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Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

The Federal University of Rio de Janeiro or University of Brazil is a public university in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. UFRJ is the largest federal university in the country and is one of the Brazilian centers of excellence in teaching and research. In terms of scientific, artistic and cultural productions it is recognized nationally and internationally due to the great teachers, researchers, reviews and assessments made by international agencies. In 2014 QS World University Rankings ranked UFRJ as the best Brazilian federal university, as well as the third best university in the country occupying the fourth position among institutions of Latin America. In 2013 the Ranking Universitário Folha ranked UFRJ as the 2nd best university in Brazil and the best Federal University of the country.Brazil's first official higher education institution, it has worked uninterruptedly since 1792, when the "Real Academia de Artilharia, Fortificação e Desenho" was founded, and served as basis for the country's college system since its officialization in 1920. Besides its 157 undergraduate and 580 postgraduate courses, the UFRJ is responsible for seven museums, most notably the National Museum, nine hospitals, hundreds of laboratories and research facilities and forty-three libraries. Its history and identity are closely tied to the Brazilian ambitions of forging a modern, competitive and just society.The university is located mainly in Rio de Janeiro, with ramifications spreading to other ten cities. Its main campuses are the historical campus of "Praia Vermelha" and the newer "Cidade Universitária" , which houses the "Parque Tecnológico do Rio" - a science, technology and innovation development cluster. There are also several off-campus units scattered in Rio de Janeiro: the School of Music, the College of Law Studies, the Institute of Philosophy and Social science and the Institute of History, in downtown Rio; the National Museum and the Valongo Observatory in São Cristóvão; and the high-school unit "Colégio de Aplicação" in Lagoa. To the city of Macaé, located in the State's northern region, was dedicated a research and learning center focused on environmental issues and oil-related matters, and the city of Duque de Caxias, in partnership with the National Institute of Metrics, Normalization and Industrial Quality , saw the implementation of "Pólo Avançado de Xerém" , aimed at boosting research in the fields of biotechnology and nanotechnology.UFRJ is one of the main culprits in the formation of the Brazilian intellectual elite, contributing significantly to build not only the history of Rio de Janeiro but also of Brazil. Some of its former students include renowned economists Carlos Lessa and Mario Henrique Simonsen; Minister Marco Aurélio Mello; the architect Oscar Niemeyer; the educator Anísio Teixeira; the engineer Benjamin Constant Botelho; writers Clarice Lispector, Jorge Amado and Vinicius de Moraes; politicians Francisco Pereira Passos, Osvaldo Aranha and Pedro Calmon, besides the great physicians Carlos Chagas, Oswaldo Cruz and Vital Brazil. Wikipedia.

The recent development of methods that apply coalescent theory to phylogenetic problems has enabled the study of the population-level phenomena that drove the diversification of anthropoid primates. Effective population size, Ne, is one of the main parameters that constitute the theoretical underpinning of these new analytical approaches. For this reason, the ancestral Ne of selected primate lineages has been thoroughly investigated. However, for some of these lineages, the estimates of ancestral Ne reported in several studies present significant variation. This is the case for the common ancestor of humans and chimpanzees. Moreover, several ancestral anthropoid lineages have been ignored in the studies conducted so far. Because Ne is fundamental to understand historic species demography, it is a crucial component of a complete description of the historical scenario of primate evolution. It also provides information that is helpful for differentiating between competing biogeographical hypotheses. In this study, the effective population sizes of the anthropoid ancestors of the human-chimp lineage are inferred using data sets of coding and noncoding sequences. A general pattern of a serial decline of population sizes is found between the ancestral lineage of Anthropoidea and that of Homo and Pan. When the theoretical distribution of gene trees was derived from the parametric estimates obtained, it closely corresponded to the empirical frequency of inferred gene trees along the genome. The most abrupt decrease of Ne was found between the ancestors of all great apes and those of the African great apes alone. This suggests the occurrence of a genetic bottleneck during the evolution of Homininae, which corroborates the origin of African apes from a Eurasian ancestor. © 2013 The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com. Source

Pomin V.H.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - General Subjects | Year: 2012

Background: With the recent advent of glycomics, many medically relevant glycans have been discovered. Sulfated fucans (SFs) and sulfated galactans (SGs) are one of these classes of glycans with increasing interest to both glycomics and medicine. Besides having very unique structures, some of these molecules exhibit a broad range of pharmacological actions. In certain cases, high levels of effectiveness may be reached when the proper structural requirements are found. Scope of review: Here, we cover the fundamental biochemical mechanisms of some of these medicinal properties. We particularly focus on the beneficial activities of SFs and SGs in inflammation, hemostasis, vascular biology, and cancer. Major conclusions: In these clinical systems, intermolecular complexes directly driven by electrostatic interactions of SFs and SGs with P- and L-selectins, chemokines, antithrombin, heparin cofactor II, thrombin, factor Xa, bFGF, and VEGF, overall govern the resultant therapeutic effects. In spite of that, the structural features of SFs and SGs have shown to be essential determinants for formation and stability of those molecular complexes, which consequently account to the differential levels of the biomedical responses. General significance: Accurate structure-function relationships have mostly been achieved when SFs and SGs of well-defined structures are used for study. Therefore, these types of glycans have become of great usefulness to identify the chemical requirements needed to achieve satisfactory clinical responses. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source

Borges C.L.T.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2012

This paper presents a review of reliability models and methods for estimating renewable energy resources influence on electrical generation availability. These models and methods may be used to evaluate the impacts on the distribution systems reliability of distributed generation integration, especially when they are based on renewable energy sources. For such, the paper presents the main characteristics of renewable resources models that have been developed for wind, small hydro, solar and biomass, and presents the main methods for reliability evaluation of distribution systems with such resources integrated. These evaluation methods may be based on analytical techniques, Monte Carlo simulation or hybrid approaches. The impact of distributed generation on the reliability of electric distribution systems depends mainly on the operational mode and the energy source in which it is based. The most uncertain case is related to generation based on renewable energy of intermittent nature where the generation availability depends on the availability of the energy source and the availability of the generating unit. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All right reserved. Source

da Fonseca A.C.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Clinical & developmental immunology | Year: 2013

Malignant gliomas are the most common primary brain tumors. Their deadliest manifestation, glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), accounts for 15% of all primary brain tumors and is associated with a median survival of only 15 months even after multimodal therapy. There is substantial presence of microglia and macrophages within and surrounding brain tumors. These immune cells acquire an alternatively activated phenotype with potent tumor-tropic functions that contribute to glioma growth and invasion. In this review, we briefly summarize recent data that has been reported on the interaction of microglia/macrophages with brain tumors and discuss potential application of these findings to the development of future antiglioma therapies. Source

Herculano-Houzel S.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Frontiers in Neuroanatomy | Year: 2010

While larger brains possess concertedly larger cerebral cortices and cerebella, the relative size of the cerebral cortex increases with brain size, but relative cerebellar size does not. In the absence of data on numbers of neurons in these structures, this discrepancy has been used to dispute the hypothesis that the cerebral cortex and cerebellum function and have evolved in concert and to support a trend towards neo corticalization in evolution. However, the rationale for interpreting changes in absolute and relative size of the cerebral cortex and cerebellum relies on the assumption that they reflect absolute and relative numbers of neurons in these structures across all species - an assumption that our recent studies have shown to be fl awed. Here I show for the first time that the numbers of neurons in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum are directly correlated across 19 mammalian species of four different orders, including humans, and increase concertedly in a similar fashion both within and across the orders Eulipotyphla (Insectivora), Rodentia, Scandentia and Primata, such that on average a ratio of 3.6 neurons in the cerebellum to every neuron in the cerebral cortex is maintained across species. This coordinated scaling of cortical and cerebellar numbers of neurons provides direct evidence in favor of concerted function, scaling and evolution of these brain structures, and suggests that the common notion that equates cognitive advancement with neocortical expansion should be revisited to consider in its stead the coordinated scaling of neocortex and cerebellum as a functional ensemble. © 2010 Herculano-Houzel. Source

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