The Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul is one of the largest federal universities in Brazil. It is almost completely located in Porto Alegre, with four campuses , some isolated buildings and some isolated units in other cities. UFRGS is among the best Brazilian universities, and has one of the greatest numbers of scientific publications. UFRGS has over 27,000 undergraduate students and over 9,300 graduate students. The university has more than 2,500 professors. As a public federal institution, the students do not have to pay tuition fees to enroll in the courses offered by the university. To be admitted to one of the courses offered by UFRGS, a candidate must be approved in a yearly competitive exam, called the vestibular.The institute also has a profound political history. Between 1964 and 1969, during the worst years of the military dictatorship, 33 professors were eliminated, as well as a good number of students. The experience echoes a tradition of social commitment and combativeness.The institute has since been active not only in forming new generations of students, but also in the production of knowledge through high-quality research and consultancies. Today, many of the high-ranking officials in government as well as the majority of the history, philosophy and social science teachers in smaller universities throughout the state were educated in the institution.The climate of intellectual debate and analysis of public issues has also been important in training students to work for non-governmental and governmental organisations which contribute to the critical reflection and planning of development programs. Among the graduates of UFRGS, there are three Brazilian presidents: Getúlio Vargas, João Goulart, and Dilma Rousseff. Wikipedia.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: IA | Phase: NMP-21-2014 | Award Amount: 9.18M | Year: 2015
Currently there is a lack of methodologies for the conservation of modern and contemporary artworks, many of which will not be accessible in very short time due to extremely fast degradation processes. The challenge of NANORESTART (NANOmaterials for the REStoration of works of ART) will be to address this issue within a new framework with respect to the state of the art of conservation science. NANORESTART is devoted to the development of nanomaterials to ensure long term protection and security of modern/contemporary cultural heritage, taking into account environmental and human risks, feasibility and materials costs. The market for conservation of this heritage is estimated at some 5 billion per year, and could increase by a significant factor in the next years due to the wider use of nanomaterials. The new tools and materials developed will represent a breakthrough in cultural heritage and conservation science and will focus on: (i) tools for controlled cleaning, such as highly-retentive gels for the confinement of enzymes and nanostructured fluids based on green surfactants; (ii) the strengthening and protection of surfaces by using nanocontainers, nanoparticles and supramolecular systems/assemblies; (iii) nanostructured substrates and sensors for enhanced molecules detection; (iv) evaluation of the environmental impact and the development of security measures for long lasting conservation of cultural heritage. Within the project the industrial scalability of the developed materials will be demonstrated. NANORESTART gathers centres of excellence in the field of synthesis and characterization of nanomaterials, world leading chemical Industries and SMEs operating in R&D, and International and European centres for conservation, education and museums. Such centres will assess the new materials on modern/contemporary artefacts in urgent need of conservation, and disseminate the knowledge and the new nanomaterials among conservators on a worldwide perspective.
Dupont J.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul
Accounts of Chemical Research | Year: 2011
Ionic liquids (ILs), a special group of classical molten salts, are widely used in various fields of science. Historically, researchers have tested ILs out of curiosity or to improve a specific property in a particular system in many areas of chemistry or materials science. However, today, ILs are far from being simple chemical curiosities and sit at the center of various green industrial innovation processes, where they play important roles in materials extraction, reactive catalytic supports, spatial devices, and biotransformations.In this Account, we describe a journey into a nanostructured universe to better understand the unique properties of ionic liquids and their modern applications. Because molten salts have been known for centuries and have found limited uses, we try to explain why modern nonaqueous ILs deserve increased interest and curiosity. We discuss the characteristics that distinguish modern nonaqueous ILs and compare them with classical molten salts.One of the main differences between room temperature ILs, especially those based on imidazolium cations, and simple molten salts, is the molecular asymmetry built into at least one of the ions. This asymmetry in modern, nonaqueous ILs opposes the strong charge ordering due to ionic interactions that normally would cause the system to crystallize. In addition, the presence of a cooperative network of hydrogen bonds between the cations and anions induces structural directionality (the entropic effect). Therefore, modern ILs form preorganized structures, mainly through hydrogen bonding, that induce structural directionality. In contrast, classical salts form aggregates only through ionic bonds. In other words, weak interactions order the structures in modern ILs while charges order the structure within classical salts.ILs cannot be regarded as merely homogeneous solvents. In fact, ILs form extended hydrogen-bond networks with polar and nonpolar nano domains and therefore are by definition "supramolecular" fluids. Thus, ILs are better described as hydrogen-bonded polymeric supramolecules of the type [(DAI)m(X)m-n)] n+[(DAI)m-n(X)x)]n-. This structural pattern is a general trend for both the solid and the liquid phase and is apparently maintained to a large extent even in the gas phase. This structural organization of ILs can be used as entropic drivers (the "IL effect") for the preparation of well-defined nanoscale structures with extended order, either in the bulk phase or at the gas/vacuum interface. © 2011 American Chemical Society.
Dupont J.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul |
Scholten J.D.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2010
Ionic liquids (ILs), in particular imidazolium-based ILs, have proven to be suitable media for the generation and stabilisation of soluble metal nanoparticles (NPs). Indeed, transition-metal NPs with small sizes, narrow size distribution and different shapes have been prepared by reduction of organometallic compounds with molecular hydrogen, decomposition of transition-metal complexes in the zero-valent state, metal bombardment or simple transfer for previously prepared water- or classical organic solvent-soluble colloids to the ILs. The formation and stabilisation of NPs in these highly hydrogen bonded organised supramolecular fluids occur with the re-organisation of the hydrogen bond network and the generation of nanostructures with polar and non-polar regions, including the NPs. The IL forms a protective layer, which is probably composed of imidazolium aggregates located immediately adjacent to the nanoparticle surface, which provides both steric and electronic protection against aggregation and/or agglomeration. These stable transition-metal NPs immobilised in the ILs have proven to be efficient green catalysts for several reactions in multiphase conditions and also novel materials for chemical sensors. In this critical review, the structural/surface properties of these soluble metal NPs dispersed in ILs and their application in catalysis and as chemical sensors are discussed, with particular attention paid to the stabilisation models proposed to explain the stability and properties of these metal NPs (219 references). © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.
Fernandes B.S.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul
Molecular Psychiatry | Year: 2015
The inflammatory hypothesis of schizophrenia (SZ) posits that inflammatory processes and neural–immune interactions are involved in its pathogenesis, and may underpin some of its neurobiological correlates. SZ is the psychiatric disorder causing the most severe burden of illness, not just owing to its psychiatric impairment, but also owing to its significant medical comorbidity. C-reactive protein (CRP) is a commonly used biomarker of systemic inflammation worldwide. There are some conflicting results regarding the behaviour of CRP in SZ. The aims of this study were to verify whether peripheral CRP levels are indeed increased in SZ, whether different classes of antipsychotics divergently modulate CRP levels and whether its levels are correlated with positive and negative symptomatology. With that in mind, we performed a meta-analysis of all cross-sectional studies of serum and plasma CRP levels in SZ compared to healthy subjects. In addition, we evaluated longitudinal studies on CRP levels before and after antipsychotic use. Our meta-analyses of CRP in SZ included a total of 26 cross-sectional or longitudinal studies comprising 85 000 participants. CRP levels were moderately increased in persons with SZ regardless of the use of antipsychotics and did not change between the first episode of psychosis and with progression of SZ (g=0.66, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.43 to 0.88, P<0.001, 24 between-group comparisons, n=82 962). The extent of the increase in peripheral CRP levels paralleled the increase in severity of positive symptoms, but was unrelated to the severity of negative symptoms. CRP levels were also aligned with an increased body mass index. Conversely, higher age correlated with a smaller difference in CRP levels between persons with SZ and controls. Furthermore, CRP levels did not increase after initiation of antipsychotic medication notwithstanding whether these were typical or atypical antipsychotics (g=0.01, 95% CI −0.20 to 0.22, P=0.803, 8 within-group comparisons, n=713). In summary, our study provides further evidence of the inflammatory hypothesis of SZ. Whether there is a causal relationship between higher CRP levels and the development of SZ and aggravation of psychotic symptoms, or whether they are solely a marker of systemic low-grade inflammation in SZ, remains to be clarified.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 14 July 2015; doi:10.1038/mp.2015.87. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited
Dall'Alba V.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul
The British journal of nutrition | Year: 2013
A diet rich in fibre seems to protect against the metabolic syndrome (MetS), but there is scarce information about the role of fibre intake in patients with the MetS and diabetes. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of soluble fibre from partially hydrolysed guar gum (PHGG) on the MetS and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes. In the present randomised controlled clinical trial, forty-four patients with type 2 diabetes (males 38·6 %, age 62 (SD 9) years, diabetes duration 14·2 (SD 9·6) years) and the MetS underwent clinical, laboratory and dietary evaluations at baseline, 4 and 6 weeks. All patients followed their usual diet and the intervention group (n 23) received an additional 10 g/d of PHGG. In the intervention group, waist circumference (WC), glycated Hb (HbA1c), 24 h urinary albumin excretion (UAE) and serum trans-fatty acids (FA) were reduced in comparison with baseline after 4 and 6 weeks: WC 103·5 (SD 9·5) to 102·1 (SD 10) to 102·3 (SD 9·7) cm; HbA1c 6·88 (SD 0·99) to 6·64 (SD 0·94) to 6·57 (SD 0·84) %; 24 h UAE 6·8 (interquartile range 3·0-17·5) to 4·5 (interquartile range 3·0-10·5) to 6·2 (interquartile range 3·0-9·5) mg; trans-FA 71 (interquartile range 46-137) to 67 (interquartile range 48-98) to 57 (interquartile range 30-110) mg/l (P< 0·05 for all). The only change in the control group was weight reduction: 77·0 (SD 13·5) to 76·2 (SD 13·3) to 76·1 (SD 13·4) kg (P= 0·005). Other MetS components (blood pressure, TAG, HDL-cholesterol, fasting plasma glucose), total and LDL-cholesterol, C-reactive protein and endothelin-1 did not change in either group. In patients with type 2 diabetes and the MetS, the addition of PHGG to the usual diet improved cardiovascular and metabolic profiles by reducing WC, HbA1c, UAE and trans-FA.
Metallocene Catalyst Supported By Hybrid Supporting Means, Process For Producing Same, Polimerization Process For Producing An Ethylene Homopolymer Or Copolymer With Broad Or Bimodal Molar Mass Distribution, Use Of The Supported Metallocene Catalyst And Ethylene Polymer With Broad Or Bimodal Molar Mass Distribution
Braskem S.A. and Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Date: 2015-09-30
The present invention relates to a metallocene catalyst based on a transition metal of group 4 or 5 of the periodic table, supported on a hybrid catalytic support provided with aliphatic organic groups. One also describes a process for supporting metallocene on said hybrid catalytic support of aliphatic organic groups. The supported metallocene catalyst of the present invention exhibits, as its main advantage, the fact of producing an ethylene polymer with broad or bimodal molar mass distribution, by using only one type of metallocene complex on the support. As a result, on obtains, better processability of the resin obtained and, therefore, a potential reduction of the processing cost.
Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Date: 2015-07-08
The present invention aims to provide a pharmaceutical composition for the treatment of alopecia, said composition comprising polymeric nanoparticles, preferably nanocapsules, containing finasteride, additives and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier, as well as the use of the nanoparticles for preparing said composition for treating alopecia. The invention further includes an appropriate finasteride nanocapsule preparation process suitable for a composition for topical application for treating alopecia.
Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Date: 2015-07-08
The present invention relates to a pharmaceutical composition for topical application for the treatment of alopecia, said composition comprising polymeric nanoparticles, preferably nanocapsules containing two active ingredients, finasteride and minoxidil, additives and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier. The invention further includes a process for the preparation of polymeric nanoparticles, preferably nanocapsules of finasteride and minoxidil, a composition suitable for topical application for the treatment of alopecia, as well as the use of said nanocapsules for the preparation of a pharmaceutical composition.
Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Date: 2016-01-20
The present invention describes a method for completely extracting the alkaloid fraction (montanine) of Rhodophiala bifida (Herb.) Traub from bulbs of Rhodophiala bifida. The present invention further describes a method for treating inflammation using pharmaceutical compositions containing the alkaloid fraction of Rhodophiala bifida as the active ingredient. The present invention therefore comprises an extraction method that is faster than other extraction methods described in the literature for the alkaloid fraction of Rhodophiala bifida, dispensing with numerous changes of solvent in order to strain the plant, and the use thereof as an anti-inflammatory. The present invention is further characterised by the development of an anti-inflammatory medicinal drug for treating and preventing diseases involving inflammation and/or the local increase in the number of fibroblasts as its etiopathogenesis, such as: rheumatoid arthritis, ulcerative colitis, sepsis, acute pulmonary disease, inflammatory infections, in particular inflammatory and fibrosing diseases related to the lungs and kidneys, osteoporosis, Castleman disease, psoriatic arthritis, juvenile chronic arthritis and other non-specific inflammatory joint diseases.
Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Date: 2016-05-12
The present invention describes cosmetic nanotechnology, comprising polymeric nanoparticles containing oil and UV filter, photoprotective compositions comprising polymeric nanoparticles described herein, methods of prevention of diseases of the skin, and processes for the preparation of the polymeric nanoparticles described herein.