular, there is freedom in the details of the so-called collision operator. This aspect was recently utilized when an entropic stabilizer, based on the principle of maximizing local entropy, was proposed for the LB method [I. V. Karlin, F. Bösch, and S. S. Chikatamarla, Phys. Rev. E 90, 031302(R) (2014)PLEEE81539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.90.031302]. The proposed stabilizer can be considered as an add-on or extension to basic LB schemes. Here the entropic stabilizer is investigated numerically using the perturbed double periodic shear layer flow as a benchmark case. The investigation is carried out by comparing numerical results obtained with six distinct LB schemes. The main observation is that the unbounded, and not explicitly controllable, relaxation time for the higher-order moments will directly influence the leading-order error terms. As a consequence, the order of accuracy and, in general, the numerical behavior of LB schemes are substantially altered. Hence, in addition to systematic numerical validation, more detailed theoretical analysis of the entropic stabilizer is still required in order to properly understand its properties. © 2015 American Physical Society.

News Article | January 25, 2016
Site: cen.acs.org

Bacha Khan University chemistry professor Syed Hamid Hussain and undergraduate student Sajid Hussain were among the people killed in a terrorist attack at the school in northwest Pakistan on Jan. 20. The assault involved four gunmen and was orchestrated by a Pakistani Taliban militant based in Afghanistan, Reuters reported on Jan. 23. Because of concern about terrorist attacks, university faculty had requested and received permission to carry handguns, Syed Hamid Hussain told former labmate and friend Jamal Rafique last year. When the Jan. 20 attack occurred, Syed used his handgun to defend faculty and students before he was killed, Bacha Khan chemistry department chair Zarbad Shah says. Syed received an M.S. and Ph.D. from the University of Peshawar, where he worked with chemical sciences professor Mohammad Arfan on phytochemistry research. “He always loved chemistry, and we were always staying late in lab for research work,” says Rafique, who also worked in Arfan’s lab in Peshawar and is now a postdoctoral fellow at the Federal University of Santa Catarina in Brazil. “He was extremely devoted in teaching and research, always helped students and common individuals, and was an extremely honest and polite person,” Rafique adds. “I lost the most precious and dearest friend.” Syed joined the faculty at Bacha Khan University in 2013 and continued to study phytochemicals. “He was very friendly with students and very cooperative with his colleagues, Shah says. “He was also a very good experimentalist and a good researcher.” Sajid Hussain, who is not related to Syed, was in his final year as a chemistry major at Bacha Khan University. He was famous at the school for writing “Sajid Chemist” on his table in the student residence and to identify his lab space, Shah says. “He was very keen on research” and was working with Shah on a research project to synthesize calcium complexes with N-donor organic ligands, Shah says. Sajid had just finished exams and was starting to focus on his research work on the day that he was killed, Shah says.

Nardi G.M.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Nardi G.M.,University of West Santa Catarina | Scheschowitsch K.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Ammar D.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | And 3 more authors.
Critical Care Medicine | Year: 2014

OBJECTIVE: Vascular dysfunction plays a central role in sepsis, and it is characterized by hypotension and hyporesponsiveness to vasoconstrictors. Nitric oxide is regarded as a central element of sepsis vascular dysfunction. The high amounts of nitric oxide produced during sepsis are mainly derived from the inducible isoform of nitric oxide synthase 2. We have previously shown that nitric oxide synthase 2 levels decrease in later stages of sepsis, whereas levels and activity of soluble guanylate cyclase increase. Therefore, we studied the putative role of other relevant nitric oxide sources, namely, the neuronal (nitric oxide synthase 1) isoform, in sepsis and its relationship with soluble guanylate cyclase. We also studied the consequences of nitric oxide synthase 1 blockade in the hyporesponsiveness to vasoconstrictors. DESIGN: Randomized controlled prospective experimental study. SETTING: Academic research laboratory. SUBJECTS: Female Wistar rats submitted to cecal ligation and puncture method. INTERVENTIONS: 1) Six, 12, and 24 hours after cecal ligation and puncture, vascular reactivity to phenylephrine (3 and 30 nmol/kg) before and after 7-nitroindazole (45 μmol/kg, s.c.) or aminoguanidine (30 μmol/kg, s.c.) administration was evaluated. 2) Protein levels and interaction between nitric oxide synthase 1 and soluble guanylate cyclase were determined. 3) Six, 12, and 24 hours after cecal ligation and puncture, thoracic aorta segments were stimulated with phenylephrine in the presence or absence of 7-nitroindazole and cyclic guanosine monophosphate accumulation was determined. 4) After 24 hours of cecal ligation and puncture, norepinephrine was infused (10 μg/kg/min) in the presence or absence of 7-nitroindazole or S-methyl-L- thiocitrulline (1 μmol/kg, IV) and mean arterial pressure was registered. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: 1) Both nitric oxide synthase 1 and soluble guanylate cyclase are expressed in higher levels in vascular tissues during sepsis; 2) both proteins physically interact and nitric oxide synthase 1 blockade inhibits cyclic guanosine monophosphate production; 3) pharmacological blockade of nitric oxide synthase 1 using 7-nitroindazole or S-methyl- L-thiocitrulline reverts the hyporesponsiveness to phenylephrine and increases the vasoconstrictor effect of norepinephrine and phenylephrine. CONCLUSIONS: Sepsis induces increased expression and physical association of nitric oxide synthase 1/soluble guanylate cyclase and a higher production of cyclic guanosine monophosphate that together may help explain sepsis-induced vascular dysfunction. In addition, selective inhibition of nitric oxide synthase 1 restores the responsiveness to vasoconstrictors. Therefore, inhibition of nitric oxide synthase 1 (and possibly soluble guanylate cyclase) may represent a valuable alternative to restore the effectiveness of vasopressor agents during late sepsis. © 2014 by the Society of Critical Care Medicine and Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Ferreira M.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Sa M.M.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Advanced Synthesis and Catalysis | Year: 2015

A simple and efficient protocol was developed for the synthesis of 2-iminothiazolidines through a base-mediated [3+2] annulation involving substituted thioureas and allylic bromides bearing electron-withdrawing groups. This domino process consists of nucleophilic displacement, followed by intramolecular anti-Michael addition of the preformed allylic isothiourea under mild conditions to give the thiazolidine core. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Sinha A.K.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Journal of Circuits, Systems and Computers | Year: 2016

This paper presents design and measurement results of a DC–DC converter, intended to harvest energy from a thermo-electric generator (TEG). The prototype chip was fabricated in 130(Formula presented.)nm CMOS technology. The designed converter can extract maximum power from a TEG, without using an input capacitor ((Formula presented.) or a closed loop maximum peak power tracking circuit to regulate the input voltage ((Formula presented.). The converter uses a low voltage oscillator coupled with charge pump to directly power the auxiliary circuits; and auxiliary circuits drives two inductors in two half cycles of a clock pulse. The measurement has been performed by using a TEG, and a voltage source (50–200(Formula presented.)mV) with a series resistance of 5(Formula presented.)ohms. The result shows that the prototype can self-starts from 70(Formula presented.)mV with 5(Formula presented.)ms startup time and can work up to a minimum of 50(Formula presented.)mV; and can extract, 57.2% (at 50(Formula presented.)mV) to 65% (at 200(Formula presented.)mV), of the available power. © 2017 World Scientific Publishing Company

The Glomerella leaf spot (GLS) is an emerging disease and has become a major concern to Brazilian apple producers because the most widely grown cultivar, 'Gala', is highly susceptible to the disease. So, this study aimed to investigate the early stages of infectious process of C. gloeosporioides, and understand the role of peroxidase (POD) and β -1,3-glucanases (GLU) in susceptible ('Gala') and resistant ('Fuji') apple seedling genotypes. Seedlings (75 days-old) were inoculated with C. gloeosporioides and the severity of GLS was assessed at 10 days after inoculation. Conidial germination and appressoria formation of C. gloeosporioides were evaluated at 24, 48 and 72 hours after inoculation. Enzyme activity for POD and GLU were also determined at the same time interval. Seedlings of the resistant genotype did not show symptoms of GLS, whereas the susceptible genotype exhibited 11% of necrotic leaf area. The early penetration events of C. gloeosporioides were similar in both genotypes. Cultivar-specific resistance was associated with an enhanced POD activity, while GLU activity was similar in both genotypes. Copyright by the Brazilian Phytopathological Society. Printed in Brazil.

Venturieri G.A.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | de Arbieto E.A.M.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Acta Scientiarum - Agronomy | Year: 2011

Eight substrates were evaluated for ex-vitro establishment of Phalaenopsis amabilis seedlings. They were: Fibraflor® (commercial substrate), Turfa Fértil FG2® (commercial substrate), vermiculite, coconut fiber from the pericarp, decomposed pine bark, organic compost, sphagnum and shredded xaxim, in the establishment of seedlings of Phalaenopsis amabilis L., in combination, with and without immersion of the seedlings, after they were removed from the growth flasks, in Manzate 800 at a dosage of 1 g L1. The evaluated parameters were: the sum of the lengths of the two largest leaves, the sum of the lengths of the three largest roots and the percentage of surviving seedlings, evaluated at 190 days after planting. It was observed that there were significant differences between substrates, and sphagnum and shredded xaxim were the best in performance. The application of Manzate 800 showed interaction with substrates, but the isolated effect was not significant. Sphagnum is also an extractive product, but when it is impossible to obtain, an organic compost such as Turfa Fértil FG2® or Fibraflor® can be used, with the necessary application of Manzate 800.

Pelegrini A.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Petroski E.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Human Movement | Year: 2010

Purpose. This study analyzes the association between body dissatisfaction and nutritional status in adolescents. Basic Procedures. The study enrolled 234 boys and 442 girls. Information was collected on body image and anthropometry performed. Nutritional status was stratified into two categories: healthy (BMI: 18.5-25.0 kg/m2) and unhealthy (BMI: <18.5 and >25.0 kg/m 2). Body image was coded as satisfied and dissatisfied. Main findings. It was found that 65.5% of adolescents were dissatisfied with their body image. While the girls wished to reduce their body silhouettes (48.4%), the boys wished to increase in size (51.3%). Unhealthy nutritional status was only associated with body dissatisfaction among the girls (95%CI = 1.35-3.43). Overweight girls were 11 times more likely to be dissatisfied with their bodies than normal weight girls. Conclusions. Nutritional status was a determinant factor for body dissatisfaction, primarily among female adolescents, since those whose nutritional status was unhealthy had different levels of dissatisfaction from those with healthy BMI.

Martins M.L.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Shoemaker C.A.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Xu D.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Klesius P.H.,U.S. Department of Agriculture
Aquaculture | Year: 2011

Limited information is available on vaccine performance in parasitized fish. The objective of this study was to determine if parasitism of fish affected vaccine efficacy. Antibody level, hematology and survival of Nile tilapia vaccinated with a modified S. iniae bacterin were compared among non-parasitized fish, fish parasitized by Trichodina heterodentata and Gyrodactylus cichlidarum, and fish parasitized by T. heterodentata, G. cichlidarum and Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ich). Among vaccinated fish, fish free from parasites (Trichodina, Gyrodactylus and Ich) had the highest antibody level (0.43, SE = 0.14). Significantly (p < 0.05) lower anti- S. iniae antibody was noted in parasitized vaccinated fish (0.30, SE = 0.08). Among the vaccinated treatments, fish parasitized by Trichodina, Gyrodactylus and Ich showed the lowest survival (80.0%, SE = 10.0), significantly (p < 0.05) lower than vaccinated fish free from parasites (97.5%, SE = 2.5) or parasitized by Trichodina and Gyrodactylus (95.0%, SE = 5.0). Following challenge with S. iniae, non-vaccinated fish free from parasites showed the higher survival (47.5%, SE = 2.5) than non-vaccinated fish parasitized by Trichodina and Gyrodactylus (37.5%, SE = 2.5). Non-vaccinated fish parasitized by all 3 parasites showed the lowest survival (27.5%, SE = 2.5) post challenge. Relative percent survival (RPS) demonstrated a decrease in vaccine performance for the group of fish that were parasitized with Trichodina and Gyrodactylus and Ich. RPS was 72% compared to 95 and 92%, respectively, in the other vaccinated treatments following challenge. This study demonstrated a reduction in vaccine performance in parasitized tilapia and highlights the importance of monitoring or controlling parasite levels in the aquaculture setting to optimize vaccine efficacy. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Avancini S.S.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Barros C.C.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Menezes D.P.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Providencia C.,University of Coimbra
Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics | Year: 2010

The effects of the α particles in nuclear matter at low densities are investigated within three different parametrizations of relativistic models at finite temperature. Both homogeneous and inhomogeneous matter (pasta phase) are described for neutral nuclear matter with fixed proton fractions and stellar matter subject to β equilibrium and trapped neutrinos. In homogeneous matter, α particles are present only at densities below 0.02 fm -3 and their presence decreases with increase of the temperature and, for a fixed temperature, the α particle fraction decreases for smaller proton fractions. A repulsive interaction is important to mimic the dissolution of the clusters in homogeneous matter. The effect of the α particles on the pasta structure is very small except close to the critical temperatures and/or proton fractions, when it may still predict a pasta phase while no pasta phase would occur in the absence of light clusters. It is shown that for densities above 0.01 fm3 the α-particle fraction in the pasta phase is much larger than that in homogeneous matter. © 2010 The American Physical Society.

Paduani C.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy | Year: 2014

The structure and electronic properties of sodium and magnesium aluminohydrides (alanates) and borohydrides (boranates) are systematically investigated in first-principles calculations using density functional theory. A study of the result of successive attachments of AlH4 and BH4 complexes to Na and Mg reveals superhalogen behavior for the clusters Na(AlH4)2, Na(BH4)2, Mg(AlH4)3 and Mg(BH4)3, whose electron affinities are 4.93 eV, 5.07 eV, 5.20 eV and 5.13 eV, respectively, which far exceed that of chlorine (3.6 eV). The energetics of the H-removal from these clusters is also investigated and the results show that the hydrogen release is substantially less energy demanding for the superhalogen moieties. The energy cost for H-removal decreases from 3.72 eV in Na(AlH4) to 0.49 eV in Na(AlH4)2, and from 4.63 eV in Mg(BH4)2 to 0.37 eV in Mg(BH4)3. For the closed shell clusters, the alanates have superior performance with respect to the release of hydrogen as compared with the boranates. For the superhalogens, the energy cost for H-removal from Na(AlH4)2 is half of that one for the Na(BH4)2 cluster, whereas for the Mg clusters Mg(AlH4)3 and Mg(BH4)3 it is nearly equivalent (0.41 eV and 0.37 eV, respectively). This arises from the formation of an insurgent dimerized unit where the H atoms exhibit considerable loss of bonding charge. © 2014 Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC.

Grill F.,University of Coimbra | Providencia C.,University of Coimbra | Avancini S.S.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics | Year: 2012

The cell structure of clusters in the inner crust of a cold β-equilibrium neutron star is studied within a Thomas-Fermi approach and compared with other approaches that include shell effects. Relativistic nuclear models are considered. We conclude that the symmetry energy slope L may have quite dramatic effefcts on the cell structure if it is very large or small. Rodlike and slablike pasta clusters have been obtained in all models except one with a large slope L. © 2012 American Physical Society.

De Figueiredo Locks G.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Revista Brasileira de Anestesiologia | Year: 2012

Background and objectives: Shivering is a cause of discomfort and dissatisfaction in patients undergoing cesarean section. The objective of this study paper was to assess the impact of intrathecal administration of sufentanil on the incidence of shivering after cesarean section. Method: In a prospective blinded, randomized clinical trial, pregnant women undergoing cesarean section under spinal anesthesia were enrolled. Pregnant women in labor, febrile, obese, with pregnancy-induced hypertension, anesthetic block failure or surgical complications were excluded. Patients were randomly assigned to two groups. In Group I, 10. mg of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine combined with 80. mcg of morphine and 2.5. mcg of sufentanil were administered. In Group II, 10. mg of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine combined with 80. mcg of morphine were administered. In the post-anesthesia care unit, patients were evaluated for signs of shivering by an investigator blinded to the patient's group allocation. Results: The sample consisted of 80 patients. In both groups there was a decrease in axillary temperature of patients after cesarean section (p. < 0.001). This decrease was not different between groups (p. < 0.21). In Group I, the incidence of tremor was 32.5% (13/40) and in Group II it was 62.5% (25/40) (p. < 0.007); RR 0.53 (CI 95% 0.32-0.87). Conclusions: It has been suggested that the addition of sufentanil to hyperbaric bupivacaine and morphine during spinal anesthesia for cesarean section provides a decrease in the incidence of shivering in the immediate postoperative period. © 2012 Elsevier Editora Ltda.

That was a convergent-care study, carried out in a maternity ward in the Southern Region of Brazil from April to May 2009, with the purpose to comprehend the meanings of premature mother-child skin-to-skin contact and relevant nursing contributions. Data were collected through participant observation and interviews involving nine mothers. Four categories were identified: a) predelivery orientation surrounding premature mother-child skin-to-skin contact; b) establishing premature mother-child skin-to-skin contact; c) meanings of premature mother-child skin-to-skin contact for the mother; and d) nursing contributions in establishing premature mother-child skin-to-skin contact. It was concluded that the meanings of premature mother-child skin-to-skin contact attributed by these mothers is positive, and that nursing's contribution in establishing such contact is significant.

Brehmer L.C.F.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Verdi M.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Ciencia e Saude Coletiva | Year: 2010

This article identifies and analyses the ethical implications originated from the daily activities of user embracement in basic health units and its implications on the Health Care of the users of the Brazilian Unified Health System. It's a qualitative study of exploitative descriptive design which took place in 5 basic health unit from city's health system of an important city in the state of Santa Catarina (Brazil); 26 individuals have been interviewed, among them are managers, health employees and users. Analyzed in the light of the references of the daily bioethics' and protection bioethics' approaches, the embracement in the cases studied revealed contexts filled with ethical conflicts which emerge from routine activities in health care, showing technical and conceptual distancing, as well as structural limitations. The user's statements pointed out outstanding differences between the users desire to feel embraced respectfully and having their needs accomplished and the frustrating experiences they experienced in the basic health units' daily routine, which reveal situations of exclusion and denial on what concerns to the right to health. The results represent a setback in the implementation of this practice in accordance with the principles of universality in the access, integrality in care and the guarantee of the right to health.

Merlini C.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Soldi V.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Barra G.M.O.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Polymer Testing | Year: 2011

The growing global concern in relation to the environment and the preservation of non-renewable natural resources has attracted researchers in different areas seeking to develop new eco-friendly materials and products based on sustainability principles. In this context, the use of plant fibers and polyurethane derived from castor oil in polymeric composites has been shown to be a good alternative. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the fiber volume fraction, fiber length and alkaline treatment on the mechanical and thermal properties of short random banana fiber reinforced polyurethane derived from castor oil. The banana fibers were chemically modified through contact with 10 wt.% sodium hydroxide solutions for 1 h and characterized through Fourier transformed infrared spectrometry (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), tensile strength and density measurements. Through the FTIR spectra and SEM micrographs, modifications in the chemical structure and morphology of the treated fibers were observed compared with untreated fibers. Polymeric composites with different fiber volume fractions and lengths were prepared through the hand lay-up process followed by compression molding at room temperature. The composites were analyzed by SEM, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), FTIR spectrometry, tensile strength and pull-out tests. The tensile strength and Young's modulus increased with increasing fiber volume fraction and length for the untreated and treated banana fiber polyurethane composites. On the other hand, the treated banana fiber composites displayed higher tensile strength and Young's modulus values than the untreated fiber composites, due to the stronger interfacial interactions between the treated fibers and the polyurethane matrix. These effects occurred due to the morphological and chemical changes in the treated fiber surfaces which promote better adhesion between the fibers and the polyurethane matrix. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Cavagnoli R.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Cavagnoli R.,University of Coimbra | Menezes D.P.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Providencia C.,University of Coimbra
Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics | Year: 2011

The effect of the symmetry energy on the properties of compact stars is discussed. It is shown that, for stars with masses above 1M, the radius of the star varies linearly with the symmetry energy slope L. We also analyze the dependence of the hyperon content and onset density of the direct Urca process on the symmetry energy and meson coupling parametrization. © 2011 American Physical Society.

Purin S.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Morton J.B.,West Virginia University
Mycologia | Year: 2013

The life history of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF, Glomeromycota) consists of a short asymbiotic phase when spores germinate and a longer symbiotic phase where hyphae form a network within roots and subsequently in the rhizosphere. Hyphal anastomosis contributes to colony formation, yet this process has been studied mostly in the asymbiotic phase rather than in mycorrhizal plants because of methodological limitations. We sought to compare patterns of anastomosis during each phase of fungal growth by measuring hyphal fusions in genetically identical and different single spore isolates of Rhizophagus clarus from different environments and geographic locations. These isolates were genotyped with two anonymous markers of microsatellite-flanking regions. Anastomosis of hyphae from germinating spores was examined in axenic Petri dishes. A rhizohyphatron consisting of agar-coated glass slides bridging single or paired mycorrhizal sorghum plants allowed evaluation of anastomosis of symbiotic hyphae. Anastomosis of hyphae within a colony, defined here as a mycelium from an individual germinating spore or from mycorrhizal roots of one plant, occurred with similar frequencies (8-38%). However, anastomosis between paired colonies was observed in germinating spores from either genetically identical or different isolates, but it was never detected in symbiotic hyphae. The frequency of anastomosis in asymbiotic hyphae from paired interactions was low, occurring in fewer than 6% of hyphal contacts. These data suggest that anastomosis is relatively unconstrained when interactions occur within a colony but is confined to asymbiotic hyphae when interactions occur between paired colonies. This pattern of behavior suggests that asymbiotic and symbiotic phases of mycelium development by R. clarus may differ in function. Anastomosis in the asymbiotic phase may provide brief opportunities for gene flow between populations of this and possibly other AMF species. © 2013 by The Mycological Society of America.

Becker Arenhart J.R.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Foundations of Physics | Year: 2011

Quasi-set theory Q is an alternative set-theory designed to deal mathematically with collections of indistinguishable objects. The intended interpretation for those objects is the indistinguishable particles of non-relativistic quantum mechanics, under one specific interpretation of that theory. The notion of cardinal of a collection in Q is treated by the concept of quasi-cardinal, which in the usual formulations of the theory is introduced as a primitive symbol, since the usual means of cardinal definition fail for collections of indistinguishable objects. In a recent work, Domenech and Holik have proposed a definition of quasi-cardinality in Q. They claimed their definition of quasi-cardinal not only avoids the introduction of that notion as a primitive one, but also that it may be seen as a first step in the search for a version of Q that allows for a greater representative power. According to them, some physical systems can not be represented in the usual formulations of the theory, when the quasi-cardinal is considered as primitive. In this paper, we discuss their proposal and aims, and also, it is presented a modification from their definition we believe is simpler and more general. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

It is an experience report developed next to nurses of a public hospital of Florianópolis-SC, about pain measurement of cancer patient in palliative cares. A total of six nurses had participated of six meeting distributed at three educative moments of this practical. The analysis of undertaken dialogue evidenced that, for the nurses, measurable and objective data are not only enough to measure pain. According to them, it is imperative consider biopsicosociais aspects, valuing integrally the pain that the patient relates. The concluding nurses detach that she has necessity to construct a pain measurement systematization to allow strengthens the importance of pain control to base the practical one, make possible the register of information and the continued education.

Pereima R.S.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Revista brasileira de enfermagem | Year: 2010

The article offers a reflection of blood donation in an hemocenter of Santa Catarina, with a mechanic and organic solidarity approach. It discuss the way of life in contemporary globalization and the cult of speed in a context pervaded by uncertainties and adversities. People live in a fast world, making social interaction difficult, contributing to the weakening of values and attitudes that could improve the quality of life. Considering the difficulties of everyday contemporary society, concerning Brazilian hemotherapy history on blood donation, there is a perception that attitudes and values, such as solidarity, have been modifying in subtle ways with a background of current events. It searches for understanding of blood donation as mechanic and organic solidarity.

This article refers to the research discussion based on methodology of content analysis, which aims at making explicit the horizon of rationality of the services provided for alcohol users and other drugs in the Great Florianópolis region, to contribute to the establishment of qualitative parameters in the evaluation of health services. It was verified that there is a hegemonic conception about the drugs dependence phenomenon as well as the way to intervene in this phenomenon, synthesis of different and, sometimes, contradictory rationalities. The model of this conception is based on the notion of disease, on the pursue for abstinence, on the struggle to control de addiction, operating medical-therapeutic and moral apparatus. On the basis of this conception, there is a subjectivist, moralist and psychopathologizing perspective, constituting a historical and not very critical view of the social production around the use of drugs, grounded on a rationality of metaphysical predominance, even when blended with other rationalities such as the scientific. In this article we will discuss the importance of correlating the "horizon of rationality" in the health services with the problematic of effectiveness and efficiency of treatments on the area of drugs dependency.

Waterkemper R.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Revista gaúcha de enfermagem / EENFUFRGS | Year: 2010

The purpose of this study is to reveal nurses' ideas and contributions on the assessment of cancer patients' pain in palliative care through a proposal of work education based on Paul Freire's problematizing education theory. We used Juan Charles Maguerez's "problematization arc" as a strategy for data collection. The study included six nurses. The results pointed to three categories: (1) the meaning of pain, (2) the way pain assessment is practiced by nurses and (3) contributions to care. Cancer pain is a total pain. It exceeds the physical dimension of disease and extends to psychological and social dimensions. The deployment of systematic pain care routines, enclosed in the systematization of nursing care makes it possible to better redirect the actions, therefore achieving a most complete and effective pain management.

Mazo G.Z.,Santa Catarina State University | Benedetti T.R.B.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Revista Brasileira de Cineantropometria e Desempenho Humano | Year: 2010

The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) estimates the weekly energy expenditure for physical activities (PA). This instrument was validated for use with Brazilian older adults. The need to adapt the structure and application of the IPAQ arose from the difficulties of older adults to correctly measure the number of days, time and intensity of PA (domains) during a normal week and the difficulties encountered by the interviewers in field research. The adapted IPAQ consists of five domains and 15 questions and is applied by interview because of the low educational level of Brazilian older adults. The instrument is applied in its long form to permit better discrimination of PA in each domain and refers to a normal week to help recall morning, afternoon and evening activities. In addition, it includes details about mild, moderate and vigorous intensity. The training of the interviewers is fundamental. The report of the IPAQ adapted for older adults should be delivered in minutes per week and should use the classification active (≤ 150 min/week). The IPAQ adapted for older adults is an international instrument that is valid for the Brazilian elderly population. The instrument is a noninvasive easily applied method of low cost that reaches large population groups, among other advantages.

Menezes D.P.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Journal of Physics: Conference Series | Year: 2016

Hadron physics stands somewhere in the diffuse intersection between nuclear and particle physics and relies largely on the use of models. Historically, around 1930, the first nuclear physics models known as the liquid drop model and the semi-empirical mass formula established the grounds for the study of nuclei properties and nuclear structure. These two models are parameter dependent. Nowadays, around 500 hundred non-relativistic (Skyrme-type) and relativistic models are available in the literature and largely used and the vast majority are parameter dependent models. In this review I discuss some of the shortcomings of using non-relativistic models and the advantages of using relativistic ones when applying them to describe hadronic matter. I also show possible applications of relativistic models to physical situations that cover part of the QCD phase diagram: I mention how the description of compact objects can be done, how heavy-ion collisions can be investigated and particle fractions obtained and show the relation between liquid-gas phase transitions and the pasta phase. © Published under licence by IOP Publishing Ltd.

Marcal C.C.B.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Peres M.A.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Revista de Saude Publica | Year: 2011

Objective: To estimate the prevalence of self-reported voice problems and to identify associated factors. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in a sample of 393 public elementary and middle school teachers in Florianópolis, Southern Brazil, in 2009. A self-administered questionnaire was used. A multivariable Poisson regression model was performed to estimate prevalence ratios and their related 95% confi dence intervals. Results: The prevalence of voice problems was 47.6% (95%CI 42.6;52.5). In the fi nal adjusted analysis the following variables remained associated with a higher prevalence of voice problems: being female and the presence of rhinitis/sinusitis and pharyngitis. Conclusions: A high prevalence of self-reported voice problems was found among the teachers studied.

Zimmermann A.F.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Pizzichini M.M.M.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Revista Brasileira de Reumatologia | Year: 2013

Systemic Sclerosis (SSc) is an autoimmune disease of multifactorial etiology, triggered by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Its varied clinical expression results from the complex physiopathogenic interaction of three main elements: proliferative vasculopathy, immune dysregulation and abnormal deposition and remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM), of which the characteristic disease fibrosis is the result. Early physiopathogenic events appear to be endothelial injury and imbalance in vascular repair with the activation of endothelial cells, the immune system and platelets, with the release of multiple mediators such as TH2 proinflammatory cytokines and growth factors, triggering a sequence of simultaneous or cascading events that involve several intracellular signaling pathways. The most important result of these events is the hyperactivation of fibroblasts, the main effector cells of fibrosis, which will then produce large amounts of ECM constituents and secrete multiple growth factors and cytokines that perpetuate the process. In this article we review the main factors potentially involved in the etiology of SSc and reexamine the current knowledge about the most important mechanisms involved in the development of lesions that are characteristic of the disease. A better understanding of these physiopathogenic mechanisms will help identify potential therapeutic targets, which may result in advances in the management of this complex and debilitating disease. © 2013 Elsevier Editora Ltda.

von Keyserlingk M.A.G.,University of British Columbia | Hotzel M.J.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics | Year: 2014

Over the last decade many emerging economies, and in particular Brazil, have established themselves as major players in global food animal production. Within these countries much of the increase in food animal production has been achieved by the adoption of intensive housing systems similar to those found in most industrialized countries. However, it is now well established that many of these systems are associated with numerous welfare problems, particularly with respect to restriction of movement. Previous work has shown that people living in industrialized’ countries broadly support farm animal welfare reform, and that similar criticisms may be voiced from citizens living in developing countries as they become more aware of confinement housing and potentially contentious husbandry practices. Given the developments that have taken place in other countries, there are lessons that could be learned and applied by emerging economies that would undoubtedly ease or prevent the challenges observed in other countries. Thus, we briefly describe the vehicles used by different countries when addressing animal welfare that may provide insights into identifying possible challenges and potential solutions for Brazil and other emerging economies. Where available we review the associated science and identify gaps where more research is needed. We conclude by providing a possible roadmap on how farm animal welfare reform may be addressed in emerging countries. Solutions will need to be tailored, culturally relevant, and science must play a key role in supporting animal welfare reform in the emerging countries. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

De Oliveira P.F.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | MacHado R.A.F.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Bolzan A.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Barth D.,LRGP INPL
Journal of Supercritical Fluids | Year: 2012

This paper presents the results of the supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of Lippia dulcis, which has not yet been researched for this plant matrix. The SFE experiments were performed in a laboratory-scale pilot unit. Hydrodistillation was adopted as a method for comparison. Chromatographic analyses (GCMS, LCMS and HPLC) were performed to evaluate the composition of the extracts, indicating the presence of hernandulcin, a sesquiterpene of sweet flavor, and also of other compounds. The results indicated higher total extract yields in the SFE process (from 1.7 to 3.4%), for all parameters tested, in comparison to hydrodistillation (0.6%). The conditions of 14 MPa and 40 °C promoted the highest yield in the SFE process, but due to qualitative aspects of the extracts 12 MPa and 35 °C were selected as the most appropriate conditions for the SFE of L. dulcis. Qualitative GCMS results for the SFE extracts and hydrodistilled essential oil showed good agreement with the literature. The percentage of hernandulcin in the extracts obtained by supercritical fluid extraction (12 MPa/35 °C, 2.6 ± 0.1% total yield) was 41.9 ± 0.01% (mass of hernandulcin relative to the initial mass of extract in the sample). © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of asthma diagnosis in Brazilian children and to analyze socio-demographic inequalities between the South and Northeast regions of the country. Data for children under 10 years of age were analyzed from the 2003 National Household Sample Survey, or PNAD (n = 69,796). Socioeconomic characteristics, the child's gender and age, and the parent or guardian's skin color were the independent variables investigated through unconditional multiple logistic regression. Prevalence of asthma diagnosis was 8.5% in Brazil as a whole (95%CI: 7.7-8.5) and 12.6% (95%CI: 11.6- 13.5) and 4.4% (95%CI: 4.0-4.8) in the South and Northeast, respectively. After adjustment, children from 3 to 7 years of age and those from the poorest families were more likely to have an asthma diagnosis in both regions. Black skin color, crowding, and substandard housing were associated with asthma in the South. In the Northeast, children of parents with low schooling were less likely to present asthma. The inequalities were more evident in the South, suggesting variation in asthma determinants across the country.

Silveira B.M.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Gonzalez-Chica D.A.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Da Costa Proenca R.P.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Public Health Nutrition | Year: 2013

Objective: The present study investigated how trans-fat is reported on the packaging of foods sold in a Brazilian supermarket.Design: The present descriptive, cross-sectional study analysed the ingredient list, nutrition facts label and claims of no trans-fat on the packaging.Setting: A large supermarket in Florianópolis, Brazil.Subjects: All food products available at the supermarket.Results: Of the 2327 study products, more than half had components containing trans-fat in the ingredient list, especially hydrogenated vegetable fat and its alternative names. A small percentage of food products reported some trans-fat content on the nutrition facts label and roughly a quarter of the food products claimed to contain no trans-fat on the front of the packaging. There was very low agreement among the trans-fat content reported in the nutrition facts label, claims of no trans-fat made on the packaging and the ingredient list.Conclusions: There was low agreement among the different ways of reporting trans-fat, suggesting that it is not possible to rely on the nutrition facts label or no trans-fat claims printed on the packaging of Brazilian food products. Hence, the Brazilian legislation on food labels needs to change to improve the reliability of food labels and to help control the trans-fat intake of the population. Copyright © 2013 The Authors.

De Lima R.C.R.,Santa Catarina State University | Avancini S.S.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Providencia C.,University of Coimbra
Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics | Year: 2013

The effect of strong magnetic fields on the properties of the pasta structure is calculated within a Thomas-Fermi approach using relativistic mean-field models to modulate stellar matter. It is shown how quantities such as the size of the clusters and Wigner-Seitz cells, the surface tension, and the transition between configurations are affected. It is expected that these effects may give rise to large stresses in the pasta phase if the local magnetic field suffers fluctuations. © 2013 American Physical Society.

Marcelino L.F.,University of South Santa Catarina | Patricio Z.M.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Ciencia e Saude Coletiva | Year: 2011

The high incidence of obese people submitted to bariatric surgery as treatment for obesity has prompted the need to carry out a survey to ascertain the repercussions of this treatment on the health of a group of individuals subjected to such surgery. Data were collected via in-depth interviews, focusing on identification of the background to the situation that led to the decision to submit to obesity surgery and the quality of daily life after treatment. The analysis showed that the constant difficulties and frustrations in combating obesity and the expectation of the definitive cure led to the decision to submit to surgery in that group. However, life after surgery was characterized as a continuous process of challenges with further hurdles in order to learn how to live again on a day-to-day basis and return to full health. This also presents challenges for the health team as it involves greater investment in public health, improvement strategies for prevention and control of obesity of the population and comprehensive care actions for those individuals. Such complexity requires interdisciplinary expertise with an approach in line with the emotional and socio-cultural issues of this population group.

Kleine D.,Royal Holloway, University of London | Brightwell M.D.G.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Geoforum | Year: 2015

Ethical consumption is a vibrant field of research but suffers from both empirical and conceptual biases. Empirically, too much of the data is gathered in the global North, often framing a false binary in which consumption spaces are located in the global North while production takes place in the global South. Conceptually, there is a growing demand for researchers to move away from an emphasis on the individual consumer and instead focus on collective agency and structural change. This paper offers contributions to both of these frontiers of research. It reports on data on ethical consumption and public procurement, collected through the first ever large scale representative survey on procurement criteria and 16 focus groups in Brazil. It concretises these debates by focusing specifically on the pioneering Brazilian school meals policy which supports both "family farms" and organic modes of production at a massive scale, in providing meals to 43. million Brazilian children. Lessons learnt from the study include, firstly, the potential for successfully scaling up ethical consumption through public procurement; secondly, the way in which such scaling-up forces the public debate to engage with food production and consumption at a systemic level; and thirdly, how the systems-level debate leads to a repoliticisation of the discussion of the cultural, social, economic and environmental role of food and farming. The focus group discussions showed a high degree of support for the school meals policy, including from affluent citizens whose children would not benefit from the scheme. Surveys also showed strong support from Brazilian citizens for using environmental and social criteria in public procurement. © 2015.

Ritter D.E.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Dental Press Journal of Orthodontics | Year: 2014

This article reports the orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning carried out with a 14-year and 5-month-old female patient with esthetic and functional complaints. She presented an Angle Class I malocclusion, anterior crossbiteand severe crowding in both maxillary and mandibular arches, in addition to a lightly concave straight facial profile. Orthodontic treatment did not require extraction. Crossbite was corrected by protrusion of upper teeth, which contributed to alignment and leveling of teeth, in addition to improving the patient's facial profile. The case was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (BBO) as a requirement for the BBO certification. © 2014 Dental Press Journal of Orthodontics.

Avancini S.S.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Chiacchiera S.,University of Coimbra | Menezes D.P.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Providencia C.,University of Coimbra
Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics | Year: 2010

In the present article, the "pasta" phase is studied at finite temperatures within a Thomas-Fermi (TF) approach. Relativistic mean-field models, both with constant and density-dependent couplings, are used to describe this frustrated system. We compare the present results with previous ones obtained within a phase-coexistence description and conclude that the TF approximation gives rise to a richer inner "pasta" phase structure and the homogeneous matter appears at higher densities. Finally, the transition density calculated within TF is compared with the results for this quantity obtained with other methods. © 2010 The American Physical Society.

Rossetto A.L.O.F.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Melegari S.P.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Ouriques L.C.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Matias W.G.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2014

Copper oxide (CuO) has various applications, as highlighted by the incorporation of this compound as a biocide of antifouling paints for coating ships and offshore oil platforms. The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the aquatic toxicity of CuO nanoparticles (NPs) and microparticles (MPs) through acute and chronic toxicity tests with the freshwater microcrustacean Daphnia magna and an acute toxicity test with the bioluminescent marine bacteria Vibrio fischeri. Acute toxicity results for D. magna in tests with CuO NPs (EC50, 48h=22mgL-1) were ten times higher than those for tests with CuO MPs (EC50, 48h=223.6mgL-1). In both periods of exposure of V. fischeri, the CuO NPs (EC50, 15m 248±56.39 - equivalent to 12.40%; EC50, 30m 257.6±30.8mgL-1 - equivalent to 12.88%) were more toxic than the CuO MPs (EC50, 15m 2404.6±277.4 - equivalent to 60.10%; EC50, 30m 1472.9±244.7mgL-1 - equivalent to 36.82%). In chronic toxicity tests, both forms of CuO showed significant effects (p<0.05) on the growth and reproduction parameters of the D. magna relative to the control. Additionally, morphological changes, such as lack of apical spine development and malformed carapaces in D. magna, were observed for organisms after the chronic test. The toxicity results demonstrate that CuO NPs have a higher level of toxicity than CuO MPs, emphasizing the need for comparative toxicological studies to correctly classify these two forms of CuO with identical CAS registration numbers. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Paduani C.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Jena P.,Virginia Commonwealth University
Chemical Physics Letters | Year: 2013

First-principles calculations based on the density functional theory (DFT) are performed to study the structure, stability and electron affinity of sodium and magnesium borohydrides. With successive attachments of BH4 complexes to the metal atom a superhalogen behavior is identified for the Na(BH4)2 and Mg(BH4)3 clusters, whose electron affinities reach 5.07 eV and 5.13 eV, respectively. As Mg(BH 4)3 cluster is used as a building block to decorate the Mg atom the electron affinity is pushed up to a higher level (6.18 eV) which classifies the Mg[Mg(BH4)3]3 moiety as a hyperhalogen. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Coimbra P.A.D.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Machado Filho L.C.P.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Hotzel M.J.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Applied Animal Behaviour Science | Year: 2012

The effects of water trough location and presence of shade on the behaviour of cows on pasture were investigated. The impact of social hierarchy on cows' use of shade and the water trough was also investigated. Thirty two non-pregnant dry cows were randomly divided in four groups in a 4×4 Latin square design. Each period had 14 days for habituation followed by 7 data days for collection. The treatments were: T1, shade was provided, and the water trough was located in the corridor; T2: no shade, and the water trough was located in the corridor; T3: shade was provided, and the water trough was located in the paddock; T4: no shade, and the water trough was located in the paddock. The animals were managed under rotational grazing, with an average of 4 days in a 0.1ha paddock. Water troughs consisted of 500L round PVC containers, 0.6m high, positioned either at the corner of the paddock (T3 and T4) or in a 4m wide access corridor, 150m away from the paddock (T1 and T2). Shade consisted of a 24m 2 cover, 2.5m high, located inside the paddock. Animals were observed for 12h (6 am-6 pm), twice in each period. Instantaneous scans of each group were made every 10min, and all drinking events, defecations and urinations were recorded. Water consumption was measured using a hydrometer attached to the water trough. In each group, all the agonistic interactions were recorded and the social status of each individual animal was estimated by the sociometric matrix model. Shade did not affect drinking behaviour. However, cows drank more often (P=0.001), for longer periods (P=0.02) and a larger amount (P=0.02) when the water trough was inside the paddock than when it was in the corridor. Social hierarchy did not influence drinking behaviour when the water trough was placed inside the paddock (P=0.3); however, when the water trough was located in the corridor, the number of drinking events (P=0.05) and the time spent drinking (P=0.05) were greater for dominant cows in comparison to subordinate cows. Social hierarchy did not influence the number of visits or the time spent in the shade, irrespective of the location of the water trough (P=0.6). The location of the water trough and social hierarchy can influence drinking behaviour and water consumption by cows managed in rotational grazing systems. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Amestoy S.C.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Revista brasileira de enfermagem | Year: 2010

Qualitative study, descriptive and exploratory which aimed to ascertain the role of an institution of higher education and hospital training and continuing education of nurse-leaders. Was developed during the months of February and March 2008, with the participation of eleven nurses from a large hospital in the southern region of Rio Grande do Sul. For data collection was carried out semi-structured interviews and focus groups. Using the Content Analysis for the treatment of data, two categories emerged: the role of higher education institution in the training of nurses, leaders and role of the hospital in continuing education of nurses-leaders. There is the existence of gaps related to the teaching of leadership and development of competence in the hospital context.

Costa L.C.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Revista brasileira de epidemiologia = Brazilian journal of epidemiology | Year: 2010

This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of dissatisfaction with body image and associated socio-economic, behavioral and dietary factors in female university students from a public university in Florianopolis, SC. Body image was assessed by the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ-34) in a sample of 220 students. Nutritional status was investigated by body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and body fat percentage (%BF). Socio-economic characteristics (age, monthly household income, and parental schooling) as well as energy intake and going on restrictive diets were also investigated. Factors associated with dissatisfaction with body image were analyzed by multivariate Poisson regression analysis. The prevalence of dissatisfaction with body image was 47.3% (95% CI 40.7; 53.9). Nutritional status by BMI and going on a diet to lose weight were the variables associated with body dissatisfaction. Results showed a high prevalence of indicators of rejection of their physical fitness among university students, which signals toward the need for nutritional education actions at universities in order to clarify and prevent abnormal eating attitudes among students.

Ferreira N.C.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Bonetti C.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Seiffert W.Q.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Aquaculture | Year: 2011

The continuous monitoring of the physical, chemical and biological parameters of pond, effluent and inlet waters helps not only to predict and control negative conditions for shrimp farming, but also avoids environmental damages and collapse of the production process. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the importance of implementing a Water Quality Index (WQI) as a tool to manage shrimp farms and the surrounding natural environments, further to understand the main factors affecting water quality to prevent disease outbreaks. Water quality parameters of shrimp pond and inlet waters were monitored and measured monthly in a shrimp farm and in two other natural sites in northern Santa Catarina state, Brazil. The study was carried out between October, 2007 and October, 2008. Physical and chemical parameters (temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, salinity, turbidity, hardness, alkalinity, ammonia nitrogen, nitrite, nitrate, phosphate, silica) and biological parameters (chlorophyll-a, fecal coliforms, Vibrio and bacteria counts) were analyzed. To assess the dependency relationship between the variables the non-parametric correlation test of Spearman was applied. The Hydrological Index (HI) c was applied to evaluate the potential use of the two coastal areas for shrimp culture. The Canadian Water Quality Index (CCME WQI) was applied to compare the water quality parameters between the shrimp farm water supply lagoon and those two coastal environments. Results indicate water quality parameters and times of the year are related to environmental stress. Considering the amplitude of the variables monitored, i.e., temperature, salinity, pH, alkalinity, hardness, nitrate and silica, autumn may be associated with increased environmental stress. The (HI) c indicated that pumping water into the shrimp farm in spring and summer should be restricted, and during the rest of the year the supply water quality ranged from "suitable with medium restriction" (5.5<(IH) c<7.5) to "suitable with low restriction" (7.5<(IH) c<9.0). No difference was detected in the water quality parameters of the three study sites according to the CCME WQI. The application of a Water Quality Index adapted to the different production activities is useful to monitor water quality parameters. The WQI is practical, with easy and fast interpretation of data, and an important management tool for aquaculture enterprises. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Objective: To analyze the supply and demand of organic foods for the schools of Santa Catarina according to the National School Food Program regulation. Methods: This is a descriptive and exploratory study. In 2010 an electronic questionnaire was used to investigate the percentage of organic and conventional foods purchased from family farms by 293 municipalities of Santa Catarina. Later, the school food buyers from 52 municipalities who bought organic foods from family farms were interviewed on-site. The data were expressed as absolute and relative numbers by municipality. Results: Most foods were consumed locally, and 17.7% of the municipalities bought organic foods from family farms in 2010. Dieticians, farmers, and cooperatives experienced difficulties. Most farmers' and cooperatives' products were not certified, and the farmers experienced production problems, requiring technical support. Dieticians complained about the lack of product certification and low supply of organic foods. According to farmers and cooperatives, the limitations of selling to schools were the low demand, transportation difficulties, and product seasonality. Despite the difficulties, the municipalities in Santa Catarina are purchasing some fruits, vegetables, and other foods from family farms. Conclusion: Organic locally-produced family farm products are included in school meals. However, dieticians and family farmers need to dialogue.

Ienczak J.L.,CTBE - Brazilian Bioethanol Science and Technology Laboratory | Schmidell W.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | De Aragao G.M.F.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology | Year: 2013

This article gives an overview of high-cell-density cultures for polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production and their modes of operation for increasing productivity. High cell densities are very important in PHA production mainly because this polymer is an intracellular product accumulated in various microorganisms, so a high cellular content is needed for the polymer production. This review describes relevant results from fed-batch, repeated batch, and continuous modes of operation without and with cell recycle for the production of these polymers by microorganisms. Finally, recombinant microorganisms for PHA production, as well future directions for PHA production, are discussed. © 2013 Society for Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology.

Matos I.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Bento A.F.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Marcon R.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Claudino R.F.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Calixto J.B.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Molecular Immunology | Year: 2013

The pentacyclic triterpene α,β-amyrin has been previously reported as an effective compound in the treatment of several inflammatory conditions. Recent evidence indicates that α,β-amyrin displayed its effects through interaction with the cannabinoid pathway. We assessed the anti-inflammatory effects of the α,β-amyrin in the dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice and investigated whether its effects were associated with the interaction with the cannabinoid system. Our results showed that the oral preventive or therapeutic treatment with α,β-amyrin significantly reduced disease activity, body weight loss, colonic damage, as well as colonic myeloperoxidase and N-acetylglucosaminidase activities. Moreover, α,β-amyrin decreases the colonic pro-inflammatory mediators tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β and keratinocyte-derived chemokine (CXCL1/KC), while up-regulating the IL-4 levels. Additionally, we also observed that the α,β-amyrin caused a significant reduction of the adhesion molecules mRNA expression for intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), platelet cell adhesion molecule 1 (PCAM-1), β2-integrin and protein expression for proliferation marker Ki67, the macrophage molecule CD68 and for adhesion molecule P-selectin. Interestingly, our results also showed that the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1), but not CB2, pharmacological blockade significantly reversed the beneficial effects of α,β-amyrin in DSS-induced colitis. Besides, our data demonstrated that mRNA expression for both the endocannabinoid hydrolase monoglyceride lipase 1 (MGL1) and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) were significantly reduced in the colon of α,β-amyrin-treated mice. Altogether, these results suggest that the α,β-amyrin might possess potential therapeutic interest for the treatment of IBD, and also provide new insights for the underlying mechanisms. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Hennemann M.C.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Petrucio M.M.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment | Year: 2011

Coastal lagoons are ecologically and economically important environments but a relative low number of studies were carried out in subtropical and permanently closed coastal lagoons. The present study aimed at assessing the temporal and spatial dynamic of trophic relevant water quality parameters in the small, deep and freshwater Peri coastal lagoon, South Brazil. During the 19 sampled months (March/2008- September/2009) spatial homogeneity (horizontal and vertical) was registered in all seasons for all variables, a condition related to the strong wind influence and low human occupation in the lagoon watershed. Seasonal variations of the water quality could be observed and they can be explained mainly by variation on temperature, wind forces and direction and rainfall, characteristic from the subtropical weather. Comparing this study with two others conducted in Peri lagoon in 1996 and 1998, no critical differences that evidence alteration in the water quality were found, but climate differences may have influenced in some small variations observed. The use of four trophic state indices indicated that indices designed for temperate lakes are inappropriate for the subtropical Peri lagoon. The lagoon was classified as oligotrophic for nutrients concentrations and meso-eutrophic for transparency and chlorophyll-a, which can be explained by the high densities and monodominance of the cyanobacterium Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii and the high recycling rates observed in warmer water bodies, when compared to the temperate ones. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011.

Ghisi E.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Water Resources Management | Year: 2010

Rainwater harvesting has been studied in different countries as a way of easing water availability problems and reducing potable water demand in buildings. The most important factor relating to the efficiency of a rainwater system is the correct sizing of the rainwater tank. Therefore, the objective of this article is to assess the influence of rainfall, roof area, number of residents, potable water demand and rainwater demand on rainwater tank sizing. The analysis was performed by using computer simulation and by considering daily rainfall data for three cities located in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The roof areas considered were 50, 100, 200 and 400 m2; the potable water demands were 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 l per capita per day; the rainwater demands were taken as a percentage of the potable water demand, i.e., 10% to 100% at increments of 10%; and the number of residents was two and four. Results indicated a wide variation of rainwater tank sizes for each city and also for each parameter. The main conclusion that can be made from the study is that rainwater tank sizing for houses must be performed for each specific situation, i. e., considering local rainfall, roof area, potable water demand, rainwater demand and number of residents. Therefore, sizing rainwater tanks according to local tradition is not recommended as it may incur low efficiency. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009.

The purpose of this descriptive, retrospective, documental study is to describe the use of peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC) in a neonatal and pediatric intensive care unit regarding their insertion, maintenance, and removal. This study also characterized the population which received the catheter through descriptive and statistical analysis of 176 instruments filled out by nurses, in a two year period. The population attended consisted of 125 patients, mainly premature (43.2%) and male (60%). The basilic and cephalic (43.2%) veins were primarily used for the insertion of a 1.9Fr (85.8%) catheter. The success rate was 98.9% in the punctures, but anticipated removal occurred due to obstruction (25%), infiltration (18%), suspected contamination (16.6%), traction (13.9%), rupture (11.2%), accidental removal (8.3%), phlebitis (4.2%), cyanosis (1.4%), and migration (1.4%), with an average period of permanence of 14.5 days. In order to maintain the catheter professional education and preparation are required to qualify care.

Vitali L.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Favere V.T.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Micke G.A.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Journal of Chromatography A | Year: 2011

The aim of this study was to develop a simple and rapid method of capillary electrophoresis using a short end multiple injection in free solution to determine simultaneously the biological sample volume and analytes concentration. The method consists of a sequence of injection steps with an internal standard as the reference for correction of the volume of sample collected. The procedure was applies in the determination of NO 3 - and SCN in saliva samples. The background electrolyte was composed of 12mM tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane and 8.5mM sulfuric acid, at pH 2.5. The internal standard used was BrO 3 -. A fused silica capillary (48.5cm total length, 8.5cm effective length and 75μm i.d.) coated with chitosan was used in a short-end injection configuration. Modification of the electroosmotic flow (EOF) using dynamic coating resulted in a controlled and stable EOF, contributing to the rapid separation of anions (0.36min) in co-electroosmotic mode. The validation of the method for correcting the volume of saliva collected with a swab showed a difference of less than 3.5% compared with the predicted value and a correlation of 0.999. The limits of detection for NO 3 - and SCN - were 0.13 and 0.23mgL -1, respectively. The inter-day precision of the method determined for both analytes was less than 5% and the recovery ranged between 97 and 102%. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Cortez D.F.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Barbi I.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics | Year: 2016

In this paper, a three-phase multilevel power factor correction rectifier using the hybrid switched-capacitor concept is proposed. The converter is suitable for high-voltage-gain applications from conventional three-phase low-voltage sources. The three-level voltage operation reduces the weight and bulk of the magnetic devices. The main advantages of the proposed converter are low number of active switches, high voltage gain, sinusoidal currents, low voltage stress across all components, and simple control. Both steady-state and dynamic analyses are investigated. Experimental results for a 7500-W/220-V-to-1600-V laboratory prototype with maximum efficiency of 97.78% are presented and discussed. © 2015 IEEE.

Cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum), a specie native to Amazonia, has been planted commercially in Brazil to satisfy the demand for the flavorful juice obtained from the pulp around its seeds. The trees are notorious for low and irregular fruit production. Data gathered over two seasons from trees in a germplasm collection in Pará, Brazil, showed that some of them fruited more regularly than others. Differences in fruit production correlated to differences in flower production. Tree-to-tree variation in flower production, fruit production, and consistency of both over time suggest considerable scope for improving yields by selection. Hand pollinations resulted in a much higher frequency of fruit set than open pollinations, indicating that lack of effective pollination is also a reason for low yield. However, attempts to increase the level of effective pollination are handicapped by low knowledge about the pollinators of cupuassu and their behavior.

Dezonne R.S.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Lima F.R.S.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Trentin A.G.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Gomes F.C.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Journal of Neuroendocrinology | Year: 2015

Thyroid hormones (THs) play key roles in brain development and function. The lack of THs during childhood is associated with the impairment of several neuronal connections, cognitive deficits and mental disorders. Several lines of evidence point to astrocytes as TH targets and as mediators of TH action in the central nervous system; however, the mechanisms underlying these events are still not completely known. In this review, we focus on advances in our understanding of the effects of THs on astroglial cells and the impact of these effects on neurone-astrocyte interactions. First, we discuss the signalling pathways involved in TH metabolism and the molecular mechanisms underlying TH receptor function. Then, we discuss data related to the effects of THs on astroglial cells, as well as studies regarding the generation of mutant TH receptor transgenic mice that have contributed to our understanding of TH function in brain development. We argue that astrocytes are key mediators of hormone actions on development of the cerebral cortex and cerebellum and that the identification of the molecules and pathways involved in these events might be important for determining the molecular-level basis of the neural deficits associated with endocrine diseases. © 2015 British Society for Neuroendocrinology.

Simao Da Silva K.A.B.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Paszcuk A.F.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Passos G.F.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Silva E.S.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | And 3 more authors.
Pain | Year: 2011

In this study, we report that α,β-amyrin, a plant-derived pentacyclic triterpene, reduced persistent inflammatory and neuropathic hyperalgesia in mice by a direct activation of the CB 1 and CB 2 cannabinoid receptors (CB 1R and CB 2R). The oral treatment with α,β-amyrin (30 mg/kg) significantly reduced mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia and inflammation induced by complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) and by partial sciatic nerve ligation (PSNL). The pretreatment with either CB 1R or CB 2R antagonists and the knockdown gene of the receptors significantly reverted the antinociceptive effect of α,β-amyrin. Of note, binding studies showed that α,β-amyrin directly bound with very high affinity to CB 1R (K i = 0.133 nM) and with a lower affinity to CB 2R (K i = 1989 nM). Interestingly, α,β-amyrin, ACEA (CB 1R agonist), or JWH-133 (CB 2R agonist), at doses that caused antinociception, failed to provoke any behavioral disturbance, as measured in the tetrad assay. In addition, α,β-amyrin largely decreased interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) levels, and myeloperoxidase activity. Likewise, α,β-amyrin prevented the activation of the transcriptional factors: nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element binding (CREB) and the expression of cyclooxygenase 2 in mice footpads and spinal cords. The present results demonstrated that α,β-amyrin exhibits long-lasting antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory properties in 2 models of persistent nociception via activation of cannabinoid receptors and by inhibiting the production of cytokines and expression of NF-κB, CREB and cyclooxygenase 2. © 2011 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Poletto R.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Kretzer F.C.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Hotzel M.J.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Physiology and Behavior | Year: 2014

Gestation stalls are criticized for its negative physical and psycho-physiological effects on sow welfare. Group housing benefits sow well-being and when planned properly can minimize aggression during mixing. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of short-term feeding of a TRP-enriched diet at a concentration of 220% the control (CTL) diet, on aggressiveness at mixing of sows at 4. weeks of gestation. Treatment diets were fed for 7 consecutive days; from days 1 to 5 sows were housed in stalls, early in the morning on day 6 sows were grouped by parity and assessed until day 7. Eighteen pens with 4 sows each (n=72) of similar parity were assigned to CTL and TRP treatments. Sows' behaviors were recorded daily for 12. h, from days 1 to 7. Inactive and active behaviors (alert, walking (pen), rooting, feeding, drinking, eliminating), stereotypic behaviors (bar biting and sham-chewing), and postures (standing, sitting, lying) were assessed by 10-minute scan sampling. Occurrence of agonistic interactions, number of actions such as bites, head knocks and pursuits and their sum per interaction were recorded for each pen using 2-h continuous behavioral observation, at days 6 and 7. Skin lesion scores were assessed from each sow at day 5 and at 48. h post-mixing, using a sow body map subdivided into anterior, central and posterior body regions. A linear mixed model with day as repeated measure, stall or pen as experimental unit, tested the fixed effects of treatment, day, period within day, their interactions, and block by treatment interaction; stall (trt) or pen (trt) as appropriate was used as random effect. Blood concentration of TRP was higher on the mixing day in TRP-fed sows compared to baseline (76%) and CLT-fed sows at mixing (79%; P<. 0.05), while serotonin concentration did not differ between treatments (P>. 0.05). The TRP-enriched diet was effective in reducing sham-chewing in stall housed sows of parity 5-9 (P<. 0.05). In pens, TRP-fed sows spent more time rooting (TRP=28.0 vs. CTL=20.7. ±. 1.0%; P<. 0.05) and consequently less time lying down than CTL-fed sows (TRP=56.1 vs. CTL=65.1. ±. 2.0%; P<. 0.05). The total number of offensive actions per interaction was greater in the morning than afternoon for both days (P<. 0.05), but this was less evident in TRP-fed compared to CTL sows mainly on the morning following mixing (3.4 vs. 7.2. ±. 1.0, respectively; Trt. *. period (day)=P<. 0.05). The average lesion score was lower in the anterior body region of TRP-fed compared to CTL sows (2.1 vs. 2.5. ±. 0.2; P<. 0.05), the most affected area during fights. The TRP-enriched diet reduced sow aggression while increasing behavioral activity, as evidenced by more time rooting and standing while sows had fewer offensive actions per agonistic interaction and lower skin lesion score 48. h post-mixing. A TRP enriched diet provided to gestating sows for a short period prior to social mixing and continued for a short time after is an effective means of reducing aggression and improving the welfare of sows during group formation. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

MacHado M.V.T.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Da Silva M.L.L.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics | Year: 2011

The cross sections for the glueball candidates in quasireal photon-photon collisions and on central diffraction processes (i.e., double Pomeron exchange) in heavy-ion interactions at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC) and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) are computed. The rates for these distinct production channels are compared, and they may be a fruitful approach to the investigation of glueballs. © 2011 The American Physical Society.

Pelinson A.M.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Shapiro I.L.,Federal University of Juiz de fora
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2011

The anomaly-induced effective action is a useful tool for deriving the contributions coming from quantum effects of massless conformal fields. It is well known that such corrections in the higher derivative vacuum sector of the gravitational action provide the same exponential inflation (Starobinsky model) as the cosmological constant term. At the same time, the presence of a classical electromagnetic field breaks down the exponential solution. In this Letter we explore the role of the anomaly-induced term in the radiation sector and, furthermore, derive the "equation of state" and the scaling laws for all terms in the Einstein equations. As one could expect, the scaling law for the vacuum anomaly-induced effective action is the same as for the cosmological constant. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Alloy M.D.,University Federal da Fronteira sul | Menezes D.P.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics | Year: 2011

In this paper, we calculate the diffusion coefficients that are related to the neutrino opacities considering the formation of nuclear pasta and homogeneous matter at low densities. Our results show that the mean-free paths are significantly altered by the presence of nuclear pasta in stellar matter when compared with the results obtained with homogeneous matter. These differences in neutrino opacities certainly influence the Kelvin-Helmholtz phase of protoneutron stars and consequently the results of supernova explosion simulations. © 2011 American Physical Society.

Chen H.,University of Sydney | Li Y.,University of Sydney | Rebelatto J.L.,Federal University of Technology of Parana | Uchoa-Filho B.F.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Vucetic B.,University of Sydney
IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing | Year: 2015

In this paper, we consider a wireless-powered cooperative communication network consisting of one hybrid access-point (AP), one source, and one relay. In contrast to conventional cooperative networks, the source and relay in the considered network have no embedded energy supply. They need to rely on the energy harvested from the signals broadcasted by the AP for their cooperative information transmission. Based on this three-node reference model, we propose a harvest-then-cooperate (HTC) protocol, in which the source and relay harvest energy from the AP in the downlink and work cooperatively in the uplink for the source's information transmission. Considering a delay-limited transmission mode, the approximate closed-form expression for the average throughput of the proposed protocol is derived over Rayleigh fading channels. Subsequently, this analysis is extended to the multi-relay scenario, where the approximate throughput of the HTC protocol with two popular relay selection schemes is derived. The asymptotic analyses for the throughput performance of the considered schemes at high signal-to-noise radio are also provided. All theoretical results are validated by numerical simulations. The impacts of the system parameters, such as time allocation, relay number, and relay position, on the throughput performance are extensively investigated. © 1991-2012 IEEE.

Barbosa Jr. J.R.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Sigwalt R.A.,Whirlpool Corp.
International Journal of Refrigeration | Year: 2012

The air-side thermal-hydraulic performance of spiral wire-on-tube condensers is investigated experimentally in this paper. Sixteen prototypes have been manufactured and tested in an open-loop wind tunnel calorimeter. The influence of the following geometric parameters has been evaluated: the number of tube passes, the radial and longitudinal tube spacings and the wire spacing. Measurements of the air-side thermal conductance and pressure drop were carried out for air flow rates ranging from 70 to 220 m 3 h -1. The data were correlated using empirical relationships for the Colburn j-factor and the Darcy friction factor. The agreement with the experimental data presented RMS deviations of 0.9% for the air-side heat transfer and 1.3% for the frictional pressure drop dimensionless parameters. A quantitative analysis based on the core volume goodness factors for heat transfer and pressure drop is presented to provide the most viable configuration from the point of view of application in a refrigerator. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and IIR. All rights reserved.

Consumption of trans fat has been proven to be harmful to human health. This lipid is found mainly in partially hydrogenated vegetable fat, which is widely used in processed foods. The aim of this study was to analyze offi cial publications on maximum limits for consumption of trans fat and the regulations for its mandatory notifi cation on the nutritional labeling of processed foods in Brazil. Weaknesses in the content of the documents analyzed were found, especially regarding the need for reformulation of both the maximum recommended consumption and the notifi cation of trans fat on nutritional labeling for processed foods. This paper makes suggestions for this reformulation, through which it is sought to help consumers in controlling their trans fat intake and, consequently, in promotion of health.

The study tried to understand the meaning of hospitalization for children and teenagers with chronic diseases substantiated on Symbolic Interactionism and developed from the qualitative Assistential Converging Research whose participants were a child and three teenagers. Data collection took place through a nursing interaction process, participating observation, sensible listening and child drawing. During the analysis, the meaning of hospitalization was expressed as being ill, away from home, feeling pain, sadness, suffering, wishing to cry, nervousness, aggressiveness and losing freedom. It was also understood as treatment, cure, support, friends, reciprocity with nature and "pleasant experiences" through care, passion, love, happiness and games. The participants' ability to show their view of the situation in which they are inserted was highlighted in their drawings, imbued with meanings and life lessons.

Hurtado F.S.V.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Maliska C.R.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Numerical Heat Transfer, Part B: Fundamentals | Year: 2012

A family of advection schemes is presented for application to element-based finite-volume methods. In these schemes, flow skewness is accounted for by means of a mass flux ratio in a way that positivity is guaranteed. These features assure that the discretization of the advection term does not introduce nonphysical spatial oscillations and reduces to some extent the adverse influence of the grid orientation on the numerical solutions. By means of an analysis of the associated truncation error, the directional properties of the advection schemes are investigated. This analysis and some application examples suggest that one particular scheme in the family yields numerical solutions with minimal influence of the grid topology. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Vieira A.S.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Ghisi E.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Journal of Cleaner Production | Year: 2016

The water-energy nexus has been increasingly studied in order to elucidate the complex interdependence between water and energy resources, and, as a result, enhance management practices to conserve both resources alike. In this context, integrated water management plans have direct implications on the energy embodied into water and sewerage services. The objective of this study is to assess the potential for energy savings in water and sewerage services by means of on-site integrated water and sewage management strategies in low-income households in Florianópolis, Brazil. The studied water efficient measures include: (i) installation of water efficient fixtures (dual flush toilets and water efficient taps); (ii) reclamation of grey water from shower, washing basin, and laundry for toilet flushing; and (iii) rainwater use for laundry and toilet flushing. From the combination of these measures, the water and energy saving potential of seven integrated water and sewage management strategies were studied. Moreover, the water consumption pattern at ten low-income households with conventional and water efficient taps were empirically determined using water smart meters; whereas, the rainwater supply capacity was estimated by using the computer programme Netuno 4.0, and the grey water supply and sewage reduction capacities were determined using model equations. Rainwater harvesting alone appeared as the least favourable strategy for energy savings as the energy consumption would increase 4% compared to a centralised system; while the combination of water efficient fixtures and grey water reclamation gave rise to the greatest energy saving potential (48%). The findings of this study indicate that, from an energy management point of view, the sustainability of the water sector is primarily associated with the reduction of effluents to centralised systems, rather than the use of alternative water sources. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

Saba S.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Rafique J.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Braga A.L.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Advanced Synthesis and Catalysis | Year: 2015

Herein, we report a greener iodine-catalyzed protocol to access different types of unsymmetrical diorganyl chalcogenides. This new approach works in the absence of solvent and metal. The desired products were obtained in good to excellent yields using one equivalent of arylboronic acids, half an equivalent of various diorganyl dichalcogenides, iodine (10 mol%) as a catalyst and 2 equivalents of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO; as oxidant), with a reaction time of 10 min under microwave irradiation. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Costa L.C.F.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Costa L.C.F.,Federal University of Pará | de Vasconcelos F.A.G.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Corso A.C.T.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Cadernos de Saude Publica | Year: 2012

This study aimed to estimate fruit and vegetable intake and identify associated factors among schoolchildren in Santa Catarina State, Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 4,964 students from public and private schools in eight districts in the State, analyzing socioeconomic and anthropometric data and dietary intake. Adequate fruit and vegetable intake was defined as five or more servings per day. Poisson regression was performed to test associations between fruit and vegetable intake and independent variables (p < 0.05). Adequate intake was found in 2.7% of children, while 26.6% of the sample did not consume any fruits and vegetables. In the analysis of the association between independent variables and adequate fruit and vegetable intake in the total sample, only geographic region (residents in western Santa Catarina) and consumption of candy were significantly associated. In the stratified analysis by sex, for boys, only geographic region was associated, while among girls, region and candy consumption were significantly associated with adequate fruit and vegetable intake. The findings indicate the need for specific strategies in the school community to improve fruit and vegetable intake by schoolchildren.

Bento A.F.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Marcon R.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Dutra R.C.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Claudino R.F.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | And 3 more authors.
American Journal of Pathology | Year: 2011

Cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) activation is suggested to trigger the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) pathway, and agonists of both receptors improve colitis. Recently, the plant metabolite (E)-β-caryophyllene (BCP) was shown to bind to and activate CB2. In this study, we examined the antiinflammatory effect of BCP in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis and analyzed whether this effect was mediated by CB2 and PPARγ. Oral treatment with BCP reduced disease activity, colonic macro- and microscopic damage, myeloperoxidase and N-acetylglucosaminidase activities, and levels and mRNA expression of colonic tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-1β, interferon-γ, and keratinocyte-derived chemokine. BCP treatment also inhibited the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, nuclear factor κB, IκB-kinase α/β, cAMP response element binding and the expression of caspase-3 and Ki-67. Moreover, BCP enhanced IL-4 levels and forkhead box P3 mRNA expression in the mouse colon and reduced cytokine levels (tumor necrosis factor-α, keratinocyte-derived chemokine, and macrophage-inflammatory protein-2) in a culture of macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide. The use of the CB2 antagonist AM630 or the PPARγ antagonist GW9662 significantly reversed the protective effect of BCP. Confirming our results, AM630 reversed the beneficial effect of BCP on pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in IEC-6 cells. These results demonstrate that the anti-inflammatory effect of BCP involves CB2 and the PPARγ pathway and suggest BCP as a possible therapy for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Merlini C.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Ramoa S.D.A.S.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Barra G.M.O.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Polymer Composites | Year: 2013

In this study, conducting banana fibers (BF) were obtained through in situ oxidative polymerization of pyrrole (Py) on the BF surface using ferric chloride hexahydratate (FeCl3·6H2O) as an oxidant. Suitable reaction conditions are outlined for the polymerization of Py: oxidant/monomer molar ratio, Py concentration and polymerization time of 2/1, 0.05 mol.L -1 and 30 min, respectively. Under these conditions, high-quality conducting fibers containing polyPy and BF (PPy-BF) were obtained with an electrical resistivity as low as 0.54 Ω.cm. The PPy-BF was blended with different concentrations of polyurethane (PU) by mixing the two components in a vacuum chamber and then applying compression molding. The electrical resistivity of composites with 25 wt% of PPy-BF was around 1.8 × 105 Ωcm, which is approximately 108 times lower than that found for pure PU. Moreover, PU/PPy-BF composites exhibited higher mechanical properties than pure PU and PU/PPy, indicating that these conducting fibers can also be used as reinforcement for polymer matrices. The properties of the PPy-BF obtained by the method described herein open interesting possibilities for novel applications of electrically conducting fibers, from smart sensors to new conducting fillers that can be incorporated into several polymer matrixes to develop conducting polymer composites with good mechanical properties. © 2013 Society of Plastics Engineers.

Cruz M.P.,Federal Rural University of Pernambuco | Peroni N.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Albuquerque U.P.,Federal Rural University of Pernambuco
Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine | Year: 2013

Background: Despite being an ancient practice that satisfies basic human needs, the use of wild edible plants tends to be forgotten along with associated knowledge in rural communities. The objective of this work is to analyze existing relationships between knowledge, use, and management of native wild edible plants and socioeconomic factors such as age, gender, family income, individual income, past occupation and current occupation. Methods: The field work took place between 2009 and 2010 in the community of Carão, Altinho municipality, in the state of Pernambuco in northeastern Brazil. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 39 members of the community regarding knowledge, use and management of 14 native wild edible plants from the Caatinga region, corresponding to 12 vegetable species. In parallel, we documented the socioeconomic aspects of the interviewed population (age, gender, family income, individual income, past occupation and current occupation). Results: Knowledge about edible plants was related to age but not to current occupation or use. Current use was not associated with age, gender or occupation. The association between age and past use may indicate abandonment of these resources.Conclusion: Because conservation of the species is not endangered by their use but by deforestation of the ecosystems in which these plants grow, we suggest that the promotion and consumption of the plants by community members is convenient and thereby stimulates the appropriation and consequent protection of the ecosystem. To promote consumption of these plants, it is important to begin by teaching people about plant species that can be used for their alimentation, disproving existing myths about plant use, and encouraging diversification of use by motivating the invention of new preparation methods. An example of how this can be achieved is through events like the " Preserves Festival". © 2013 Cruz et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Farina M.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Avila D.S.,Federal University of Pampa | Da Rocha J.B.T.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Aschner M.,Vanderbilt University
Neurochemistry International | Year: 2013

Essential metals are crucial for the maintenance of cell homeostasis. Among the 23 elements that have known physiological functions in humans, 12 are metals, including iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn). Nevertheless, excessive exposure to these metals may lead to pathological conditions, including neurodegeneration. Similarly, exposure to metals that do not have known biological functions, such as mercury (Hg), also present great health concerns. This review focuses on the neurodegenerative mechanisms and effects of Fe, Mn and Hg. Oxidative stress (OS), particularly in mitochondria, is a common feature of Fe, Mn and Hg toxicity. However, the primary molecular targets triggering OS are distinct. Free cationic iron is a potent pro-oxidant and can initiate a set of reactions that form extremely reactive products, such as Oh. Mn can oxidize dopamine (DA), generating reactive species and also affect mitochondrial function, leading to accumulation of metabolites and culminating with OS. Cationic Hg forms have strong affinity for nucleophiles, such as -SH and -SeH. Therefore, they target critical thiol- and selenol-molecules with antioxidant properties. Finally, we address the main sources of exposure to these metals, their transport mechanisms into the brain, and therapeutic modalities to mitigate their neurotoxic effects. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Correia M.J.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Figueiredo W.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Schwarzacher W.,H H Wills Physics Laboratory
Physics Letters, Section A: General, Atomic and Solid State Physics | Year: 2014

We report in this study the effect of the competition between cubic and uniaxial anisotropies on the magnetic properties of magnetic nanoparticles. We have employed Monte Carlo simulations in our calculations and we have seen that the observed behavior is very different for the cases where easy uniaxial axes are completely random oriented or parallel to an external magnetic field. We have also calculated the effective energy barrier distribution probed during the isothermal magnetic relaxation and a two peak structure is observed only for a random orientation of uniaxial axes. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

de Oliveira L.B.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Camponogara E.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies | Year: 2010

The operation of large dynamic systems such as urban traffic networks remains a challenge in control engineering to a great extent due to their sheer size, intrinsic complexity, and nonlinear behavior. Recently, control engineers have looked for unconventional means for modeling and control of complex dynamic systems, in particular the technology of multi-agent systems whose appeal stems from their composite nature, flexibility, and scalability. This paper contributes to this evolving technology by proposing a framework for multi-agent control of linear dynamic systems, which decomposes a centralized model predictive control problem into a network of coupled, but small sub-problems that are solved by the distributed agents. Theoretical results ensure convergence of the distributed iterations to a globally optimal solution. The framework is applied to the signaling split control of traffic networks. Experiments conducted with simulation software indicate that the multi-agent framework attains performance comparable to conventional control. The main advantages of the multi-agent framework are its graceful extension and localized reconfiguration, which require adjustments only in the control strategies of the agents in the vicinity. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Cavagnoli R.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Cavagnoli R.,University of Coimbra | Providencia C.,University of Coimbra | Menezes D.P.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics | Year: 2011

In the present work we study the hadron-quark phase transition with boson condensation in asymmetric matter by investigating the binodal surface and extending it to finite temperature to mimic the QCD phase diagram. We consider a system with two conserved charges (isospin and baryon densities) using the Gibbs' criteria for phase equilibrium. To obtain these conditions we use two different models for the two possible phases, namely, the nonlinear Walecka model (NLWM) for the hadron matter (also including hyperons) and the MIT bag model for the quark phase. It is shown that the phase transition is very sensitive to the density dependence of the equation of state and the symmetry energy. For an isospin asymmetry of 0.2 and a mixed phase with a fraction of 20% of quarks, a transition density in the interval 2ρ0<ρ t<4ρ0 was obtained for temperatures 30

Martelli S.M.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Laurindo J.B.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
International Journal of Polymeric Materials and Polymeric Biomaterials | Year: 2012

Feathers are basically composed of structural proteins, the keratins, and are suitable for preparing biodegradable films, which must present low hygroscopicity and water vapor permeability (WVP). To prepare such films, glycerol and sorbitol are the more common plasticizers, but they lead to hygroscopic films. In this work, the influence of polyethylene glycol (PEG) with different molecular weights on the films hygrocopicity, solubility, and water vapor permeability was investigated. The water sorption isotherms showed that for all range of aw investigated in this work the films obtained with PEG400 were more hydrophilic than films obtained with higher molecular weight PEGs. The use of PEG causes an increase in the WVP of chicken feather keratin films (CFK). © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Oliveira D.A.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Benelli P.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Amante E.R.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Journal of Cleaner Production | Year: 2013

The production of chicken eggs on an industrial level leads to a considerable quantity of shell residue, which is considered as a waste or is used as a complement in agriculture. In general, egg shells are considered to have no economic value, even though they are rich in minerals and amino acids that could form the basis of several industries. In this study, information was reviewed on the technological potential for usage of the minerals and protein membranes of the egg shells. Possible applications range from low investment processes such as fertilizer and animal feed to high investment for transforming as the material for human consumption, absorption of heavy metals, paper treatment, catalysts for biodiesel production, production of hydrolyzed or concentrated protein, bone and dental implants. The last applications need large investments but can provide more valuable products. Based on this literature review, process alternatives and their estimated environmental impacts are considered as a preliminary study with a view to the development of industrial plants, which can use egg shell residues, in order to add value by using these materials in environmentally safe ways. In general, all processes suggested in this paper present high environmental and economic benefits. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Manosso L.M.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Moretti M.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Rodrigues A.L.S.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Food and Function | Year: 2013

Depression is a highly recurrent and debilitating psychiatric disorder associated with multicausal origins. Impairments in the monoaminergic transmission, increased glutamatergic excitotoxicity, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress and deficits in neurotrophic factors are the main hypothesis raised in order to explain the etiological basis of depression. Although the current antidepressant therapy usually alleviates symptoms and prevents recurrence of episodes, the delay in the onset of the therapeutic effect and the refractory or intolerant responses exhibited by a large number of patients are the main drawbacks of the current therapy. For these reasons, several studies have dealt with the investigation of alternative therapeutic approaches or adjunctive strategies which could improve clinical outcomes. One potential adjunctive treatment with conventional antidepressants involves the use of nutraceuticals (a food, a part of a food, a vitamin, a mineral, or a herb that provides health benefits). In this review, we will focus on the main nutrients, phytochemicals and food that have been shown to have beneficial effects against depression. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Candido C.,Macquarie University | Candido C.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | de Dear R.J.,University of Sydney | Lamberts R.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Bittencourt L.,Federal University of Alagoas
Building and Environment | Year: 2010

In hot humid climates, natural ventilation is an essential passive strategy in order to maintain thermal comfort inside buildings and it can be also used as an energy-conserving design strategy to reduce building cooling loads by removing heat stored in the buildings thermal mass. In this context, many previous studies have focused on thermal comfort and air velocity ranges. However, whether this air movement is desirable or not remains an open area. This paper aims to identify air movement acceptability levels inside naturally ventilated buildings in Brazil. Minimal air velocity values corresponding to 80% and 90% (V80 and V90) air movement acceptability inside these buildings. Field experiments were performed during hot and cool seasons when 2075 questionnaires were filled for the subjects while simultaneous microclimatic observations were made with laboratory precision. Main results indicated that the minimal air velocity required were at least 0.4 m/s for 26 °C reaching 0.9 m/s for operative temperatures up to 30 °C. Subjects are not only preferring more air speed but also demanding air velocities closer or higher than 0.8 m/s ASHRAE limit. This dispels the notion of draft in hot humid climates and reinforce the broader theory of alliesthesia and the physiological role of pleasure due to air movement increment. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Senger G.A.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Trofino A.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control | Year: 2016

This paper addresses the problem of determining switching rules for affine switched systems such that the system state is driven to a desired point and a guaranteed cost is minimized. The switching rule is determined by solving an LMI problem and global asymptotic stability of the tracking error dynamics is guaranteed even if sliding motions occur on any switching surface of the system. The potential of the results is illustrated on a true refrigeration system, namely a domestic refrigerator, where the purpose is to control the temperature in the fresh food and the freezer compartments. © 2015 IEEE.

Rupil L.L.,National University of Cordoba | Rupil L.L.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | De Bem A.F.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Roth G.A.,National University of Cordoba
Innate Immunity | Year: 2012

Diphenyl diselenide (PhSe)2, a simple organoselenium compound, possesses interesting pharmacological properties that are under extensive research. As macrophages respond to microenvironmental stimuli and can display activities engaged in the initiation and the resolution of inflammation, in the present report we describe the ability of (PhSe)2 to modulate the macrophage activation. Our data indicate that (PhSe)2 could inhibit the NO production in a dose-dependent fashion in peritoneal macrophages activated by LPS or treated with vehicle alone. We could demonstrate that this effect correlated with a reduction in the expression of the inducible NO synthase in (PhSe)2-treated cells. Furthermore, (PhSe)2 suppressed the production of reactive oxygen species, diminished the activity of the arginase enzyme, and the accumulation of nitrotyrosine modified proteins in LPS-stimulated macrophages. This compound also diminished the antigen presentation capacity of classically activated macrophages, as it reduced MHCII and CD86 expression. In addition, (PhSe)2 modulated the alternative activation phenotype of macrophages. © The Author(s) 2012 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

Borges A.R.,Regional University of Blumenau | Barbi I.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Proceedings - IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems | Year: 2011

This paper presents a three-phase Buck-Boost rectifier operating in continuous conduction mode (CCM). The proposed circuit provide, with a single-stage, output voltages lower or higher than input line voltage peak. The circuit has three operating modes: Boost, Buck and Buck-or-Boost. The transition between the operation modes occurs naturally, without supervisory circuits. The modulation schemes are based on a modulator with two saw tooth carriers. Sinusoidal currents with low distortion and high power factor on all operating modes were obtained. The three-phase circuit achievement is presented, along with its operational modes analysis, control and modulation strategies. In addition, the simulations results are shown, validating the theoretical analysis. © 2011 IEEE.

Tibola G.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Barbi I.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Proceedings - IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems | Year: 2011

In this paper, the main concepts related to the development of a single-stage three-phase high power factor rectifier, with high-frequency isolation and regulated DC bus are described. The structure operation is presented, being based on the DC-DC SEPIC converter operating in the discontinuous conduction mode. This operational mode provides to the rectifier a high power factor feature, with sinusoidal input current, without the use of any current sensors and current loop control. A design example and simulation results are presented in order to validate the theoretical analysis. © 2011 IEEE.

Celeste R.K.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Bastos J.L.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Revista de Saude Publica | Year: 2014

To estimate the mid-point of an open-ended income category and to assess the impact of two equivalence scales on income-health associations. Data were obtained from the 2010 Brazilian Oral Health Survey (Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde Bucal-SBBrasil 2010). Income was converted from categorical to two continuous variables (per capita and equivalized) for each mid-point. The median mid-point was R$ 14,523.50 and the mean, R$ 24,507.10. When per capita income was applied, 53% of the population were below the poverty line, compared with 15% with equivalized income. The magnitude of income-health associations was similar for continuous income, but categorized equivalized income tended to decrease the strength of association.

This article discusses training and continuing medical education for indigenous health workers and health professionals in indigenous health under the guidelines of the Brazilian National Healthcare Policy for Indigenous Peoples, which is currently behind schedule and incomplete as part of the official government agenda. Based on inter-sector proposals for health training by the Ministries of Health and Education, the article highlights the case of indigenous healthcare, emphasizing that government initiatives in this area still need to incorporate the concept of continuing education, a powerful tool for fostering intercultural dialogue and orienting health practices.

Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is one of the most common treatable causes of mental retardation. Efforts should be done in its early detection and treatment. Delays in diagnosis and treatment will result in impaired neurocognitive outcomes. Neonatal screening changed the natural history of this disease. The cutoff value for TSH is 10 mUI/L. In Brazil, neonatal screening has been done for three decades. Currently, it is performed in all Brazilian States and the Brazilian Federal District. Looking at recent data on the National Program for Neonatal Screening (NPNS) we can see a huge difference in the results among Brazilian States. NPNS involved 81.61% of the newborns. Only in 56.94% of the cases, samples were collected from newborns up to 7 days of life. Mean time of collection to arrival of the specimen in the lab, TSH determination, release of results and summoning the patient are far longer than the ideal times, causing a delay in early treatment to prevent neurological sequelae. Recent studies have suggested that changing TSH cutoff values to 6 mUI/L may reduce false negative results. Strategies should be adopted to achieve the goals established by the NPNS. © ABE&M todos os direitos reservados.

Coral L.A.,Ecole Polytechnique de Montréal | Zamyadi A.,Ecole Polytechnique de Montréal | Barbeau B.,Ecole Polytechnique de Montréal | Bassetti F.J.,Federal Technological University of Paraná | And 2 more authors.
Water Research | Year: 2013

Pre-ozonation of cyanobacterial (CB) cells in raw water and inter-ozonation of settled water can cause CB cell damage. However, there is limited information about the level of lysis or changes in cell properties after ozonation, release of intracellular compounds and their contribution to the formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs). This study aims to: (1) assess the extent of the pre-ozonation effects on CB cell properties; (2) determine the CT (ozone concentration×detention time) values required for complete loss of cell viability; and (3) study the DBPs formation associated with the pre-ozonation of cyanobacterial cells in laboratorial suspensions. To these ends, both Microcystis aeruginosa and Anabaena flos-aquae suspensions were prepared at concentrations of 250,000cellsmL-1 and 1,500,000cellsmL-1 and were subjected to ozone dosages of 0.5, 2.0 and 4.0mgL-1 at pH 6 and pH 8. A quick and complete loss of viability was achieved for both CB species after exposure (CT) to ozone of <0.2mgminL-1, although no significant decrease in total cell numbers was observed. Maximum dissolved organic carbon (DOC) releases of 0.96mgL-1 and 1.63mgL-1 were measured after ozonation of 250,000cellsmL-1 of M. aeruginosa and A. flos-aquae, respectively. DOC release was found to be pH and ozone dose dependent. Ozonation of CB cells increased formation of trihalomethanes (THM) and haloacetic acids (HAA), mainly for suspensions of A. flos-aquae at pH 8 (by 174% and 65% for THM and HAA respectively). Utilities considering using ozone for oxidising CB cells should weigh out the benefit of CB control with the potential increased formation of chlorinated DBPs. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Pastore J.F.B.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Kew Bulletin | Year: 2016

A new species, Polygala minarum (Polygalaceae) subgenus Polygala series Nudicaules, is described from Lavras, Serra de Carrancas and São Sebastião do Paraíso in the south of Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The infrageneric placement and its conservation status are assessed and its habitat and phenology are discussed. The new species is compared with its morphologically allied species, P. fontellana, P. poaya, and P. nudicaulis. Illustrations, photographs, and a distribution map are also provided. © 2016, The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Meurer S.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Zaniboni-Filho E.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Neotropical Ichthyology | Year: 2012

The reproductive and feeding biology of Acestrorhynchus pantaneiro were studied in the upper Uruguay River, southern Brazil. Fourteen sites were surveyed seasonally between 2000 and 2006. A total of 3,427 fish were caught, being 2,015 females and 1,412 males. The sex ratio was 1.66:1 (female:male) in lentic habitats (p<0.05), but showed equal proportion in lotic and transition habitats. Feeding activity was similar for both sexes and showed little variation along the year. The analysis of stomach contents of 2,401 stomach showed that "fish" was the most consumed resource in all different habitats, corresponding to 99% of the food in the gravimetric analyzes. The species showed a multiple spawning type with a long reproductive period, although the highest intensity of reproduction occurred between the beginning of spring and summer, marked by the highest GSI and advanced gonadal maturity stages. Relative fecundity (mean ± SD) was 139 ± 56 oocytes per mm of total length and 152 ± 66 oocytes per gram of total weight. The mean absolute fecundity was 33,470 ± 19,151 oocytes and the average of the mature oocytes diameter was 897.5 ± 365.4m. Acestrorhynchus pantaneiro is more abundant in lentic environments and presents biological characteristics that favor the establishment of the species in dammed rivers. © 2012 Sociedade Brasileira de Ictiologia.

Brentano D.M.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Giehl E.L.H.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Petrucio M.M.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Harmful Algae | Year: 2016

The cyanobacterium Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii is capable of producing toxins including saxitoxin (STX). Few studies have verified the influence of environmental variables on the production of STX and most have only been studied in the laboratory. The goal of this work was to identify the abiotic variables related to STX concentration in situ. The relationship among STX concentration and the physical variables, nutrients and chlorophyll-a (chl-a) concentration was examined in a meso-oligotrophic subtropical coastal lake dominated by C. raciborskii. A generalized linear model was developed, incorporating all variables measured monthly over a 45-month monitoring period. Conductivity and dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) concentration provided the greatest explanatory power for STX concentration in situ. Previous studies suggested that C. raciborskii cells exposed to stress associated with higher ionic concentrations appear to activate the biosynthesis of STX suggesting that STX can elicit changes cell permeability and may contribute to the homeostasis of this organism. An increase of DIN concentration results in a higher concentration of STX which may be related to a reduced metabolic demand, since the uptake of inorganic nitrogen requires less energy than N2-fixation. Thus, increased DIN can favor the growth of C. raciborskii population or improve cellular homeostasis, both potentially increasing STX concentration in the aquatic system, which was observed through a delayed response pattern. The developed model, while providing only a moderate predictive power, can assist in the understanding of the environmental variables associated with increases in STX concentration, and in monitoring and minimizing the risks of toxic blooms. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

Rossa P.N.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Burin V.M.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Bordignon-Luiz M.T.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
LWT - Food Science and Technology | Year: 2012

This study evaluated the effects of microbial transglutaminase (TG) (Streptoverticillium mobaraense) on the properties of ice cream with 4, 6 and 8 g/100 g fat. The TG was added at a concentration of 4 U g -1 and the chemical characteristics, capacity to incorporate air (overrun), fat coalescence, melting behavior, rheological properties and texture were evaluated. The TG was effective in controlling the ice cream properties providing greater overrun, greater fat coalescence and melting resistance in relation to samples without TG. These modifications can be attributed to the formation of a more cohesive protein network which increased the stability of the ice cream. Regarding the rheological parameters, it was found that TG caused an increase in the flow behavior index and pseudoplastic properties of the samples. The firmness of the ice cream was decreased by the addition of TG and was inversely proportional to the fat content. Ice cream with fat contents of 4 and 6 g/100 g subjected to enzymatic treatment had similar characteristics to samples formulated with 8 g/100 g fat, demonstrating that TG can be used to partially replace fat in ice cream. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Paduani C.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Jena P.,Virginia Commonwealth University
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy | Year: 2013

The role of Ti and Ti-based catalysts such as TiCl3 and TiF 3 in the dehydrogenation of Mg(BH4)2 has been studied using a cluster approach and density functional theory. The optimized geometry of Mg(BH4)2 clusters mimics the structure it has in the crystalline form, but undergoes significant geometric distortion as well as changes in the natural bond orbital (NBO) charge after the addition of the catalysts. While all the catalysts lower the hydrogen desorption energy, elemental Ti appears to be the best catalyst followed by TiCl3 and TiF3. The lowering of the hydrogen desorption is shown to be due to the weakening of the BH bond which is caused by the interaction of Ti with H and Mg. Copyright © 2012, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC.

Avancini S.S.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Menezes D.P.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Providencia C.,University of Coimbra
Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics | Year: 2011

In this paper, we use the mean-field approximation to investigate quark matter described by both SU(2) and SU(3) versions of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model at temperatures below 150 MeV and subject to a strong magnetic field. This kind of matter is possibly present in the early stages of heavy-ion collisions and in the interior of protoneutron stars. We have studied symmetric and asymmetric quark matter. The effect of the magnetic field on the effective quark masses and chemical potentials is only felt for quite strong magnetic fields, above 5×1018 G, with larger effects for the lower densities. Spin polarizations are more sensitive to weaker magnetic fields and are larger for lower temperatures and lower densities. Temperature tends to wash out the magnetic field effects. © 2011 American Physical Society.

Lazzarin T.B.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Andersen R.L.,Federal University of Paraiba | Barbi I.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics | Year: 2015

This paper proposes a bidirectional three-phase direct ac-ac converter, with only capacitors and switches in its power circuit and with its operation based on the switched-capacitor principle. The converter presents fixed gain, it keeps the frequencies of the output and input voltages equal, and it operates in open loop with constant switching frequency and duty cycle. The main advantages of the proposed converter are the absence of magnetic elements in the power circuit, the higher efficiency, the higher power density, the higher specific power, the lower cost, and the fact that it can convert ac-ac voltages within a wide frequency range, including dc voltage. Therefore, it is suitable to replace the conventional three-phase autotransformer in industrial, commercial, and residential applications, and it can be designated as a magnetic-less three-phase solid-state autotransformer. The principle of operation, a qualitative and quantitative analysis, the design methodology, and a fabricated example are described in this paper. In order to verify the converter in the laboratory, a prototype with the following characteristics was designed and fabricated: 6 kW, 1.35 kW/kg, 380/110 V, and switching frequency of 100 kHz. The measured efficiency at rated power was 96.3%, and other relevant experimental results are reported herein. © 2014 IEEE.

Teixeira M.,Federal University of Technology of Parana | Malik R.,University of Waikato | Cury J.E.R.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | De Queiroz M.H.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control | Year: 2015

This paper deals with two relevant aspects of Supervisory Control Theory (SCT) of Discrete Event Systems: the difficulty faced to model specifications to be fulfilled by the system under control, and the computational cost to synthesize supervisors. These aspects are addressed by Extended Finite-state Machines (EFSMs), a version of ordinary finite-state machines, extended with variables. EFSMs have been used in SCT to facilitate modeling tasks, but they are not directly advantageous in synthesis. This paper shows that some variables can nevertheless be abstracted from an EFSM to compute a supervisor. The proposed approach has the modeling benefits of EFSMs while preserving controllability and least restrictiveness of control solutions, and the synthesis procedure can be conducted with computational gains. An algorithm to compute supervisors from abstractions is also proposed. A way to construct abstractions that always lead to optimal synthesis complements the contributions, which are illustrated by two examples of manufacturing systems. © 1963-2012 IEEE.

Vieira K.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Schulter A.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Westphall C.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Westphall C.M.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
IT Professional | Year: 2010

Providing security in a distributed system requires more than user authentication with passwords or digital certificates and confidentiality in data transmission. The Grid and Cloud Computing Intrusion Detection System integrates knowledge and behavior analysis to detect intrusions. © 2010 IEEE.

Nazareno A.G.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Reis M.S.D.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Journal of Heredity | Year: 2012

The reproductive biology of the vulnerable palm species Butia eriospatha was studied to provide important information that contributes to our understanding and conservation of the species. In order to determine when and how B. erisopatha reproduces, we combined data from 7 nuclear microsatellite loci with ecological data on flowering and fruiting phenology collected between 2009 and 2011 from a population (N 515) in the Atlantic Rainforest, Southern Brazil. Periods of flowering and fruit production were seasonal and variable across reproductive events. Mating system analyses indicate that B. eriospatha is a predominantly outcrossing species, (m 0.961), since a certain degree of biparental inbreeding does occur. The species is self-compatible and reproduction may also occur by geitonogamy, indicating the ability of isolated populations to survive and persist. Open-pollinated seeds varied in relatedness, including mainly half-sibs and full-sibs. The effective population size was lower than that expected for panmictic populations. Hence, seeds for conservation programs must be collected from a large number of seed-trees to ensure an adequate effective population in the sample. The collection of germplasm is a high-priority strategy that should be employed to maintain the genetic variability that remains. © 2012 The American Genetic Association.

de Oliveira R.G.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Generoso D.J.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Applied Energy | Year: 2016

We designed, built and experimentally assessed the cooling power and the coefficient of performance (COP) of a chemisorption chiller that used a consolidated composite made of NaBr impregnated in expanded graphite as sorbent and ammonia as refrigerant. The influence of the operation conditions on the COP and the cooling power was calculated through the values of inlet and outlet water temperature and water mass flow across the chiller's heat exchangers. From the experimental results, we concluded that the utilization of mass recovery simultaneously to heat recovery improved the COP and cooling power up to 11.7% and 15.4%, respectively, when compared to the values obtained when only heat recovery was employed. Regarding the influence of the heat source temperature, maximum cooling power and COP were obtained when that temperature was, respectively, 75. °C and 65. °C. As for the influence of the cycle time, the highest values of COP were obtained with an 88. min cycle, whereas the highest values of cooling power were obtained at different cycle time, depending on the value of other operation conditions. When the chiller was driven by hot water at 70. °C, and the inlet water temperature in the evaporator was not kept constant, it cooled water from 23. °C to 10. °C in 90. min with mean cooling power of 1400. W and COP 0.33. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Favaro C.E.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Historia, Ciencias, Saude - Manguinhos | Year: 2010

During their settlement of the so-called Old Italian Colonies of Rio Grande do Sul, immigrants constructed a set of positive values that were to serve as an emotional support and a means of outside communication. When women immigrants embroidered images and sayings on wall hangings or kitchen towels made of rustic fabric, they helped nourish the dream of a better life, sought by all and achieved by some. The objects crafted by these twentiethcentury Penelopes bear witness to a way of doing, thinking, and acting. Local museums and exhibits have fostered the recovery of old-time embroidery techniques and themes; sold at open-air markets and regional festivals, these products represent income for women whose age excludes them from the formal labor market.

In the world scenario, the emergence of nutrition science was a phenomenon characteristic of the early Twentieth Century. In Brazil, its emergence occurred in the health sciences area (or life sciences) and was characterized, at first, as a science of biological nature. This article aims to analyze the trajectory of the process of producing scientific knowledge which ensured specificity to the field of nutrition in Brazil, from its emergence to the present. The theoretical assumptions that guide the article are: the concept of scientific field, developed by Pierre Bourdieu, and the concepts of paradigm and scientific community, introduced by Thomas Samuel Kuhn. Historical analysis shows that, from birth and in addition to its biological nature, Brazilian nutrition assumed social and environmental dimensions, being characterized as a multidisciplinary field of knowledge formed from the integration of the biological sciences, social sciences and food and nutrition sciences. In the last decades, with the intensive development of communication and information technology, genetics and sustainability theories, major paradigmatic changes have occurred in the field of nutrition. Therefore, one can say that nutrition is experiencing a post-genomic era and becoming a multidisciplinary science, characterized by the integration of the biological, social and environmental dimensions.