Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

The Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro is a centenary Brazilian university located in the city of Seropédica in the State of Rio de Janeiro in Brazil. It possesses the largest campus among Latin American universities, and is known for being the first university to have agriculture related courses in Brazil.Founded in October 20, 1910, by then president of the republic Nilo Peçanha, the College of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine laid the foundations of agricultural education in Brazil.The ESAMV, however, only began operating in 1913 and ended in 1934. In its place emerged three distinct institutions: the National School of Agriculture , National School of Veterinary Medicine and the National School of Chemistry . These institutions have been crucial to overcoming the fragmentary and differentiated from existing agricultural and veterinary education throughout the nineteenth century and to create an academic reference space. In January 1944, the Rural University is established as an organ of the National Centre for Agronomic Research and Teaching and incorporates the ENA and the Environment.The creation of ESAMV thus represents the origin of the Rural University, today the Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro.This university has a college for high school course with technical integrated, like agriculture, hosting and environment called CTUR. It's located inside the campus of the university. Wikipedia.

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Barreiro E.J.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Kummerle A.E.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Kummerle A.E.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Fraga C.A.M.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2011

The importance of the simple methyl group as a very useful structural modification in the rational design of bioactive compounds and drugs is examined. The methyl effect alters both biological phases of a drug, represented by its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetc profile, due to the modifications introduced in the stereoeletronic properties. Cimetidine contains an imidazolyl nucleus and a methyl group at C-5, thus favoring the tautomeric form necessary for H 2 receptor selectivity. The thioether in the side chain of cimetidine ensured adequate hydrophobic properties and led to increased selective antagonist activity. The activation mechanism of proton pump inhibitors (PPI) is directly related to the nitrogen nucleophilicity of the pyridine moiety, which depends on the electronic effect of substituents on the pKa of the pyridine ring. When electron-donating substituent, such as methyl groups are attached to the pyridine ring then its pKa increases, thus increasing its protonation rate at any given pH.

Abreu E.M.C.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Abreu E.M.C.,Federal University of Juiz de fora | Neto J.A.,Federal University of Juiz de fora
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2013

Verlinde's ideas considered gravity as an emergent force originated from entropic concepts. This hypothesis generated a huge number of papers through the last recent years concerning classical and quantum approaches about the issue. In a recent paper Kobakhidze, using ultra-cold neutrons experiment, claimed that Verlinde's entropic gravity is not correct. In this Letter, by considering the Tsallis nonadditivity entropy concerning the holographic screen, where we assumed that the bits are entangled states, we showed that it is possible to confirm Verlinde's formalism. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Monteiro L.R.,University of Hull | Monteiro L.R.,State University of Norte Fluminense | Nogueira M.R.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro
BMC Evolutionary Biology | Year: 2011

Background: The phyllostomid bats present the most extensive ecological and phenotypic radiation known among mammal families. This group is an important model system for studies of cranial ecomorphology and functional optimisation because of the constraints imposed by the requirements of flight. A number of studies supporting phyllostomid adaptation have focused on qualitative descriptions or correlating functional variables and diet, but explicit tests of possible evolutionary mechanisms and scenarios for phenotypic diversification have not been performed. We used a combination of morphometric and comparative methods to test hypotheses regarding the evolutionary processes behind the diversification of phenotype (mandible shape and size) and diet during the phyllostomid radiation. Results: The different phyllostomid lineages radiate in mandible shape space, with each feeding specialisation evolving towards different axes. Size and shape evolve quite independently, as the main directions of shape variation are associated with mandible elongation (nectarivores) or the relative size of tooth rows and mandibular processes (sanguivores and frugivores), which are not associated with size changes in the mandible. The early period of phyllostomid diversification is marked by a burst of shape, size, and diet disparity (before 20 Mya), larger than expected by neutral evolution models, settling later to a period of relative phenotypic and ecological stasis. The best fitting evolutionary model for both mandible shape and size divergence was an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process with five adaptive peaks (insectivory, carnivory, sanguivory, nectarivory and frugivory). Conclusions: The radiation of phyllostomid bats presented adaptive and non-adaptive components nested together through the time frame of the family's evolution. The first 10 My of the radiation were marked by strong phenotypic and ecological divergence among ancestors of modern lineages, whereas the remaining 20 My were marked by stasis around a number of probable adaptive peaks. A considerable amount of cladogenesis and speciation in this period is likely to be the result of non-adaptive allopatric divergence or adaptations to peaks within major dietary categories. © 2011 Monteiro and Nogueira; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Muradian R.,Radboud University Nijmegen | Muradian R.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro
Society and Natural Resources | Year: 2013

The design and thriving of payments for ecosystem services (PES) have occurred as a response to the relative failure of integrated strategies for reconciling conservation and development. The most widespread definition of PES conceives these payments as markets to solve environmental externalities. This article analyzes the limitations of this "Coasean" approach using insights from transaction costs economics, and it pleads for looking at PES with different analytical lenses. It argues that PES should be seen as "incentives for collective action." However, the extent to which incentives can contribute to the management of ES should not be taken for granted. The effects of monetary incentives are determined by their "social meanings," which are context and culture dependent. The proposed conceptual shift has significant analytical and practical implications. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Alves W.A.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro
Vibrational Spectroscopy | Year: 2010

Spectral changes in the v1 region of pyridine (py) and pyrimidine (pd) at 991 cm-1 have been observed by means of a temperature dependent Raman study of the equimolar mixtures of formamide (FA)/py and FA/pd. The thermodynamic functions of the respective H-bonded complexes are determined and discussed as a function of the physical and chemical properties of the corresponding azabenzenes. The equilibrium constant values for the 1:1 FA:py complex are much greater than those obtained for the 2:1 FA:pd complex. This result clearly shows that py is a stronger base than pd, although their dipole moment (μ) values are almost identical. This last parameter seems to play an important role with respect to the band shifts (Δv) as well as to the formation enthalpies (ΔH°) of these complexes. The values of -43.6 J mol-1 K-1 for 1:1 FA:py and -75 J mol-1 K -1 for 2:1 FA:pd indicate that the whole hydrogen bonding process is entropically unfavorable. The high molecular association extent in these systems is likely the explanation to the significantly smaller band shifts in magnitude as compared to ternary systems. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Rodrigues-Santos C.E.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Echevarria A.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro
Tetrahedron Letters | Year: 2011

An efficient synthesis of 12 pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridin-6-one derivatives was achieved using either microwave or ultrasound irradiation, resulting in yields of 40-60% and 60-95%, respectively. Under our conditions, these reactions occurred with notably reduced reaction times as compared to literature reports involving traditional heating. Furthermore, these reactions were highly regioselective and produced only one pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridin-6-one isomer, whose identity was confirmed by NOESY spectroscopy. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Wilkinson J.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro
Environment and Planning A | Year: 2011

The explosive growth of food commodity markets in the wake of massive, sustained demand from the 'emerging economies' might seem to mark a rupture with the niche quality markets which many authors have identified as the dominant tendencies in agrofood since the 1980s and a return to the mass markets of yesteryear. In this paper it is argued, however, that the distinguishing characteristics of special quality markets, and particularly the role of new social movements in their construction, are now being extended to the marketing of basic food commodities. Rather than a return to the commodity economy, therefore, we are witnessing a struggle to incorporate the values associated with fair trade, organics, and sustainability as benchmarks for global commodity trade in food, feed, fuels, and forestry products. I illustrate these tendencies through a discussion of the fair trade and responsible soy movements, representing the niche quality and the resurgent commodity markets, respectively, illustrating not only their similar dynamics but also their continuity in terms of leading actors and networks. Brazil provides a privileged vantage point for analysing this interface between global commodity markets and social movements. The strategic role of networks, in which civil society organisations and social movements are key both for the definition and the subsequent functioning of these markets points to the considerable weakening and possible demise of the traditional commodity economy. I draw attention, however, to the North-South and particularly European roots of these tendencies whose survival power is threatened as the axis for trade and investment shifts increasingly South-South with China as its principal driving force. © 2011 Pion Ltd and its Licensors.

Terra B.D.F.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Araujo F.G.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro
Ecological Indicators | Year: 2011

Large river-reservoir systems are some of the most difficult aquatic ecosystems to assess because: (1) they typically lack minimally disturbed reference sites; (2) the reservoirs are not natural systems to begin with; and (3) reservoirs with high exchange rates are transitional systems between rivers and lakes. These features are further complicated in Brazil where fish species taxonomy is incomplete (let alone fully described ecologically), where waters naturally have high organic and thermal loadings, and where dams and reservoirs provide most of the nation's electricity and water supplies. As a first step towards generating a biological tool for assessing the effects of reservoirs on rivers, we developed a preliminary River-Reservoir Fish Assemblage Index (RRFAI) in a transitional river-reservoir system in southeastern Brazil. To do so, we gill-netted fish monthly between October 2006 and September 2007 (excluding May and July 2007) immediately upriver of the reservoir, in the upper reservoir, in the lower reservoir, and immediately downriver of the reservoir. In developing our RRFAI we sought fish assemblage metrics to represent ecological characteristics including richness, habitat, trophic, tolerance, and resilience guilds. Despite clear differences in fish assemblage composition between river and reservoir sites, we found 9 metrics common to both systems that were nonredundant and had low sampling variability (number of native species, number of characiform species, number of siluriform species, % omnivorous individuals, % invertivorous individuals, % non-native carnivorous individuals, % intolerant individuals, % tolerant individuals, number of tolerant species). Fish assemblage condition was significantly and consistently lower in the lower reservoir. There was no significant difference between the dry and wet season in RRFAI scores, suggesting that a single season sample should usually suffice. Further research is needed along distinct disturbance gradients in multiple river-reservoir systems in Brazil to confirm the sensitivity of our preliminary RRFAI for assessing the physical and chemical habitat disturbances common to such systems. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

This study had as its objective to evaluate the effects of different tillage and crop systems on the growth and productivity of sugarcane plants. The experiment was conducted in Linhares, ES. It is one of the oldest assays in the country investigating the effects of unburned and burned sugarcane. Installed in a Yellow Latosol with sandy/medium texture, the treatments consisted of plots (conventional and minimum tillage) and subplots (raw and burned sugarcane). Plant growth, contribution of organic matter and quantification of sugarcane yield were evaluated. The diameter was larger for minimum tillage, and tillering was greater for conventional tillage. The height and tillering were superior in the cut without burning. For stems productivity, the treatments did not present significant differences. The leaves were larger in minimum tillage and tips in unburned cane. The minimum tillage propitiates the increase in diameter initially and largest productivity of leaves in the crop. Tillering is favored by conventional tillage. The unburned cane did not present negative influence of straw in the regrowth. After 16 years of sugarcane cultivation with and without straw burning, it resulted in larger productivity of pointers increasing the productivity of the stems in unburned cane.

Wilkinson J.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia | Year: 2010

This article analyzes the situation of Brazilian agribusiness worldwide, which is characterized primarily by the ascendancy of China and its demand for agricultural commodities, especially the feed chains where the Mercosur, and especially Brazil, becomes the main supplier. There is the threat that in this new dynamics Mercosur falls increasingly on international trade as a mere supplier of raw materials. This scenario is complicated due to the transnationalization of the leading companies in this sector. Against this, the agricultural expansion into the Midwest and Northern Brazil creates opportunities for the raise of new segments in both domestic processing activities such as logistics and trade. The importance of markets for differentiated products either disappears because if the Northern markets become less dynamic, a new middle class globally appears. We followed a dynamic of domestic market of that overall process. To seize these opportunities, however, Brazil has to negotiate a more complex environment, where leadership in research and innovation goes to transnational corporations. © 2010 Sociedade Brasileira de Zootecnia.

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