Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

The Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro is a centenary Brazilian university located in the city of Seropédica in the State of Rio de Janeiro in Brazil. It possesses the largest campus among Latin American universities, and is known for being the first university to have agriculture related courses in Brazil.Founded in October 20, 1910, by then president of the republic Nilo Peçanha, the College of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine laid the foundations of agricultural education in Brazil.The ESAMV, however, only began operating in 1913 and ended in 1934. In its place emerged three distinct institutions: the National School of Agriculture , National School of Veterinary Medicine and the National School of Chemistry . These institutions have been crucial to overcoming the fragmentary and differentiated from existing agricultural and veterinary education throughout the nineteenth century and to create an academic reference space. In January 1944, the Rural University is established as an organ of the National Centre for Agronomic Research and Teaching and incorporates the ENA and the Environment.The creation of ESAMV thus represents the origin of the Rural University, today the Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro.This university has a college for high school course with technical integrated, like agriculture, hosting and environment called CTUR. It's located inside the campus of the university. Wikipedia.

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De Souza A.J.S.,Instituto Evandro Chagas | Gomes-Gouvea M.S.,University of Sao Paulo | Soares M.D.C.P.,Instituto Evandro Chagas | Pinho J.R.R.,University of Sao Paulo | And 4 more authors.
Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases | Year: 2012

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a fecal-orally transmitted member of the genus . Hepevirus that causes acute hepatitis in humans and is widely distributed throughout the world. Pigs have been reported as the main source of genotypes 3 and 4 infection to humans in non-endemic areas. To investigate HEV infection in pigs from different regions of Pará state (Eastern Brazilian Amazon), we performed serological and molecular analyses of serum, fecal and liver samples from 151 adult pigs slaughtered between April and October 2010 in slaughterhouses in the metropolitan region of Belém, Pará. Among the animals tested, 8.6% (13/151) were positive for anti-HEV IgG but not for anti-HEV IgM. HEV RNA was detected in 4.8% (22/453) of the samples analyzed and 9.9% (15/151) of the animals had at least one positive sample. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all sequences belonged to genotype 3 that were related to human isolates from other non-endemic regions, suggesting that the isolates had zoonotic potential. Subtypes 3c and 3f were simultaneously detected in some pigs, suggesting co-infection by more than one strain and/or the presence of a recombinant virus. These results constitute the first molecular and serologic evidence of swine HEV circulation in the Eastern Brazilian Amazon. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Salamene S.,Federal University of São Paulo | Francelino M.R.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Valcarcel R.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Lani J.L.,Federal University of Viçosa | Sa M.M.F.,Federal University of Viçosa
Revista Arvore | Year: 2011

The Guandu River is the main water provision source in Rio de Janeiro metropolitan area, assisting a population of about nine million people. This study is an environmental stratification and characterization of the Permanent Preservation Area (PPA) in Guandu River, through non-conventional digital aerial photos obtained from a small digital camera attached to a helicopter. These aerial photos have been grouped in mosaics to make the geoprocessing stages easier. The PPA region has been stratified in four different environments: Environment-1 (river-bed), Environment-2 (fluvial holm), Environment-3 (aluvionar plain), Environment-4 (marine influenced). A map of the degree of degradation of each environment has been obtained from the superposition of land use maps, urban-industrial and natural vegetation maps. Generally, the land is used for agriculture and pasture. The forest fragments represent only 7,4% of the PPA. Environment-4 shows 51% of high to very high degradation degree, and Environment-3 shows a better conservation state compared to the others. These results suggest that predominance of agricultural activities, proximity of great urban centers and very reduced forest area in the PPA of Guandu River menace the quality of this important source.

Stolf R.,Federal University of São Carlos | de Mendonca Thurler A.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Bacchi O.O.S.,University of Sao Paulo | Reichardt K.,University of Sao Paulo
Revista Brasileira de Ciencia do Solo | Year: 2011

Macroporosity is often used in the determination of soil compaction. Reduced macroporosity can lead to poor drainage, low root aeration and soil degradation. The aim of this study was to develop and test different models to estimate macro and microporosity efficiently, using multiple regression. Ten soils were selectedwithin a large range of textures: sand (Sa) 0.07-0.84; silt 0.03-0.24; clay 0.13-0.78 kg kg-1 and subjected to three compaction levels (three bulk densities, BD). Two models with similar accuracy were selected, with a mean error of about0.02 m3 m-3 (2 %). The model y = a + b.BD + c.Sa, named model 2, was selected for its simplicity to estimate Macro (Ma), Micro (Mi) or total porosity (TP): Ma = 0.693 - 0.465 BD + 0.212 Sa; Mi = 0.337 + 0.120 BD - 0.294 Sa; TP = 1.030 - 0.345 BD - 0.082Sa; porosity values were expressed in m3 m-3; BD in kg dm-3; and Sa in kg kg-1. The model was tested with 76 datum set of several other authors. An error of about0.04 m3 m-3 (4 %) was observed. Simulations of variations in BD as a function of Sa are presented for Ma = 0 and Ma = 0.10 (10 %). The macroporosity equation was remodeled to obtain other compaction indexes: a) to simulate maximum bulk density (MBD) as a function of Sa (Equation 11), in agreement with literature data; b) to simulate relative bulk density (RBD) as a function of BD and Sa (Equation 13); c) another model to simulate RBD as a function of Ma and Sa (Equation 16), confirming the independence of this variable in relation to Sa for a fixed value of macroporosity and, also, proving the hypothesis of Hakansson &Lipiec that RBD = 0.87 corresponds approximately to 10 % macroporosity (Ma =0.10 m3 m-3).

de Souza A.P.,Federal University of Mato Grosso | Pereira J.B.A.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | da Silva L.D.B.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | de Carvalho D.F.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro
Acta Scientiarum - Agronomy | Year: 2011

The objective of this study was to determine the crop evapotranspiration (ETc), crop coefficients (kc) and water-use efficiency (EUA) of the bell pepper crop in the no till system (PD) and conventional tillage system (PC), in the Fluminense Valley, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. The irrigation was managed and the evapotranspiration demand quantified by calculating the daily soil water balance using the TDR technique and data collected in an automatic meteorological station. It was verified that the accumulated ETc at 181 days after planting (DAT) was 363 and 335 mm for PD and PC, respectively. The kcs obtained were 0.32, 1.18 and 0.77 and 0.34, 1.05 and 0.86, for the PD and PC systems, respectively, in the initial (0-40 DAP), middle (81-120 DAP) and final (181 DAP) growth phases, respectively. The kc values for the bell pepper crop presented by FAO were similar to the values found for the PC, but are not recommended for PD. Considering the total depth applied (rain and irrigation), the average values of water use efficiency were 3.9 and 4.5 kg m -3 for PD and PC, respectively.

Neves S.P.,Federal University of Pernambuco | Lages G.A.,CPRM Servico Geologico Nacional | Brasilino R.G.,CPRM Servico Geologico Nacional | Miranda A.W.A.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro
Journal of South American Earth Sciences | Year: 2015

Several Brasiliano-Pan-African belts consist of large areas of reworked Paleoproterozoic rocks. Characterization of these rocks is needed to place better controls on Precambrian paleogeographic reconstructions. The Borborema Province, northeastern Brazil, occupies a central position in West Gondwana configuration, and knowledge of its geological evolution is crucial to infer relationships between Paleoproterozoic units in South America and Africa. Here, we report U-Pb ages, major- and trace-elements analyses and Sm-Nd isotopic data for orthogneisses in the eastern portion of Central Domain. The dominant basement units in the study area are banded gneisses of intermediate composition and relatively juvenile character, and migmatitic gneisses of granitic composition with Archean Nd TDM model ages. One sample of the banded gneiss yielded a weighted 207 Pb/206 Pb age of 2096±23Ma and an upper intercept age of 2044±27Ma, which we interpret, respectively, as ages of crystallization and metamorphism. Two large units of migmatitic gneiss in the southern and central parts of the area gave ages of, respectively, 2057±20Ma and 2055±23Ma; an orthoamphibolite associated with the latter yielded crystallization age of 2042±11Ma and metamorphic age of 1996±13Ma. All these rocks have geochemical signatures typical of subduction zone-related magmas. Combined with evidence provided by previous studies, we suggest that the evolution of the study area starts with island arc construction around 2.2Ga, leading to an expressive volcanic arc edifice by 2.13-2.10Ga. By 2.06Ga, the crust had evolved enough to become intruded by magmas formed at the mantle wedge of the now largely continental magmatic arc, which continued to be intruded by mantle melts until at least 2.04Ga. An augen gneiss in the northern part of the area, with an age of 2109±15Ma, and a migmatitic gneiss with a much older age (2183±9Ma), both of which have geochemical characteristics akin to intraplate magmas, suggest that crustal reworking also took place. The 1981±23Ma age of a small body of peraluminous felsic gneiss may be related to regional metamorphism and syncollisional magmatism at c. 2.0-1.98Ga. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

De Sousa Camara J.H.,Federal University of Viçosa | Lisboa-Filho J.,Federal University of Viçosa | De Souza W.D.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Pereira R.O.,Federal University of Viçosa
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2016

The widespread use of GPS-equipped devices such as smartphones and tablets and the easy handling of online maps are simplifying the production and dissemination of volunteered geographic information (VGI) through the internet. VGI systems collect and distribute this type of information and can be used, for example, in cases of natural disasters, mapping, city management, etc. In some cases, the VGI systems must be implemented within a short timeframe, such as in response to emergencies due to natural disasters. Some tools, such as the Ushahidi and ClickOnMap platforms, have been designed to enable the quick development of VGI systems. The quality of data collected by VGI systems has been and must be questioned, but, in some situations, there are no official data or they have become outdated after the event. Hence, these platforms must provide methods to help the user produce or report data voluntarily, but with quality. This article analyzes the main quality attributes that can be applied in the VGI context and identifies, in the literature, methods that contribute to increasing VGI quality. This study resulted in a set of 19 attributes and 23 quality methods related to VGI. This paper also proposes six new methods that can help obtain data with quality assurance. These methods were implemented with success on the ClickOnMap Platform to assuring the quality of VGI. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016.

de Lima H.A.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Somner G.V.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Giulietti A.M.,State University of Feira de Santana
Plant Systematics and Evolution | Year: 2016

Paullinia weinmanniifolia (Sapindaceae) is an endemic Brazilian climber found in the Atlantic Forest. The flowers are arranged in synflorescences with approximately 34 thyrses. In the studied material, each thyrse produced 85.8 male flowers and 15.8 female flowers. The small, diclinous and zygomorphic flowers present a sophisticated morphology, described here in detail. They are visited by many insects, with bees being the main pollinators. Sex expression was investigated by monitoring one population of restinga in Maricá Environmental Protection Area, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, during 2–4 years. Experiments were conducted taking into account thyrse, synflorescence, plant and population. Most individuals showed a duodichogamic sequence of flowering (male–female–male). However, the population overall had a more complex flowering pattern: some individuals were protogynous, others protandrous; a few individuals produced flowers of only one sex, and some individuals changed sex expression in the second year of the study, either from male to female or from female to male. This was the first ever labile sex expression recorded for the tribe Paullinieae. Anthetic female and male flowers were never found simultaneously in the same thyrse or synflorescence. Nevertheless, the two flower morphs overlapped, though rarely, within the same individual. The pattern of flowering observed in this species maximizes the level of outcrossing, since the temporal separation of male and female flowers on the same plant is precise enough for the species to be regarded as (obligatorily) xenogamous. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Wien.

Abreu E.M.C.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Abreu E.M.C.,Federal University of Juiz de fora | Abreu E.M.C.,Brazilian Center for Research in Physics (CBPF)
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2011

Rubakov and Shaposhnikov (RSH), in a seminal paper, discussed the possibility that particles are confined in a potential well. This is considered as the first mention to the today's idea that we live in a brane, i.e., the braneworld concept. In this work we show precisely that the proposed RSH model has a gauge invariant equivalent action and we discuss it in the light of braneworld structure. We analyzed the intrinsic features of both models trying to disclose new properties within RSH braneworld theory. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Godinho C.F.L.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Neto J.A.H.,Brazilian Center for Research in Physics (CBPF)
Annalen der Physik | Year: 2016

Starting from a field theory action that describes a Dirac fermion, we propose and analyze a model based on a low-relativistic Pauli equation coupled to a torsion-like term to study Spin Hall Effect (SHE). We point out a very particular connection between the modified Pauli equation and the (SHE), where what we refer to torsion as field playing an important role in the spin-orbit (SO) coupling process. In this scenario, we present a proposal of a spin-type current, considering the tiny contributions of torsion in connection with intrinsic anisotropy of the crystal electric field. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

Gomes R.R.,Brazilian Center for Research in Physics (CBPF) | De Oliveira I.G.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Doria M.M.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2012

We investigate the Little-Parks oscillations caused by a persistent current loop set on the top edge of a mesoscopic superconducting thin-walled cylinder with a finite height. For a short cylinder the Little-Parks oscillations are approximately the same ones as the standard effect, as there is only one magnetic flux piercing the cylinder. For a tall cylinder the inhomogeneity of the magnetic field makes different magnetic fluxes pierce the cylinder at distinct heights and we show here that this produces two distinct Little-Parks oscillatory regimes according to the persistent current loop. We show that these two regimes, and also the transition between them, are observable in current measurements done in the superconducting cylinder. The two regimes stem from different behavior along the height, as seen in the order parameter, numerically obtained from the Ginzburg-Landau theory through the finite element method. © 2012 American Physical Society.

Francelino M.R.,Federal University of Viçosa | Silva J.A.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro
Floresta e Ambiente | Year: 2014

Profound changes occurred in the Brazilian Forest Code in 2012. Political solutions exceeded scientific criteria, causing considerable losses to the environment. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of the criteria adopted by Law 12651 on the delimitation of permanent preservation areas (APPs) for the upper third of hills of a river basin in the state of Rio de Janeiro. APPs were delimited in the watershed of Cacaria River in the municipality of Pirai, considering the criteria established by CONAMA Resolution 303, Law 12651. Alternatively, a change in Law 12651 was proposed - altering the criteria related to the average slope ≥ 25° proposed. This procedure was carried out at Arcgis 10 program using a digital elevation model (DEM). We conclude that, according to Law 12651 (average slope ≥ 25°), only 1.5% of APPs on the hill tops delimited using Resolution 303 would be left, and if the same criteria were adopted considering the line of maximum gradient instead of the average slope, this reduction in APPs would be of only 22%.

Cia M.C.,University of Sao Paulo | Medici L.O.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Azevedo R.A.,University of Sao Paulo
Annals of Applied Biology | Year: 2012

Water deficit is the major yield-limiting factor of crop plants. The exposure of plants to this abiotic stress can result in oxidative damage due to the overproduction of reactive oxygen species. The aim of this work was to study the antioxidant-stress response of drought-tolerant (SP83-2847 and SP83-5073) and drought-sensitive (SP90-3414 and SP90-1638) sugarcane varieties to water-deficit stress, which was imposed by withholding irrigation for 3, 10 and 20 days. The drought-sensitive varieties exhibited the lowest leaf relative water content and highest lipid peroxidation, hydrogen peroxide (H 2O 2) and proline contents during the progression of the drought-stress condition. The antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), guaiacol peroxidase (GPOX) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities changed according to variety and stress intensity. SP83-2847 exhibited higher CAT and APX activities than the other varieties in the early stage of drought, while the activities of GPOX and GR were the highest in the other varieties at the end of the drought-stress period. A Cu/Zn SOD isoenzyme was absent at the end of drought period from the SP90-3414-sensitive variety. The results indicate that lipid peroxidation and early accumulation of proline may be good biochemical markers of drought sensitivity in sugarcane. © 2012 Association of Applied Biologists.

Bernacci L.C.,Instituto Agronomico Of Campinas Iac | De Siqueira M.F.,Institute Pesquisas Do Jardim Botanico Do Rio Of Janeiro Jbrj | Rocha F.S.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro
Natureza a Conservacao | Year: 2012

Biological collections evoke contrasting feelings for being such a vast source of biodiversity data which is prone to all sorts of errors and uncertainties. The situation is not different for Brazilian herbaria, currently sharing more than two million easily accessible records on the Web. Properly dealing with this reality is a crucial task when using this kind of data for ecological niche modelling (ENM), so that errors and uncertainties do not generate misleading results in conservation. Here we investigate some of the issues that can be found in herbarium specimen data, describing a set of automatic procedures that can be used for a prior selection of records for ENM. In total, 11531 records for 135 species of Passifloraceae that natively occur in Brazil were analyzed considering different spatial resolutions, ranging from 30 arc-seconds to 10 arc-minutes. After applying the procedures, the proportion of spatially unique records was 9.3% for the highest resolution considering all species, with an average number of 8 records selected per species. These numbers increased to 17% and 16, respectively, for all other resolutions. This scenario highlights the importance of using data quality filters and further developing ENM presence-only methods that can work with a low number of records per species. Automatic procedures still cannot discard expert review, but they can greatly facilitate it by drawing attention to a much smaller number of records potentially useful for ENM. Most of the data quality procedures described here can also be applied to other taxonomic groups, regions and specimen data sources. © 2012 ABECO.

Francelino M.R.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Schaefer C.E.G.R.,Federal University of Viçosa | Simas F.N.B.,Federal University of Viçosa | Filho E.I.F.,Federal University of Viçosa | And 2 more authors.
Catena | Year: 2011

The main pedological, geomorphological and cryogenic features of Keller Peninsula, part of Admiralty Bay, King George Island, Maritime Antarctica, were mapped and quantified with emphasis on the relationship between the ice retreat process, melt-out, landform development and soil distribution. Moraines, protalus, scree slopes, inactive glacial cirques, uplift marine terraces, biogenic landforms, arêtes and Felsenmeer were mapped. Scree slope is the main landform, covering approximately 25% of the peninsula, indicating prominent paraglacial features. Inherited, glacial landforms, such as lateral moraines, highland plateau and exhumed U shaped-valleys, are now being exposed in north Keller by ice shrinkage of former ice protecting cover. Landforms influenced soil formation and stability. Cryosols and Leptosols (WRB) roughly corresponding to Gelisols and Entisols (SSS), respectively, are the most common soil classes, with an overall tendency of absent permafrost in the coastal areas, changing to sporadic permafrost at mid-slope, and discontinuous permafrost with greater altitude and substrate stability. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Christianini A.V.,Federal University of São Carlos | Mayhe-Nunes A.J.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Oliveira P.S.,University of Campinas
Biotropica | Year: 2012

Ants frequently interact with fleshy fallen diaspores (fruits or seeds) not adapted for ant-dispersal. Such interactions are usually considered as opportunistic, but recent evidence has indicated that these ants may differ in their effects on diaspore survival and plant recruitment. We investigated if partner choices are recognizable among genera of ants and plants, and if ant and plant traits may influence such preferences in cerrado (savanna-like vegetation) from southeast Brazil. During a 2-yr period, 521 ant-diaspore interactions were recorded through various methods, yielding 71 ant species and 38 plant species. Exploitation of fallen diaspores was common among several ant genera, and included carnivorous, omnivorous, and fungivorous ants. Contrary to others areas around the world, where true myrmecochory (seed dispersal by ants) is common among shrubs, ants also exploited diaspores from several cerrado trees. Plant life form, diaspore size, and ant body size did not seem to explain the pattern of interactions observed. Two subsets of preferential interactions, however, segregated fungivorous ants from another group composed of carnivorous and omnivorous ants, probably influenced by the chemical composition of the plant diaspores. Omnivorous ants usually remove the fleshy portion of diaspores on spot and probably provide limited benefits to plants. Carnivorous and fungivorous ants usually remove the whole diaspore to the nest. As each of these ant groups may influence the fitness of diaspores in different ways, there are possible subtle pathways for the evolution of partner choices between ants and these non-myrmecochorous diaspores. © 2011 by The Association for Tropical Biology and Conservation.

Keunecke K.A.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | D'Incao F.,Grande Rio University | Verani J.R.,Federal University of São Carlos | Vianna M.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom | Year: 2012

The present study analysed the reproductive biology of Callinectes danae and Callinectes ornatus, which are captured as by-catch from pink-shrimp trawling in Guanabara Bay. The size at gonadal maturity was 79.9Â mm and 67.4Â mm respectively, for C. danae and C. ornatus. The pattern of reproduction was continuous for both species; however, the gonadosomatic index analyses showed seasonal and alternating reproductive peaks in the bay. While C. danae showed reproductive peaks in the autumn and in the winter, C. ornatus showed an apparent reproductive peak in the summer and probably another in the spring. The sex-ratio of C. danae was significantly skewed in favour of females (3.0:1). However, in C. ornatus, males predominated (1.2:1). This reproductive pattern indicated that possibly the females of C. danae return to the estuary after spawning where trawling takes place, while ovigerous females of C. ornatus migrate to adjacent coastal areas around the bay. © 2011 Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom.

Claudino M.C.,Grande Rio University | Pessanha A.L.M.,State University of Paraíba | Araujo F.G.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Garcia A.M.,Grande Rio University
Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science | Year: 2015

Variations in the relative importance of autotrophic sources to aquatic consumers along environmental gradients and the trophic role of mangrove-derived detritus to marine coastal food webs are still poorly investigated in tropical systems. In this study, we employed stable isotope analyses to investigate the relative importance of basal food sources to macroconsumers (decapod crustaceans and fishes) in a tropical estuary along an environmental gradient extending from the mangroves to the ocean. Additionally, we evaluated the 'outwelling hypothesis', which hypothesizes that mangrove-derived detritus exported to the adjacent marine area is a food source for marine macroconsumers at open and reef-protected sandy beaches. Primary producers and macroconsumers (62 and 214 samples, respectively) were collected at five locations across the main longitudinal axis of the Mamanguape estuary, a tropical Southwestern Atlantic estuary. There were marked shifts in carbon and nitrogen isotope values for both food sources and consumers along the estuarine-marine gradient, and the mixing model results revealed similar patterns of assimilation of basal food sources by decapod crustaceans and fishes. In the inner section of the estuary, consumers tended to assimilated nutrients derived mainly from mangrove and macroalgae, whereas nearer the mouth of the estuary and in the adjacent marine area they assimilated nutrients derived mainly from macroalgae, seagrass and organic matter in the sediment (SOM). These findings support the hypothesis that the relative importance of basal food sources to macroconsumers in this tropical estuarine system reflects the dominant autochthonous primary production at each location. In contrast, our results did not support the outwelling hypothesis that mangrove-originated detritus, in the form of senescent mangrove leaves, makes a significant contribution as a primary source of carbon to high-order consumers inhabiting adjacent ocean sandy beaches. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Dunisch O.,Meisterschule Ebern fur das Schreinerhandwerk | De Figueiredo Latorraca J.V.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro
Floresta e Ambiente | Year: 2016

The increment zones width in the xylem of Swietenia macrophylla King was investigated by dendrochronological methods in an undisturbed and a strongly disturbed tropical site near Aripuanã, Mato Grosso, Brazil (10°09' S, 59°26'W). The study aimed to assess the impact of forest disturbance on the relationship between precipitation and the cambial growth of this species. Tree-ring width chronologies were developed for both sites from cross-dated increment curves. Simple correlations were computed between monthly precipitation records and the annual increment of Swietenia for the period between 1870 and 2000. Logging activities and altered land use caused a significant decrease of the water supply of the Swietenia trees grown in the disturbed area compared to trees grown in the undisturbed area. Consequently, the precipitation of almost the total growing season had a significant influence on the tree ring width of Swietenia grown in the disturbed area, while in the undisturbed forest area the significant correlation between monthly precipitation and the tree ring width of Swietenia was restricted to the beginning of the growing season (November to January). However, the reconstruction of monthly precipitation data from the tree ring width records was more precise using the chronology developed from tree ring width records of undisturbed trees compared to the chronology developed from tree ring widths from the disturbed area. It was concluded that the use of the tree ring widths of Swietenia as climate proxies is restricted to certain months of the year and requires tree ring width chronologies developed from trees grown in undisturbed or only slightly disturbed forest areas without severe anthropogenic changes in microclimate.

de Andrade A.F.M.,Companhia Siderurgica Nacional | do Amaral Sobrinho N.M.B.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Mazur N.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro
Revista Brasileira de Engenharia Agricola e Ambiental | Year: 2010

The effects of the application of slag, from the concentration of Zn in the mud of steel slag, as a source of Zn for rice plants and the toxicity of Cd and Pb in the residue were studied in a greenhouse during the period from April 2005 to March 2006. The material used came from the surface horizon of a Red Yellow Oxisol (LVA); Fluvic Entisol (RU) and Red Yellow ultisol (PVA), collected in the municipality of Pinheiral, in the State of Rio de Janeiro. The variety of rice (Oryza sativa L) BRS Joker was used. Plants were harvested at 145 days after sowing; those grown in Fluvic Entisol had the highest dry matter production and higher zinc accumulation, but smaller accumulation of cadmium, while the ones in the Typic soil showed the lowest dry matter production, lower accumulation of zinc, but higher lead and cadmium accumulation. The DTPA extractor was subjected to high and significant correlations with the concentrations of lead, cadmium and zinc in roots and shoots and, with the total amount accumulated in plants, showed as a good indicator of the bioavailability of these three metals. According to the characteristics presented in the soils studied and the phytotoxic concentrations of lead and cadmium found in plants grown in PVA, the use of this residue as a source of zinc for rice cultivation is not recommended.

Batista W.V.S.M.,Federal University of Pernambuco | Dos Santos N.D.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro
Acta Botanica Brasilica | Year: 2016

Environmental conditions in distinct tropical rainforest phytophysiognomies can act as regional filters in determining the distribution of montane bryoflora likewise, local filters inherent to phorophyte species can have modulating influences. We analyzed the bryophyte communities in three phytophysiognomies of Atlantic Forest, in order to examine the influences of local (phorophyte species) and regional (forest phytophysiognomies) filters on their distributions. The study was undertaken in the Serra do Mar State Park, Ubatuba, SP, Brazil, using 1 ha plots in three forest phytophysiognomies along an elevational gradient. Four phorophyte species were selected, with three to seven replicates each. The line-intercept method was used on each phorophyte for collecting botanical material. Multivariate analyses were used to correlate species distributions with environmental filters. A total of 71 taxa were identified. Mean bryophyte coverage did not vary among the diff erent phytophysiognomies, and although their species compositions were markedly distinct, no cohesive or isolated groups were found. Among the local filters examined, phorophyte DBH was found to be correlated with bryophyte coverage; the pH of the bark of Euterpe edulis and the high rugosity of the trunk of the Cyatheaceae influenced species compositions. Other filters not evaluated here may also be relevant for determining species distributions. © 2016, Sociedade Botanica do Brasil. All rights reserved.

Almana C.C.J.,Federal University of Espirito Santo | Sousa D.R.,Federal University of Espirito Santo | Trivilin L.O.,Federal University of Espirito Santo | Nunes L.C.,Federal University of Espirito Santo | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Ethnopharmacology | Year: 2011

Ethnopharmacological relevance: Solanum cernuum Vellozo is a Brazilian shrub or small tree, restricted to Southwest states of the country. It has been widely used for the treatment of many ailments. The pharmacological activity of the extract on gastric ulcer has been the major therapeutic target proposed by the population investigated. Materials and methods: In the acute toxicity test was used increasing doses of the extract (2, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20 and 25 g of extract per kilogram of body weight). The animal behavior was observed from 5 h after a single administration of the extract and subsequently monitored daily until the fourteenth day, beyond the calculation of the estimated LD50 of the extract. In the test sub-chronic toxicity was used two doses of the extract (0.1 and 1.4 g/kg) and the parameters analyzed over 31 days were: body weight, food intake, behavior, respiratory rate, movement and mortality of animals. After anesthesia, blood samples were collected for hematological and biochemical analysis. The animals were euthanized followed by macroscopic analysis of the stomach and intestine. Liver, lungs and kidneys were removed, weighed and analyzed histopathologically. Results: In the acute toxicity test was observed a dose-dependent mortality and the value of estimated LD50 was 14.50 g/kg. In the hematological and biochemical analyses there were significant increase in the activities of AST and ALT indicating liver toxicity, but the extract was not able to alter food intake, body weight and organ weights after 31 days of treatment and it did not produce significant histopathological changes. Conclusion: Therefore we can consider the hydroalcoholic extract of Solanum cernuum Vell as practically non-toxic in acute administration and safe in the sub-chronic administration, as hepatotoxicity was observed only with the highest dose used, not with the dose routinely used by the native population. © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

De Oliveira S.B.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Toda E.F.A.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro
Communications in Computer and Information Science | Year: 2011

The application of Information Technology (IT) at the medical-hospital services sector, especially in Brazil, reveals yet slow and incipient, due, especially to the particular characteristics from this sector. This article presents results from research aiming at analyzing the application, use and investments in IT in five public hospitals from the municipality of Rio de Janeiro. The field data were collected using a questionnaire applied to the executives directly connected to the management of infrastructure and IT of such hospitals. The analysis of data was by means of descriptive statistics. The research identified weaknesses and problems relative to planning, selection, implementation and use of such management technology and tools at the researched hospitals. It was also possible to identify the hospitals which better use and take better advantage of resources and easiness of this technology so as to facilitate the routine and work processes from their doctors, patients and directors. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

Dunisch O.,Meisterschule Ebern fur das Schreinerhandwerk | De Figueiredo Latorraca J.V.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro
Floresta e Ambiente | Year: 2015

This study aimed to investigate the influence of tree age on the assimilates partitioning and its significance for the formation of heartwood extractives in Robinia pseudoacacia L. (black locust). Assimilate translocation in 6-and 15-year-old plants was measured in May and August 2006 using the 14CO2 feeding method. The heartwood extractives content in the sapwood-heartwood transition zone and in individual tree rings of the pure heartwood were analysed by HPLC-chromatography. All plants, buds and young leaves showed the strongest 14C specific activity compared to other plant parts in May and August(14C specific activity in buds/leaves of 6-years old plants: 35.2-37.0%, 15-years old plants: 31.4-32.2%). However, in plants labelled in August 2006 at the sapwood-heartwood transition zone also showed a strong assimilates sink, while only small amounts of assimilates were translocated to the sapwood-heartwood transition zone in the plants labelled in May 2006. The amount of assimilates transported to the sapwood-heartwood transition zone was significantly higher in the 15-year-old plants compared to the 6-year-old plants. This was monitored by a higher content of extractives in the heartwood formed by the older plants compared to heartwood formed by the younger plants. The results indicate that uneven assimilate partitioning in younger and older black locust plants affects the heartwood extractives formation, which might lead to a lower natural durability of the heartwood formed by younger trees compared to heartwood formed by older trees.

Turcati R.,Federal University of Espirito Santo | Turcati R.,Brazilian Center for Research in Physics (CBPF) | Neves M.J.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro
Advances in High Energy Physics | Year: 2014

We discuss some aspects concerning the electromagnetic sector of the abelian Lee-Wick (LW) quantum electrodynamics (QED). Using the Dirac's theory of constrained systems, the higher-order canonical quantization of the LW electromagnetism is performed. A quantum bound on the LW heavy mass is also estimated using the best known measurement of the anomalous magnetic moment of the electron. Finally, it is shown that magnetic monopoles can coexist peacefully in the LW scenario. © 2014 R. Turcati and M. J. Neves.

Duenas J.G.,Brazilian Center for Research in Physics (CBPF) | Svaiter N.F.,Brazilian Center for Research in Physics (CBPF) | Menezes G.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro
International Journal of Modern Physics A | Year: 2014

We present a remarkable connection between the asymptotic behavior of the Riemann zeros and one-loop effective action in Euclidean scalar field theory. We show that in a two-dimensional space, the asymptotic behavior of the Fourier transform of two-point correlation functions fits the asymptotic distribution of the nontrivial zeros of the Riemann zeta function. We work out an explicit example, namely the nonlinear sigma model in the leading order in 1/N expansion. © 2014 World Scientific Publishing Company.

Canellas L.P.,State University of Norte Fluminense | Busato J.G.,State University of Norte Fluminense | Dobbss L.B.,State University of Norte Fluminense | Baldotto M.A.,State University of Norte Fluminense | Rumjanek V.M.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro
European Journal of Soil Science | Year: 2010

We employed CP/MAS 13C NMR spectroscopy and classical humus fractionation to evaluate the behaviour of soil organic matter (SOM) resulting from long-term sugar cane production when harvested without burning. Soil samples were collected at two depths (0-0.2 and 0.2-0.4 m) from a tropical Entisol cropped with sugar cane for 55 years at Campos dos Goytacazes (Brazil), either with or without burning crop residues when harvesting. Continuous incorporation of sugar cane residues increased carbon (C) content and promoted changes in SOM, including increases in humins, humic acids and aromatic C moieties. Sequential extraction methods showed enhanced amounts of available forms of nitrogen (N), sulphur (S) and phosphorus (P). Moreover, 31P NMR analysis revealed an increase in organic P as diester phosphates of plant origin in the humic acids fraction. The increased macronutrient bioavailability of labile forms of N, P and S could be partially related to the more hydrophobic nature of SOM observed in soil samples collected from areas that were not burnt. These results show that the long-term non-burning management of sugar cane harvest promotes the hydrophobic character of SOM and a more conservative and sustainable management of soil fertility. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 British Society of Soil Science.

Tunholi-Alves V.M.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Tunholi V.M.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Lustrino D.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Thiengo S.C.,Instituto Oswaldo Cruz IOC | Pinheiro J.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro
Journal of Invertebrate Pathology | Year: 2011

This study showed for the first time changes in the reproductive biology of Biomphalaria glabrata experimentally infected with Angiostrongylus cantonensis. The values of all the parameters analyzed (total number of eggs, number of egg masses, number of eggs/mass, number of eggs/snail, percentage of viable eggs and galactogen content in albumen gland) changed with progressive infection. The results indicate the occurrence of partial parasitic castration of B. glabrata by A. cantonensis larvae, probably in response to the depletion of energy reserves, with no injuries to the gonadal tissues. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

Guedes C.A.M.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Silva R.,University of Seville
Analise Social | Year: 2014

This article examines the reference framework and institutional context of Geographical Indications (gi) and Spain's Social Management within the European Union. The cases of Brazil and Argentina are then analyzed, providing a comparative study. The emphasis is on identity and territorial development, in which family farming has a central role. Thereafter, the design and implementation of public policies strengthening the preparation of concrete agendas and measures in the light of the Spanish and European experience are put into perspective. In both the Brazilian and Argentine cases, findings point to the need for an adjustment in public policies in order to better identify and program actions and goals. Copyright © 2013 studioMW.

Cappato L.P.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Ferreira E.H.R.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Rosenthal A.,Embrapa Agroindustria de Alimentos CTAA
Ciencia Rural | Year: 2015

Table olives is the greater importance fermented vegetable product in the western world. Despite not having signifcant production, Brazil is among the ten largest consumers of table olives in the world. For the crop year of 2013/2014 (period between 01 October to 30 September) it is estimated that the country becomes the second largest importer and the ninth-largest consumer of the fruit. However, knowledge about the fruit characteristics and the main processes of elaboration of table olives are scarce. Thus, this research aims to survey the market, main technologies and the associated legal aspects of the production of table olives. © 2015, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria. All rights reserved.

Weberszpil J.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Helayel-Neto J.A.,Brazilian Center for Research in Physics (CBPF)
Advances in High Energy Physics | Year: 2014

We here propose to extend the concept of helicity to include it in a fractional scenario and we write down the left- and the right-handed Weyl equations from first principles in this extended framework. Next, by coupling the different fractional Weyl sectors by means of a mass parameter, we arrive at the fractional version of Dirac's equation which, whenever coupled to an external electromagnetic field and reduced to the nonrelativistic regime, yields a fractional Pauli-type equation. From the latter, we are able to present an explicit expression for the gyromagnetic ratio of charged fermions in terms of the fractionality parameter. We then focus our efforts to relate the coarse-grained property of space-time to fractionality and to the (g - 2) anomalies of the different leptonic species. © 2014 J. Weberszpil and J. A. Helayël-Neto.

Cocuroci D.,Brazilian Center for Research in Physics (CBPF) | Neves M.J.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Helayel-Neto J.A.,Brazilian Center for Research in Physics (CBPF) | Ospedal L.P.R.,Brazilian Center for Research in Physics (CBPF)
European Physical Journal C | Year: 2015

We here propose a 5-dimensional Abelian gauge model based on the mixing between a U(1) potential and an Abelian 3-form field by means of a topological mass term. An extended covariant derivative is introduced to minimally couple a Dirac field to the U(1) potential, while this same covariant derivative non-minimally couples the 3-form field to the charged fermion. A number of properties are discussed in 5D; in particular, the appearance of a topological fermionic current. A 4-dimensional reduced version of the model is investigated and, in addition to the U(1) electric- and magnetic-sort of fields, there emerges an extra set of electric- and magnetic-like fields which contribute a negative pressure and may be identified as a possible fraction of dark energy. The role of the topological fermionic current is also contemplated upon dimensional reduction from 5D to 4D. Other issues we present in 4 space-time dimensions are the emergence of a pseudo-scalar massive particle, an extra massive neutral gauge boson, which we interpret as a kind of paraphoton, and the calculation of spin- and velocity-dependent interparticle potentials associated to the exchange of the intermediate bosonic fields of the model. © 2015, The Author(s).

Homem Antunes M.A.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Gleriani J.M.,Federal University of Viçosa | Debiasi P.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro
International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS) | Year: 2012

Vegetation indices have been widely used for monitoring vegetation and to estimate vegetation biophysical parameters. The atmosphere affects differently sensor bands depending on the waveband, thus affecting the indices obtained from top of the atmosphere reflectances. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the atmospheric effects on the NDVI and SAVI using the 6S model adapted for atmospheric correction of images of eight bits digital numbers. Images from the TM and ETM+ sensors of the same area were corrected for the atmosphere and the vegetation indices were compared with those from noncorrected images. For these images the results show that the vegetation indices at the top of the atmosphere were lower than those from the surface. This underestimation of the vegetation indices due to the atmosphere is attributed to a higher absorption of radiation in the near infrared than in the red spectral region. This is exceptionally pronounced on tropical atmospheres where absorption by water vapor tends to be higher than in mid-latitudes. It is concluded that atmospheric correction is necessary when calculating vegetation indices over tropical regions and the adapted 6S model is suitable for this task. © 2012 IEEE.

Abreu E.M.C.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Abreu E.M.C.,Brazilian Center for Research in Physics (CBPF) | Amorim R.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Guzman Ramirez W.,Brazilian Center for Research in Physics (CBPF)
Journal of High Energy Physics | Year: 2011

We present a formulation in a curved background of noncommutative mechanics, where the object of noncommutativity θμν is considered as an independent quantity having a canonical conjugate momentum. We introduce a noncommutative first-order action in D = 10 curved spacetime and the covariant equations of motions are computed. This model, invariant under diffeomorphism, generalizes recent relativistic results. © SISSA 2011.

Lage T.C.D.A.,Federal University of Viçosa | Montanari R.M.,Federal University of Viçosa | Fernandes S.A.,Federal University of Viçosa | De Oliveira Monteiro C.M.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | And 5 more authors.
Parasitology Research | Year: 2013

The objective of this work was to characterize and investigate the acaricidal activity of the essential oil of the aerial parts of Lippia triplinervis at different concentrations on unengorged larvae and engorged females of Rhipicephalus microplus. The essential oil yielded 2.21 % (w/w to dry matter) and was composed mainly of carvacrol (31.9 %), thymol (30.6 %), and p-cymene (12.3 %). Two tests were performed to assess the acaricidal activity: the modified larval packet test, with concentrations of 2.5, 5.0, 10.0, 15.0, and 20.0 mg/mL and the female immersion test, with concentrations of 10.0, 20.0, 30.0, 40.0, and 50.0 mg/mL. There were ten repetitions for each concentration, and for each test, a control group was formed in which the ticks were treated with Tween 80 (20 mg/mL). The experimental groups were kept in a climate-controlled chamber (27 ± 1 C and RH >80 %). The mortality of the larvae was above 95 % in all the groups tested and reached 100 % as of the 5.0 mg/mL concentration, while the control group exhibited 0 % mortality. In the female immersion test, there was a significant decline (p < 0.05) in the egg mass weight, egg production index, and hatching percentage starting at the concentration of 30.0, 40.0, and 20.0 mg/mL, respectively, and the control percentage at the concentrations of 40.0 and 50.0 mg/mL were above 90 and 95 %. The L. triplinervis oil as thus an alternative source of the monoterpenes thymol, carvacrol, and p-cymene, and its toxicity on R. microplus larvae and females makes it promising possibility for control of this tick. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

de Assis Lage T.C.,Federal University of Viçosa | Montanari R.M.,Federal University of Viçosa | Fernandes S.A.,Federal University of Viçosa | de Oliveira Monteiro C.M.,Federal University of Juiz de fora | And 4 more authors.
Experimental Parasitology | Year: 2015

Baccharis dracunculifolia DC (common name "alecrim-do-campo" in Brazil) is a plant with widespread distribution in South America that is the botanical origin of green propolis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition and acaricidal activity of the essential oil of B. dracunculifolia and its constituents nerolidol and limonene on unengorged larvae and engorged females of Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae). The essential oil yield was 0.8% of dry mass and the major constituents were nerolidol (22.3%), germacrene D (7.2%), limonene (6.9%), β-pinene (6.7) and bicyclogermacrene (6.5%). The acaricidal activity of the essential oil and the pure compounds nerolidol and (R)-(+)-limonene were assessed in the laboratory through the modified larval packet test (LPT) and the female immersion test (FIT). In the LPT, the essential oil and nerolidol were both active, causing more than 90% mortality at concentrations from 15.0 and 10.0 mg mL-1, respectively, whereas (R)-(+)-limonene was not active. In the FIT, the oil and nerolidol caused reduction in the quantity and quality of eggs produced, with control percentages of 96.3% and 90.3% at concentrations of 60.0 and 50.0 mg mL-1, respectively. It can be concluded that the essential oil obtained from the aerial parts of B. dracunculifolia and its major component nerolidol have high activity on R. microplus larvae and engorged females. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

Timi J.T.,Laboratorio Of Parasitologia | Lanfranchi A.L.,Laboratorio Of Parasitologia | Luque J.L.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro
International Journal for Parasitology | Year: 2010

Patterns of distance decay in similarity among communities of the fish Pinguipes brasilianus (Teleostei: Pinguipedidae) from five areas in the southwestern Atlantic were investigated to determine whether the rate of decay varied depending on the community level or the parasite guild analyzed (ectoparasites, adult endoparasites and larval endoparasites). Similarities in species composition were computed at both the component community and infracommunity levels. Similarity indices were calculated between all possible pairs of assemblages from different zones. Infracommunity similarity values between and within host populations were averaged. Significance of linear regressions for similarity values against distance was assessed using randomization tests. Different patterns were observed for each guild, and similarity among infracommunities within host populations varied accordingly. Decay in similarity over distance was recorded for most communities. The slopes differed significantly between infracommunities and component communities in all cases, and stronger decay was always observed for infracommunities. Different geographical patterns in parasite communities were a consequence of variability in parasite availability in the different regions, modulated by oceanographic conditions, as well as variation among species in terms of host specificity and life-cycles strategies. Infracommunities showed a stronger effect of distance than component communities, probably due to the influence of short term and local variability of oceanographic conditions. © 2009 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc.

Abreu E.M.C.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Abreu E.M.C.,Brazilian Center for Research in Physics (CBPF) | Abreu E.M.C.,Federal University of Juiz de fora | Neves M.J.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro
International Journal of Modern Physics A | Year: 2013

We obtained the Feynman propagators for a noncommutative (NC) quantum mechanics defined in the recently developed Doplicher-Fredenhagen-Roberts-Amorim (DFRA) NC background that can be considered as an alternative framework for the NC space-time of the early universe. The operators' formalism was revisited and we applied its properties to obtain an NC transition amplitude representation. Two examples of DFRA's systems were discussed, namely, the NC free particle and NC harmonic oscillator. The spectral representation of the propagator gave us the NC wave function and energy spectrum. We calculated the partition function of the NC harmonic oscillator and the distribution function. Besides, the extension to NC DFRA quantum field theory is straightforward and we used it in a massive scalar field. We had written the scalar action with self-interaction φ4 using the Weyl-Moyal product to obtain the propagator and vertex of this model needed to perturbation theory. It is important to emphasize from the outset, that the formalism demonstrated here will not be constructed by introducing an NC parameter in the system, as usual. It will be generated naturally from an already existing NC space. In this extra dimensional NC space, we presented also the idea of dimensional reduction to recover commutativity. © 2013 World Scientific Publishing Company.

Maciel-Silva A.S.,Federal University of Pernambuco | Maciel-Silva A.S.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Paes Coelho M.L.,Federal University of Pernambuco | Porto K.C.,Federal University of Pernambuco
Journal of Bryology | Year: 2013

Octoblepharum albidum Hedw. is an autoicous moss commonly occurring in tropical savannas, dry forests, rainforests and coastal habitats. It frequently reproduces by spores and asexual structures (gemmae and protonemata or buds at leaf tips), making it a good model for understanding how reproductive traits change with respect to habitat type. Our aims were to characterize the different life-history traits in O. albidum relative to sexual and asexual cycles and to detect variations in reproductive performance among the different habitats, trade-offs among these traits, and relationships among reproductive traits and plant length. We studied colonies from two Atlantic rainforests and two coastal sites in north-eastern Brazil. Shoots in the coastal sites, compared to those of the forest sites, had higher numbers of sporophytes, male and female branches per shoot, male gametangia per sexual branch, and longer setae. Numbers of female gametangia per sexual branch did not differ between forest and coastal sites. A male-biased sex ratio of branches and gametangia occurred in all sites. Compared to gemmae, sporophytes and protonemata or buds were more likely to be found on longer shoots than on shorter ones, but this relationship was only applicable to forest sites. The abundant production of gemmae and protonemata or buds at leaf tips, and sporophytes (spores) in O. albidum are important components in explaining colonization success and maintenance in this tropical moss. Longer sporophytic setae in addition to a higher reproductive performance (especially for number of male gametangia and sporophytes per shoot) may favour spore dispersal and colonization in plants of coastal sites. © British Bryological Society 2013.

Jangarelli M.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Euclydes R.F.,Federal University of Viçosa
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia | Year: 2012

The objective of this study was to evaluate selective mating using distribution of extremes, among other mating strategies, on its ability to decrease the endogamy and the loss of genetic variability. The genetic simulation system (Genesys) was used to simulate two genomes (each one with a single characteristic whose distinction was the value of heritability) and the base and original populations. Each initial population was submitted to assisted selection by markers for ten consecutive generations. For evaluation of strategies, the estimated parameters were phenotypic value, endogamy and additive genetic variance, in different family sizes, for both characteristics. In all scenarios combining heritability and family sizes, the selective mating was superior to the others, in the ability to decrease endogamy and maintain higher magnitudes of genetic variability. Consequently, superior phenotypic increments were obtained, pointing to a major detection of quantitative trait loci in the assisted selection by markers due to gradual decrease of the additive genetic variance over the generations. © 2012 Sociedade Brasileira de Zootecnia.

Nikoofard V.,Brazilian Center for Research in Physics (CBPF) | Abreu E.M.C.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Abreu E.M.C.,Federal University of Juiz de fora
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2016

In this paper we have analyzed the κ-deformed Minkowski spacetime through the light of the interference phenomena in quantum field theory where two opposite chiral fields are put together in the same multiplet and its consequences are discussed. The chiral models analyzed here are the chiral Schwinger model, its generalized version, and its gauge invariant version, where a Wess-Zumino term was added. We will see that the final actions obtained here are, in fact, related to the original ones via duality transformations. © 2016 American Physical Society.

Turcati R.,International School for Advanced Studies | Turcati R.,National Institute of Nuclear Physics, Italy | Turcati R.,Federal University of Espirito Santo | Turcati R.,Brazilian Center for Research in Physics (CBPF) | Neves M.J.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro
European Physical Journal C | Year: 2016

We consider a higher-derivative extension of QED modified by the addition of a gauge-invariant dimension-6 kinetic operator in the U(1) gauge sector. The Feynman diagrams at one-loop level are then computed. The modification in the spin-1 sector leads the electron self-energy and vertex corrections diagrams finite in the ultraviolet regime. Indeed, no regularization prescription is used to calculate these diagrams because the modified propagator always occurs coupled to conserved currents. Moreover, besides the usual massless pole in the spin-1 sector, there is the emergence of a massive one, which becomes complex when computing the radiative corrections at one-loop order. This imaginary part defines the finite decay width of the massive mode. To check consistency, we also derive the decay length using the electron–positron elastic scattering and show that both results are equivalent. Because the presence of this unstable mode, the standard renormalization procedures cannot be used and is necessary adopt an appropriate framework to perform the perturbative renormalization. For this purpose, we apply the complex-mass shell scheme (CMS) to renormalize the aforementioned model. As an application of the formalism developed, we estimate a quantum bound on the massive parameter using the measurement of the electron anomalous magnetic moment and compute the Uehling potential. At the end, the renormalization group is analyzed. © 2016, The Author(s).

Diola V.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | de Brito G.G.,EMBRAPA - Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária | Caixeta E.T.,EMBRAPA - Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária | Maciel-Zambolim E.,Federal University of Viçosa | And 2 more authors.
Tree Genetics and Genomes | Year: 2011

Coffee leaf rust caused by the fungus Hemileia vastatrix causes considerable economic losses for coffee producers. Although agrochemical products can provide sufficient disease control, the use of resistant cultivars is a safer alternative. This resistance may be constrained by one or a few genetic factors, mainly those found in material originating from interspecific hybrids. In this study, the genetic analysis of an F 2 population consisting of 224 plants derived from a crossing of Híbrido de Timor UFV 427-15 (resistant) with Catuaí Amarelo IAC 30 (susceptible) showed that a dominant gene confers the resistance of coffee to race II of H. vastatrix. From a genetic map saturated with 25 amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers linked to the resistance gene, we developed a high-density genetic map with six sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers delimiting a chromosomal region of 9. 45 cM and flanking the dominant gene at 0. 7 and 0. 9 cM. This is the first saturated and high-density genetic map obtained from this region containing the resistance gene. The results of this study are of great importance for the introduction of molecular markers for marker-assisted selection; they will also facilitate studies related to the cloning, structure, and function of race-specific genes involved in the resistance of coffee trees to H. vastatrix. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

Weberszpil J.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Helayel-Neto J.A.,Brazilian Center for Research in Physics (CBPF)
Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications | Year: 2016

Recently, we have demonstrated that there exists a possible relationship between q-deformed algebras in two different contexts of Statistical Mechanics, namely, the Tsallis' framework and the Kaniadakis' scenario, with a local form of fractional-derivative operators for fractal media, the so-called Hausdorff derivatives, mapped into a continuous medium with a fractal measure. Here, in this paper, we present an extension of the traditional calculus of variations for systems containing deformed-derivatives embedded into the Lagrangian and the Lagrangian densities for classical and field systems. The results extend the classical Euler-Lagrange equations and the Hamiltonian formalism. The resulting dynamical equations seem to be compatible with those found in the literature, specially with mass-dependent and with nonlinear equations for systems in classical and quantum mechanics. Examples are presented to illustrate applications of the formulation. Also, the conserved Noether current is worked out. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

Cunha Neto F.V.,Instituto Federal Educacao | Santos Leles P.S.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Pereira M.G.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Bellumath V.G.H.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Alonso J.M.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro
Ciencia Florestal | Year: 2013

The aim of this study was to quantify the litter layer on the soil and its decomposition rate, in four different forest types: wild stands of Acacia mangium, Mimosa artemisiana Heringer & Paula and Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla, and a secondary forest at Fazenda Cachoeirão in the municipality of Além Paraíba, Minas Gerais state. In each forest formation, there were two evaluations, the first one in June 2008 and the second in June 2009, the material was taken to laboratory, where it was separated, oven-dried and weighed. For litter decomposition evaluation, litter bags were used, and those were collected at 30, 60, 90, 150 and 210 days after the installation. In the eucalypt area it was observed the highest litter stock in both evaluations, and the lowest values occurred in mimosa area. The litter of mimosa had the highest rate of decomposition, with values of K = 0.0034 and T1/2= 203 days, while acacia had the lowest (K = 0.0013 and T1/2= 533 days). Among forest stands, mimosa and eucalypt produce faster decomposing litter, which highlights the best efficiency of these species in the process of nutrient cycling and incorporation of organic matter in soil.

Abreu E.M.C.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Abreu E.M.C.,Federal University of Juiz de fora | Neto J.A.,Federal University of Juiz de fora | Barboza E.M.,Grande Rio University | Nunes R.C.,Autonomous University of Barcelona
Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications | Year: 2016

In this paper we have derived the equipartition law of energy using Tsallis formalism and the Kaniadakis power law statistics in order to obtain a modified gravitational constant. We have applied this result in the gravothermal collapse phenomenon. We have discussed the equivalence between Tsallis and the Kaniadakis statistics in the context of Verlinde's entropic formalism. In the same way we have analyzed the negative heat capacities in the light of gravothermal catastrophe. The relative deviations of the modified gravitational constants are derived. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

De Souza J.J.,State University of North Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro | Vieira I.J.C.,State University of North Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro | Rodrigues-Filho E.,Federal University of São Carlos | Braz-Filho R.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro
Molecules | Year: 2011

This work reviews the production of terpenoids by endophytic fungi and their biological activities, in period of 2006 to 2010. Sixty five sesquiterpenes, 45 diterpenes, five meroterpenes and 12 other terpenes, amounting to 127 terpenoids were isolated from endophytic fungi. © 2011 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

Carmo D.M.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Oliveira M.G.,Brazilian National Institute of Technology | Soares B.G.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Applied Clay Science | Year: 2014

The dispersions were prepared in the proportion of 1. g LDH to every 100. ml of 1,6-hexamethylenediisocyanate employing four different methodologies. The FTIR results of the dispersions confirmed the presence of monomer in the clay interlayer space, for all methods studied. The XRD analysis showed that the presence of isocyanate contributed to a small structural disorder. Any significant differences between the experimental procedures adopted were observed in TGA results, whereas visual analysis showed that methodology combining ultraturrax and ultrasound bath (TBT) was more effective for dispersion and incorporation of the monomer remaining stable for about a month.The dispersions studied were used in the synthesis of polyurethane nanocomposite. The in situ polymerization step had as objective favor the dispersion of nanofiller during the growth of the polymer chains. The polyurethane obtained was confirmed by the presence of characteristic bands of the urethane group in the FTIR spectrum. The diffraction patterns indicated that in situ polymerization contributed to the structural disorder of the nanocomposites. The strain sweep was carried out by rubber process analyzer (RPA), the lowest values of Payne effect (G0-G∞) were to TBT and T methodologies suggesting a lower filler-filler interaction.The results of the dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) showed significant differences that were associated with the dispersion method adopted and also a stoichiometry imbalance due to the interactions of the isocyanate with the hydroxyl groups of the hydrotalcite and/or water molecules within interlayer space and/or air moisture. SEM micrographs revealed better dispersion in the clay polyurethane nanocomposites, whose nanofiller was previously dispersed in the isocyanate monomer. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Almeida C.T.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Oliveira-Junior J.F.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Delgado R.C.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Ramos M.C.,University of Lleida
International Journal of Climatology | Year: 2016

This study analyzes the spatiotemporal variability of rainfall and temperature (minimum, maximum and average) trends at 47 stations throughout the Brazilian Legal Amazon for the period 1973-2013. Annual, wet season and dry season trends were quantified by Sen's slope for each station and the entire region. The Mann-Kendall test was used to determine the statistical significance of the trends. For the whole region, minimum, maximum and average annual temperatures showed increasing trend of approximately 0.04°C per year. The rainfall showed an insignificant trend for most stations for annual and seasonal series. Nevertheless, some stations showed significant increasing trends in the annual and wet season rainfalls while a few stations showed decreasing trends for the dry season rainfall. A positive trend of the annual range between wet and dry season rainfall was found in some stations, caused mainly by an increasing trend in wet season rainfall. © 2016 Royal Meteorological Society.

Gregorio B.S.,State University of Feira de Santana | Jacques E.L.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Costa J.A.S.,Federal University of Bahia | Rapini A.,State University of Feira de Santana
Phytotaxa | Year: 2014

Begonia obdeltata, a new species of Begoniaceae from northeast Brazil, is described and illustrated. It is similar to B. grisea and B. petasitifolia, with which it is compared. Diagnostic characters, geographic distribution and conservation status of the new species are presented. © 2014 Magnolia Press.

Oda G.A.M.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Braz M.I.G.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Portela R.D.C.Q.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Plant Ecology | Year: 2016

Germination rate and seed mass are important factors determining the proportion of seedlings that become established in a habitat, especially where resources are limited and under adverse environmental conditions. Variation in seed attributes can determine a species’ potential to adapt to new climates. This study aimed to investigate the germination behavior of Lytocaryum weddellianum along climatic gradients at two altitudes in the Serra dos Órgãos, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We conducted ex situ experiments on germination under two light conditions (light or dark) and three levels of water potential (Ψ = 0, −0.4 or −0.8 MPa) over 8 months. In addition, seeds of different sizes were sown and after 6 months seedlings were divided into shoot and root components. The following growth parameters were measured: root, shoot and total biomass, leaf area, specific leaf area and leaf area ratio. Our results showed that the high- and low-altitude populations had different germination rates, seed mass, and resource allocation in seedlings. The lower altitude population, with higher temperatures and humidity, higher germination rates, produced heavier seeds, and their seedlings invested more in root and total biomass. Meanwhile, seedlings from the higher altitude site, with less available light, had a greater investment in foliar parameters. These differences in the two populations’ seedling establishment strategies over an altitudinal gradient in the Serra dos Órgãos suggest that the species may have the potential to adapt to predicted climate change in this region. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht

Fragmentation and destruction of the Atlantic Rainforest make its conservation essential. The litter is an important component of this system, and reveals differences in deposition in the different Brazilian ecosystems. This research aims to evaluate the effect of rainfall and air temperature on litterfall input in a forest fragment at the municipality of Sorocaba, São Paulo State, Brazil. The average contribution of litterfall was 6.9±0.4Mg ha-1 yr-1, comprising 65% of leaves. There were differences between the seasons, with the less amount in the dry season. The correlation of litter and its fractions was not relevant for the same month of air temperature and rainfall measurement. However, the correlation is significant when related to the previous month, demonstrating that the response of vegetation to environmental changes is not immediate.

The article addresses the use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS), synthetic drugs whose abuse has been characterized as a public health problem, operated in the opposition between “medical” and “non-medical” uses. A qualitative approach was used to analyze the text in 76 biomedical articles published from 2002 to 2012. The discourse shows a persistent ban on non-medically regulated use of AAS by young people, while the limits on clinically qualified use appear to expand among older people, even given the contradictions straining the argument on the prevention of health risks. Moralizing biopolitical stances appear, based on gender distinctions or under the aegis of criminalizing drug use. © 2015, Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz. All rights Reserved.

Menezes C.E.G.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Pereira M.G.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Correia M.E.F.,Pesquisadora da Embrapa Agrobiologia | dos Anjos L.H.C.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | And 2 more authors.
Ciencia Florestal | Year: 2010

The aim of this study was to evaluate litter input and decomposition and root biomass of three forest fragments at different successional stages (advanced, medium and initial) in Pinheiral Municipality, in the state of RJ, Brazil. To evaluate litter input, 10 conic collectors were installed in each fragment. The root biomass was quantified by monolith method in two periods (wet and dry) at depths of 0-10, 10-20 and 20-30 cm, and 10 samples were collected in each area. To evaluate the decomposition rate in each area, 12 litter bags were distributed. No significant differences were observed for litter input between the areas, but there was a tendency to increase litter input with successional evolution. No significant differences were observed for seasonal litter input between areas during the year, but there was a small increase in the months of July and August. At the advanced stage, litter input could be grouped into two periods: February to July, with lower values; and August to January, with higher values. The leaf fractions and reproductive material input were reduced, while branch and other fractions increased with succession. For litter decomposition, the intermediate stage showed the lowest decomposition constant (k) (0.0038 g g -1day-1) and the highest half life time (182 days), followed by the initial (0044 g g -1day-1 and 154 days) and advanced (0.0064 g g -1day-1 and 108 days) stages. The root biomass in different areas and depths for both two periods studied showed higher values in the advanced stage, followed by the intermediate stage and the lowest values were found in the initial stage. The seasonal root biomass difference occurred mainly in the intermediate stage, with higher values in June.

Armando M.R.,National University of Rio Cuarto | Dalcero A.M.,National University of Rio Cuarto | Rosa C.A.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro
Poultry Science | Year: 2013

Aflatoxins (AF) are the most important mycotoxins produced by toxigenic strains of various Aspergillus spp. Biological decontamination of mycotoxins using microorganisms is a well-known strategy for the management of mycotoxins in feeds. Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains have been reported to bind aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of S. cerevisiae CECT 1891 in counteracting the deleterious effects of AFB1 in broiler chicks. Experimental aflatoxicosis was induced in 6-d-old broilers by feeding them 1.2 mg of AFB1/kg of feed for 3 wk, and the yeast strain was administrated in feed (1010 cells/ kg), in the drinking water (5 × 109 cells/L), or a combination of both treatments. A total of 160 chicks were randomly divided into 8 treatments (4 repetitions per treatment). Growth performance was measured weekly from d 7 to 28, and serum biochemical parameters, weights, and histopathological examination of livers were determined at d 28. The AFB1 significantly decreased the BW gain, feed intake, and impaired feed conversion rate. Moreover, AFB1 treatment decreased serum protein concentration and increased liver damage. The addition of S. cerevisiae strain to drinking water, to diets contaminated with AFB1, showed a positive protection effect on the relative weight of the liver, histopathology, and biochemical parameters. Furthermore, dietary addition of the yeast strain to drinking water alleviated the negative effects of AFB1 on growth performance parameters. In conclusion, this study suggests that in feed contaminated with AFB1, the use of S. cerevisiae is an alternative method to reduce the adverse effects of aflatoxicosis. Thus, apart from its excellent nutritional value, yeast can also be used as a mycotoxin adsorbent. © 2013 Poultry Science Association Inc.

Da Silva C.,State University of Feira de Santana | De Menezes Silva Conde M.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Longhi-Wagner H.M.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul
Rodriguesia | Year: 2012

Marambaia is located in southern Rio de Janeiro state, between Sepetiba Bay and the Atlantic Ocean (23°1'S, 23°6'S; 43°34'W, 44°W), within the Atlantic Forest domain. The tribe Olyreae includes the herbaceous bamboos, found mainly in the New World Tropics, usually comprising the herbaceous layer of forests. They are being threatened by habitat fragmentation and degradation. This study aims to determine which Olyreae species occur in the area, contributing to our knowledge of their conservation, distribution and diversity. Samples were collected from August 2008 to December 2010 by free walks along trails in the various plant formations. The occurrence of seven Olyreae species distributed in Atlantic slope-forest areas was confirmed. Subtribe Olyrinae is represented by Cryptochloa capillata, Olyra humilis, O. latifolia, Parodiolyra micrantha, Raddia brasiliensis and Reitzia smithii, and subtribe Parianinae by Eremitis sp. Olyra latifolia and P. micrantha are the most common species in the area. Eremitis sp. is probably a new species.

Abreu E.M.C.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Abreu E.M.C.,Brazilian Center for Research in Physics (CBPF) | Abreu E.M.C.,Federal University of Juiz de fora | Neves M.J.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro
International Journal of Modern Physics A | Year: 2012

In this paper we investigated the causality problem present in the recent published work about the DoplicherFredenhagenRobertsAmorim (DFRA) noncommutative framework which analyzed the complex scalar field. We described the noncommutative KleinGordon equation with a source term. Its solution was accomplished through the retarded, advanced and causal Green functions constructed in this noncommutative ten-dimensional DFRA spacetime. We believe that this solution constitutes the first step in the elaboration of a quantum field theory using the DFRA formalism where the well known noncommutative parameter from now on is an ordinary coordinate of the system and therefore has a canonical conjugate momentum. We discussed the dimensional reduction of this noncommutative spacetime (D = 10) in order to recover commutativity in D = 4 spacetime, which is not the usual one in noncommutativity literature. © 2012 World Scientific Publishing Company.

Nardi R.,Brazilian Center for Research in Physics (CBPF) | Vancea I.V.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro
Nuclear Physics B | Year: 2012

We formulate and study the nonequilibrium dynamics of strings near the singularity of the time-dependent plane wave background in the framework of the Nonequilibrium Thermo Field Dynamics (NETFD). In particular, we construct the Hilbert space of the thermal string oscillators at nonequilibrium and generalize the NETFD to describe the coordinates of the center of mass of the thermal string. The equations of motion of the thermal fields and the Hamiltonian are derived. Due to the time-dependence of the oscillator frequencies, a counterterm is present in the Hamiltonian. This counterterm determines the correlation functions in a perturbative fashion. We compute the two point correlation function of the thermal string at zero order in the power expansion. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Francelino M.R.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | da Silva L.D.B.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro
Cerne | Year: 2012

The objective of this work was to develop a method for environmental zoning of eucalyptus plantations, to identify areas where eucalyptus planting could be developed, and to determine suitability of such areas. The study area was the County of Vassouras, in the State of Rio de Janeiro, considering physical data, environmental legislation, urban areas, and the municipal land use plan. The areas for permanent preservation, as well as the conservation units and areas for industrial expansion, as defined in the county land use plan, plus areas nearby the city were considered restricted for the planting of eucalyptus trees. Vassouras is 552 km2 large. Approximately 144 km2 are suitable eucalyptus planting, of which 97% are now used for pastures. Approximately 50% of the area suitable for eucalyptus is of average suitability, whereas the class of highest suitability occupies about 30%. The less suitable areas correspond to 20% of the remaining 144 km2.

Ebeling A.G.,Centro Estadual Of Pesquisa Em Desenvolvimento Rural Sustentavel | dos Anjos L.H.C.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Perez D.V.,FAPERJ | Pereira M.G.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Novotny E.H.,FAPERJ
Revista Brasileira de Ciencia do Solo | Year: 2013

Histosols are formed under geomorphic and climate conditions that allow the accumulation of organic material, and their drainage for agriculture leads to the subsidence process and changes in the content of soil organic matter (SOM), with implications in the sustainability of these soils. The objective of this study was to evaluate some physical properties of Histosols and their relationship to SOM content and degree of decomposition in soils formed under hydromorphic conditions in the states of Rio de Janeiro (Aw tropical Atlantic), Maranhão (Awh tropical), and Parana (Cfb subtropical), with different usages. The methods recommended by the Brazilian Soil Classification System (SiBCS) were applied for characterization of the eight profiles, totaling 30 horizons; the organic matter content was quantified using a muffle furnace. The physical properties, soil bulk density (BD), organic matter density (OMD), percentage of mineral material (MM), and minimum residue (MR), reflected the content and transformation degree of the organic matter. The BD values varied from 0.09 to 0.93 Mg m-3, with an average of 0.44 Mg m-3 and OMD varied from 0.02 to 0.66 Mg m-3, with an average of 0.28 Mg m-3. A directly proportional relationship between BD and the properties MM and MR was observed. In the classification of the decomposition degree, the organic materials were identified mainly as hemic and sapric. Since different classes were obtained according to the method applied, it is recommended the combined usage of the pyrophosphate index and the content of rubbed fibers, defining the classes according to a range of values. In the Histosols with less anthropic alteration, in the State of Rio de Janeiro (profiles RJ02 and RJ08), the levels of organic matter were highest and the values of BD, OMD, and MM lowest. Thus, these properties are relevant to indicate the potential of subsidence and degradation in Histosols, an important soil class with regard to carbon storage and preservation of aquifers.

Menezes G.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Svaiter N.F.,Brazilian Center for Research in Physics (CBPF)
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2015

We investigate radiative processes of inertial two-level atoms in an entangled state interacting with a quantum electromagnetic field. Our intention is to clarify and to analyze the contributions of vacuum fluctuations and radiation reaction to the decay rate of the entangled state. The possible relevance of the findings in the present work is discussed. © 2015 American Physical Society. ©2015 American Physical Society.

Almeida S.T.O.,Brazilian Center for Research in Physics (CBPF) | Almeida S.T.O.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Nobre F.D.,Brazilian Center for Research in Physics (CBPF) | Nobre F.D.,RIO SYSTEMS
Physical Review E - Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics | Year: 2015

Fixed-point distributions for the couplings of Ising spin glasses with nearest-neighbor interactions on hierarchical lattices are investigated numerically. Hierarchical lattices within the Migdal-Kadanoff family with fractal dimensions in the range 2.58≤D≤7, as well as a lattice of the Wheatstone-Bridge family with fractal dimension D∼3.58 are considered. Three initial distributions for the couplings are analyzed, namely, the Gaussian, bimodal, and uniform ones. In all cases, after a few iterations of the renormalization-group procedure, the associated probability distributions approached universal fixed shapes. For hierarchical lattices of the Migdal-Kadanoff family, the fixed-point distributions were well fitted either by stretched exponentials, or by q-Gaussian distributions; both fittings recover the expected Gaussian limit as D→∞. In the case of the Wheatstone-Bridge lattice, the best fit was found by means of a stretched-exponential distribution. © 2015 American Physical Society.

do Nascimento A.M.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Garcia R.A.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Lucia R.M.D.,Federal University of Viçosa
Cerne | Year: 2013

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of wood density, adhesive type and gluing pressure on the shear strength of glued joints of fourteen commercial wood species. Wood pieces were classified in three density classes (Class 1: less than 0.55 g cm-3; Class 2: from 0.55 to 0.75 g cm-3; and Class 3: greater than 0.75 g cm-3) and joints bonded with two adhesives: polyvinyl acetate (PVA) and urea-formaldehyde (UF), under two different pressures: 6 and 12 kgf cm-2. Glued joints bonded with PVA adhesive presented higher shear strength than those bonded with UF adhesive. For percentage of wood failure, the PVA adhesive had the best performance, however, only Classes 1 and 2 reached the values required by ASTM 3110 standard. Glued joints from Class 3, bonded with UF adhesive, did not reach the values of solid wood. The gluing pressure of 12 kgf cm-2 was more efficient for Class 3, for both shear strength and percentage of wood failure.

da Silva C.F.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | da Silva E.M.R.,Embrapa Agrobiologia | Pereira M.G.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Correia M.E.F.,Embrapa Agrobiologia
Revista Brasileira de Ciencia do Solo | Year: 2013

The intercropping of Eucalyptus with legumes can promote an improvement of soil biological quality in degraded areas and also be advantageous for the species of the consortium. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of planting systems (monoculture and consortium) of Acacia mangium (AM), Sesbania virgata (SV) and Eucalyptus camaldulensis (EC) on the biological characteristics of the plants (dendrometric attributes) and specifically on the fauna in the litter and the surface soil layer (0-0.05 m). An experiment in a randomized block was conducted with six treatments and three replications. The treatments used to evaluate the dendrometric attributes were: 100 % EC and 100 % AM; 50 % EC + 50 % AM; 50 % EC + 50 % SV; 50 % AM + 50 % SV). To evaluate the soil fauna, biological characteristics were assessed in treatments with: 100 % EC; 100 % AM; 100 % SV; 50 % EC:50 % SV; and 50 % AM:50 % SV. Forty-eight months after planting, the height (H) and diameter at breast height (DBH) of the species EC and AM were measured, and estimates of basal area (BA) and wood volume with bark per tree (WBT). The abundance and diversity of the soil fauna were evaluated in leaf litter and soil (0.0-0.05 m). When intercropped with legumes, the DBH, BA and WBT of EC were higher. In contrast, for AM these variables were unaltered when intercropped with EC and SV. Plantations of EC-SV consortium promoted higher total abundance of organisms and highest values of Shannon diversity and evenness indices, especially with regard to the litter compartment.

Pereira M.O.,Escola Nacional de Saude Publica Sergio Arouca | Sa M.C.,Escola Nacional de Saude Publica Sergio Arouca | Miranda L.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro
Cadernos de Saude Publica | Year: 2014

This study analyzes the care provided to adolescents in crisis in a municipality in Greater Metropolitan Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The article reports on a qualitative health study that used Therapeutic Itinerary and Life Narratives as the methodological resources. The principal theoretical reference was psychoanalyst René Kaës. Based on the adolescents’ own verbal accounts, the study aimed to grasp the collective realities that could potentially shed light on the different types of logic and professional practices applied to care for adolescents in psychosocial crisis situations. The underlying assumption was that an approach to the dialectical nature of the crisis required maintaining a framework that would allow establishing a space for transition within which to develop the necessary conditions for disruptive and paradoxical elements to be elaborated. However, crisis care in the context studied here proved to be hampered by infrastructure issues, institutional rigidity, and fragmentation of activities, with little orientation towards intersector work. © 2014 Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz. All rights reserved.

Nardi R.,Brazilian Center for Research in Physics (CBPF) | Santos M.A.,Federal University of Espirito Santo | Vancea I.V.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro
Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical | Year: 2011

We construct the D-brane states at finite temperature in thermal equilibrium in the ℝ1,p × Td-p-1 spacetime in the presence of cold (unthermalized) Kalb-Ramond (KR) and U(1) gauge potential background. To this end, we first generalize the thermo-field dynamics to wrapped closed strings. This generalization is consistent with the spatial translation invariance on the string world-sheet. Next, we determine the thermal string vacuum and define the entropy operator. From these data we calculate the entropy of the closed string and the free energy. Finally, we define the thermal D-brane states in ℝ1,p × Td-p-1 in the presence of a cold constant KR field and U(1) gauge potential as the boundary states of the thermal closed string and compute their entropy. © 2011 IOP Publishing Ltd.

Weberszpil J.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Lazo M.J.,Grande Rio University | Helayel-Neto J.A.,Brazilian Center for Research in Physics (CBPF)
Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications | Year: 2015

Over the recent decades, diverse formalisms have emerged that are adopted to approach complex systems. Amongst those, we may quote the q-calculus in Tsallis' version of Non-Extensive Statistics with its undeniable success whenever applied to a wide class of different systems; Kaniadakis' approach, based on the compatibility between relativity and thermodynamics; Fractional Calculus (FC), that deals with the dynamics of anomalous transport and other natural phenomena, and also some local versions of FC that claim to be able to study fractal and multifractal spaces and to describe dynamics in these spaces by means of fractional differential equations. The question we might ask is whether or not there are common aspects that connect these alternative approaches. In this short communication, we discuss a possible relationship between q-deformed algebras in two different contexts of Statistical Mechanics, namely, Tsallis' framework and Kaniadakis' scenario, with local form of fractional-derivative operators defined in fractal media, the so-called Hausdorff derivatives, mapped into a continuous medium with a fractal measure. This connection opens up new perspectives for theories that satisfactorily describe the dynamics for the transport in media with fractal metrics, such as porous or granular media. Possible connections with other alternative definitions of FC are also contemplated. Insights on complexity connected to concepts like coarse-grained space-time and physics in general are pointed out. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Barboza E.M.,Grande Rio University | Nunes R.D.C.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Abreu E.M.C.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Abreu E.M.C.,Federal University of Juiz de fora | Ananias Neto J.,Federal University of Juiz de fora
Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications | Year: 2015

The accelerated expansion of the Universe is one of the greatest challenges of modern physics. One candidate to explain this phenomenon is a new field called dark energy. In this work we have used the Tsallis nonextensive statistical formulation of the Friedmann equation to explore the Barboza-Alcaniz and Chevalier-Polarski-Linder parametric dark energy models and the Wang-Meng and Dalal vacuum decay models. After that, we have discussed the observational tests and the constraints concerning the Tsallis nonextensive parameter. Finally, we have described the dark energy physics through the role of the q-parameter. © 2015 Published by Elsevier B.V.

Lacerda J.V.A.,Federal University of Viçosa | Peixoto O.L.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Feio R.N.,Federal University of Viçosa
Zootaxa | Year: 2012

A new species of the bromeligenous Scinax perpusillus group is described from Serra do Brigadeiro, state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil (20°43′13.5″S; 42°28′48.7″W). Scinax cosenzai sp. nov. is diagnosed by a combination of traits: moderate-size within the group (17.29-20.97 mm in males and 22.65-24.02 mm in females); head longer than wide; snout protruding in lateral view and slightly acuminated in dorsal view; prominent medial process between the nostrils; few tubercles scattered throughout the dorsal surface, including the head; ventral skin granulated, more intensively near the cloacal region; dorsum different tones of gray with dark bands; transversal dark bars along limbs; gular region with irregular dark pigmentation; in life, hidden portion of the thigh and tibia region with some irregular bright yellow colored patches; and a distinct advertisement call with 2-14 notes/call, call duration 177.62-2066.75 ms, 1-33 pulses/note and dominant frequency of 3375.91-4571.21 Hz. Additionally, notes on natural history are provided. Copyright © 2012. Magnolia Press.

Gornish E.S.,University of California at Davis | Ambrozio dos Santos P.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro
Restoration Ecology | Year: 2016

Grasslands are undergoing tremendous degradation as a result of climate change, land use, and invasion by non-native plants. However, understanding of the factors responsible for driving reestablishment of grassland plant communities is largely derived from short-term studies. In order to develop an understanding of the factors responsible for longer term restoration outcomes in California annual grasslands, we surveyed 12 fields in Davis, CA, U.S.A., in 2015 that were seeded with native species mixtures starting in 2004. Using field surveys, we investigated how invasive plant richness and cover, native plant richness and cover, aboveground biomass, grazing, soil type, and restoration species identity might provide utility for explaining patterns of restoration success. We found a negative relationship between invasive cover and restoration cover, which was attributed to the slow establishment of seeded species and subsequent dominance by weeds. The relationship between invasive cover and restoration cover was modified by grazing, likely due to a change in the dominance of exotic forbs, which have a more similar growing season to restoration species, and therefore compete more strongly for late season moisture. Finally, we found that soil type was responsible for differences in the identity and abundance of invasive plants, subsequently affecting restoration cover. This work highlights the value of focusing resources on reducing invasive species cover, limiting grazing to periods of adequate moisture, and considering soil type for successful long-term restoration in California annual grasslands. Moreover, observations of long-term restoration outcomes can provide insight into the way mechanisms driving restoration outcomes might differ through time. © 2016 Society for Ecological Restoration.

Urquiaga S.,Embrapa Agrobiologia | Xavier R.P.,Usina Itamarati | de Morais R.F.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Batista R.B.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | And 6 more authors.
Plant and Soil | Year: 2012

Aims: In Brazil N fertilization of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is low compared to most other countries. 15N-aided studies and the occurrence of many N 2-fixing bacteria associated with cane plants suggest significant contributions from biological N 2 fixation (BNF). The objective of this study was to evaluate BNF contributions to nine cane varieties under field conditions using N balance and 15N natural abundance techniques. Methods: The field experiment was planted near Rio de Janeiro in 1989, replanted in 1999 and harvested 13 times until 2004. Soil total N was evaluated at planting and again in 2004. Samples of cane leaves and weeds for the evaluation of 15N natural abundance were taken in 2000, 2003 and 2004. Results: N accumulation of the commercial cane varieties and a variety of Saccharum spontaneum were persistently high and N balances (60 to 107 kg N ha -1 yr -1) significantly (p < 0.05) positive. The δ 15N of leaf samples were lower than any of the weed reference plants and data obtained from a greenhouse study indicated that this was not due to the cane plants tapping into soil of lower 15N abundance at greater depth. Conclusion: The results indicate that the Brazilian varieties of sugarcane were able to obtain at least 40 kg N ha -1 yr -1 from BNF. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Moura P.A.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Francelino M.R.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Schaefer C.E.G.R.,Federal University of Viçosa | Simas F.N.B.,Federal University of Viçosa | de Mendonca B.A.F.,Federal University of Viçosa
Geomorphology | Year: 2012

This paper presents the spatial distribution of soils from the northern part of Byers Peninsula, Livingston Island, which is the largest ice-free area of the South Shetlands archipelago, Maritime Antarctica. Physical and chemical characteristics are presented for 23 soil profiles. Soil parent materials vary from marine sedimentary to volcanic and volcanoclastic rocks, intruded by igneous bodies. To assess soil-landscape relationships, twenty-three soil profiles were described and sampled. Soil samples of selected horizons were submitted to chemical, physical and mineralogical analyses. Soil mapping was based on the soil profiles, integrated with the existent topographic map (1:25.000 scale), a digital elevation model, the geological map and a satellite image. Twenty different soil units were identified and mapped. According to the World Reference Base for Soil Resources (WRB) system, soils were classified as Fluvisols, Regosols, Leptosols or Cryosols, which correspond mostly to Fluvents, Orthents/Psamments, Inceptsols and Gelisols, respectively, according to the Soil Taxonomy. Soils from northern Byers Peninsula are generally shallow and coarse textured, with low organic matter content. Three soils from the rocky platforms of the northern coastal region possess ornithogenic character, with lower pH, higher P, Al 3+ and organic C values when compared to soils not influenced by sea birds. In non-ornithogenic soils, the presence of easily weatherable minerals in the clay fraction indicates that physical weathering occurs with limited chemical alteration of primary minerals. The influence of penguin and other birds on coastal soils alters clay mineralogy, with formation of poorly crystalline P-rich phases. A better understanding of the depth of the permafrost table and the spatial distribution of permafrost is necessary for a more conclusive classification of Cryosols or Gelisols. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Goldschmidt R.R.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro
Journal of Software | Year: 2012

Several works show that ensembles improve the performance of time series forecasting solutions. However, developing an ensemble is not an easy task. Usually, the analyst has to develop each ensemble as a separate project, designing, implementing and configuring the individual and the ensemble methods for each experiment. This paper proposes a change to this common view. It argues that it is possible and necessary to also look from a reuse perspective. Combining ideas from reuse and time series forecasting requirements, this paper proposes an environment to enable reusability for ensemble development. The environment intends to provide a flexible tool for the analyst to include, configure and execute individual methods and to build and execute ensemble experiments. © 2012 ACADEMY PUBLISHER.

Coelho C.D.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Berto B.P.,Institute Veterinaria | Flausino W.,Institute Veterinaria | Lopes W.G.,Institute Veterinaria
Acta Protozoologica | Year: 2011

This current study reports a new isosporoid (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) species parasitizing tropical mockingbirds Mimus gilvus recovered from illegal trade in Brazil. Isospora mimusi n. sp. oocysts are spherical to sub-spherical, 20.6 × 19.6 μm, with smooth, bilayered wall, ~1.2 μm. Micropyle, oocyst residuum and polar granule are absent. Sporocysts are ovoidal, 13.4 × 9.8 μm. Stieda and substieda bodies are present. Sporocyst residuum composed of diffuse granules of various sizes, sporozoites have one refractile body.

Rizzuti B.F.,Federal University of Amazonas | Abreu E.M.C.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Abreu E.M.C.,Federal University of Juiz de fora | Alves P.V.,Federal University of Viçosa
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2014

The description of the Zitterbewegung at a classical level indicates possible predictions of the electron quantum properties even before quantization: this quivering motion is restricted to a plane, which leads us to only two possible orientations of the corresponding angular momentum, even in the absence of a quantized theory or external fields. Besides, the angular momentum associated with the Zitterbewegung turns out to be proportional to A. Namely, using a standard constraint analysis we have proven this last result. Thus, assuming that this is an observable phenomenon, we recognize this oscillatory motion as a classical signature of the spin of the electron. We also propose here an interpretation of the Zitterbewegung based on geometrical grounds: it can be seen as the physical degrees of freedom of position variables constrained to a sphere, which enforces the hypothesis of assuming an electron internal structure. © 2014 American Physical Society.

Abreu E.M.C.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Godinho C.F.L.,Brazilian Center for Research in Physics (CBPF)
Physical Review E - Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics | Year: 2011

So far, it is not well known how to deal with dissipative systems. There are many paths of investigation in the literature and none of them present a systematic and general procedure to tackle the problem. On the other hand, it is well known that the fractional formalism is a powerful alternative when treating dissipative problems. In this paper, we propose a detailed way of attacking the issue using fractional calculus to construct an extension of the Dirac brackets in order to carry out the quantization of nonconservative theories through the standard canonical way. We believe that, by using the extended Dirac bracket definition, it will be possible to analyze more deeply gauge theories starting with second-class systems. © 2011 American Physical Society.

De Castro I.J.,Federal University of Amapá | Dos Santos E.R.,São Paulo Institute for Technological Research | Martins A.C.M.,University of Brasilia | Dias D.,Laboratorio Of Biologia E Parasitologia Of Mamiferos Silvestres Reservatorios Ioc | Peracchi A.L.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro
Mammalia | Year: 2012

In the present study, we report the first record of Peropteryx pallidoptera for Brazil, based on a female captured in the municipality of Curuá, northern margin of the Amazonas River, state of Pará, in the Guiana Shield. The studied specimen has all the diagnostic characters that distinguish P. pallidoptera from other species of the genus; its measurements are within the range reported for females collected in Peru, and similar to the measurements of the holotype. Our record increases the number of bat species known for Brazil and extends the geographic distribution of this species to over 2300 km to the east of the type locality in Ecuador. Copyright © 2011-2012 by Walter de Gruyter.

do Nascimento P.C.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Lani J.L.,Federal University of Viçosa | Mendonca E.S.,Federal University of Viçosa | Zoffoli H.J.O.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro
Revista Brasileira de Ciencia do Solo | Year: 2010

Soil organic matter (SOM) contents and characteristics are results of production, incorporation, decomposition, alteration, and mineralization rates, according to environmental conditions. In hydromorphic soils, SOM dynamics are regulated by O2 deficit, lowering the decomposition rates and producing substances different from those in well-drained soils. This article aimed to determine SOM contents and characteristics at three locations in the State of Espirito Santo, Brazil. Total organic carbon (TOC) was quantified by three methods, besides partitioning humic substances (HS) and determining the humin (FHU), humic (FAH) and fulvic acid (FAF) fraction contents, light organic matter (LOM), and minimum residues. Results indicated high organic C in most surface horizons and material with organic constitution. High values of SH/TOC and low values of EA/FHU ratios indicated the humin fraction as the most important fraction of SOM compartments. The mobility of fulvic acid fraction was higher than of the others, expressed by relatively higher contents in the subsurface. The high LOM content indicated a low humification degree, due to the hydromorphic conditions.

Vargas-Solorzano J.W.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Carvalho C.W.P.,Embrapa Food Technology | Takeiti C.Y.,Embrapa Food Technology | Ascheri J.L.R.,Embrapa Food Technology | Queiroz V.A.V.,Embrapa Maize and Sorghum
Food Research International | Year: 2014

The diversity of sorghum grains is related to their intrinsic properties, which include starch type, non-starch components and phenolic compounds. The latter are genotype dependent and affect the pericarp characteristics such as color and presence of a pigmented testa. This diversity can be valuable for developing new food products by thermoplastic extrusion intended for human consumption. Flours from sorghum grains from the genotypes of varied pericarp color: white (CMSXS180; 9010032), red (BRS 310; BRS 308) and light brown (BRS 305; 9929034) were processed in a co-rotating twin-screw extruder. Changes promoted by extrusion cooking were evaluated via specific mechanical energy (SME), die pressure, apparent density, sectional expansion index (SEI), water absorption index (WAI) and water solubility index (WSI). Pericarp color affected die pressure, apparent density and WSI values of extrudates. Light brown genotypes, rich in tannin and fiber content, generated the lowest die pressure and SEI values. Red genotypes presented the lowest SME and the highest WAI values. White genotypes presented intermediate SME and the highest die pressure values. These results reflect differences in starch conversion induced by the pericarp type. These results further suggest the potential use of pigmented sorghum extrudates for human consumption. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

PubMed | Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro, Grande Rio University, University of Lisbon and Monsanto Corporation
Type: | Journal: Revista brasileira de parasitologia veterinaria = Brazilian journal of veterinary parasitology : Orgao Oficial do Colegio Brasileiro de Parasitologia Veterinaria | Year: 2016

The common kestrel Falco tinnunculus Linnaeus, 1758, is a widespread raptor, native in Europe, Asia and Africa, and vagrant in the Americas. In the current work, 27 fecal samples were collected from common kestrels kept in the Lisbon Center for Wild Animal Recovery, located at Monsanto Forest Park, Lisbon, Portugal. Five (19%) of them were found to be passing an undescribed species of Caryospora in their feces. The oocysts of Caryospora peneireiroi n. sp. were ellipsoidal with a bilayered wall and measured 47.1 37.6 m with a shape index of 1.25. No micropyle, oocyst residuum or polar granule was present. The sporocysts were subspherical, measuring 25.1 24.3 m. Stieda, sub-Stieda and para-Stieda bodies were absent. The sporocyst residuum was composed of many homogenous globules scattered throughout the periphery of the sporocyst. This is the fourth caryosporan species reported from F. tinnunculus.

PubMed | Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, New York University, CSIC - National Museum of Natural Sciences, Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro and 2 more.
Type: | Journal: Zootaxa | Year: 2015

Egg-brooding frogs (Hemiphractidae) are a group of 105 currently recognized Neotropical species, with a remarkable diversity of developmental modes, from direct development to free-living and exotrophic tadpoles. Females carry their eggs on the back and embryos have unique bell-shaped gills. We inferred the evolutionary relationships of these frogs and used the resulting phylogeny to review their taxonomy and test hypotheses on the evolution of developmental modes and bell-shaped gills. Our inferences relied on a total evidence parsimony analysis of DNA sequences of up to 20 mitochondrial and nuclear genes (analyzed under tree-alignment), and 51 phenotypic characters sampled for 83% of currently valid hemiphractid species. Our analyses rendered a well-resolved phylogeny, with both Hemiphractidae (sister of Athesphatanura) and its six recognized genera being monophyletic. We also inferred novel intergeneric relationships [((Cryptobatrachus, Flectonotus), (Stefania, (Fritziana, (Hemiphractus, Gastrotheca))))], the non-monophyly of all species groups previously proposed within Gastrotheca and Stefania, and the existence of several putative new species within Fritziana and Hemiphractus. Contrary to previous hypotheses, our results support the most recent common ancestor of hemiphractids as a direct-developer. Free-living aquatic tadpoles apparently evolved from direct-developing ancestors three to eight times. Embryos of the sister taxa Cryptobatrachus and Flectonotus share a pair of single gills derived from branchial arch I, while embryos of the clade including the other four genera have two pairs of gills derived from branchial arches I and II respectively. Furthermore, in Gastrotheca the fusion of the two pairs of gills is a putative synapomorphy. We propose a revised taxonomy concordant with our optimal topologies.

PubMed | University of Notre Dame, Escola Nacional de Saude Publica, The Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and 29 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | Year: 2015

Rhodnius prolixus not only has served as a model organism for the study of insect physiology, but also is a major vector of Chagas disease, an illness that affects approximately seven million people worldwide. We sequenced the genome of R. prolixus, generated assembled sequences covering 95% of the genome ( 702 Mb), including 15,456 putative protein-coding genes, and completed comprehensive genomic analyses of this obligate blood-feeding insect. Although immune-deficiency (IMD)-mediated immune responses were observed, R. prolixus putatively lacks key components of the IMD pathway, suggesting a reorganization of the canonical immune signaling network. Although both Toll and IMD effectors controlled intestinal microbiota, neither affected Trypanosoma cruzi, the causal agent of Chagas disease, implying the existence of evasion or tolerance mechanisms. R. prolixus has experienced an extensive loss of selenoprotein genes, with its repertoire reduced to only two proteins, one of which is a selenocysteine-based glutathione peroxidase, the first found in insects. The genome contained actively transcribed, horizontally transferred genes from Wolbachia sp., which showed evidence of codon use evolution toward the insect use pattern. Comparative protein analyses revealed many lineage-specific expansions and putative gene absences in R. prolixus, including tandem expansions of genes related to chemoreception, feeding, and digestion that possibly contributed to the evolution of a blood-feeding lifestyle. The genome assembly and these associated analyses provide critical information on the physiology and evolution of this important vector species and should be instrumental for the development of innovative disease control methods.

PubMed | Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Federal University of Paraná, Federal University of Vales do Jequitinhonha and Mucuri, 1R Institute of Promotion and Research for the Replacement of Animal Experimentation and 5 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Alternatives to laboratory animals : ATLA | Year: 2015

Humane education and the debate on alternatives to harmful animal use for training is a relatively recent issue in Brazil. While animal use in secondary education has been illegal since the late 1970s, animal use in higher science education is widespread. However, alternatives to animal experiments in research and testing have recently received attention from the Government, especially after the first legislation on animal experiments was passed, in 2008. This article proposes that higher science education should be based on a critical and humane approach. It outlines the recent establishment of the Brazilian Network for Humane Education (RedEH), as a result of the project, Mapping Animal Use for Undergraduate Education in Brazil, which was recognised by the 2014 Lush Prize. The network aims to create a platform to promote change in science education in Brazil, starting by quantitatively and qualitatively understanding animal use, developing new approaches adapted to the current needs in Brazil and Latin America, and communicating these initiatives nationally. This paper explores the trajectory of alternatives and replacement methods to harmful animal use in training and education, as well as the status of humane education in Brazil, from the point of view of educators and researchers engaged with the network.

PubMed | Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro, Federal University of Espirito Santo and Federal University of Viçosa
Type: | Journal: Journal of environmental management | Year: 2016

For countries dependent on hydroelectricity, water scarcity poses a real risk. Hydroelectric plants are among the most vulnerable enterprises to climate change. Investing in the conservation of the hydrographic basin is a solution found by the hydropower sector. Given the importance of the Itaipu plant to the energy matrix of Brazil and Paraguay, the aim of this study is to review the current distribution of royalties from Itaipu, using the hydrographic basin as a of criterion of analysis. Approximately 98.73% of the Itaipu basin is in Brazil. The flow contributes 99% of the total electricity generated there, while the drop height of the water contributes only 1%. Under the current policy, royalties are shared equally between Brazil and Paraguay. In the proposed approach, each country would receive a percentage for their participation in the drop height and water flow in the output of the turbines, which are intrinsic factors for electricity generation. Thus, Brazil would receive 98.35% of the royalties and Paraguay, 1.65%. The inclusion of the hydrographic basin as a criterion for the distribution of royalties will promote more efficient water resource management, since the payment will be distributed throughout the basin of the plant. The methodology can be applied to hydroelectric projects worldwide.

PubMed | Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Acta cirurgica brasileira | Year: 2016

To update the gross and sonographic anatomy and propose landmarks to perform ultrasound-guided (US-guided) axillary brachial plexus block (BPB) in rabbits.Forty New Zeelands rabbit (NZR) cadavers were dissected and the nerves were trimmed, identified, measured, and photographed. Additionally, in twenty NZRs, sonographic images of brachial plexus (BP) were performed through a simple-resolution ultrasound device. The US-guided block was achieved through a minimum volume of lidocaine necessary to surround the BP roots. The effectiveness of the brachial plexus block was assessed on sensitivity and motor functions.The BP resulted from connections between the ventral branches of the last four cervical spinal nerves and the first thoracic spinal nerve. In the axillary sonoanatomy, the BP appeared as an agglomerate of small, round hypoechoic structures surrounded by a thin hyperechoic ring. The amount of time and the minimum volume required to perform was 4.3 2.3 min and 0.8 0.3ml, respectively.The gross and sonographic anatomy of the BP showed uncommon morphological variations. Moreover, from sonographic landmarks, we showed complete reproducibility of the axillary US-guided brachial plexus block with simple resolution equipment and small volume of anesthetics required.

PubMed | Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro, State University of Southwest Bahia, Nucleo de Pesquisa em Quimica Aplicada UESB and Federal University of Pernambuco
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Parasitology research | Year: 2016

For control of Aedes aegypti, the main vector of dengue, botanical insecticides can be a viable alternative. Herein, we evaluated the chemical composition and insecticidal activity of the essential oils of the leaves of Croton tetradenius on Ae. aegypti larvae and adults. We also evaluated the acute toxicity in Mus musculus. The essential oil chemical analysis was performed using chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry and flame ionization detection. Female mice were used for assessing toxicity according to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Developments Test Guideline 423/2001. Doses administered to mice orally and intraperitoneally were 5, 50, 300, and 2000mgkg(-1). There was a greater toxic effect on larvae (LC50=0.152mgmL(-1) and LC90=0.297mgmL(-1)) and on adults (LC50=1.842mgmL(-1) and LC90=3.156mgmL(-1)) of Ae. aegypti after 24h of exposure, when compared to other periods of exposure. Chemical analysis revealed 26 components, with camphor (25.49%) as the major component. The acute toxicity via the intraperitoneal route identified an LD50=200mgkg(-1) and by the oral route an LD50=500mgkg(-1). Thus, the essential oil of C. tetradenius presents insecticidal potential for Ae. aegypti and has high safety threshold at the concentrations evaluated in this study.

PubMed | Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro and State University of Rio de Janeiro
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Revista brasileira de ortopedia | Year: 2015

to translate the Hip Outcome Score clinical evaluation questionnaire into Portuguese and culturally adapt it for Brazil.the Hip Outcome Score questionnaire was translated into Portuguese following the methodology consisting of the steps of translation, back-translation, pretesting and final translation.the pretesting was applied to 30 patients with hip pain without arthrosis. In the domain relating to activities of daily living, there were no difficulties in comprehending the translated questionnaire. In presenting the final translation of the questionnaire, all the questions were understood by more than 85% of the individuals.the Hip Outcome Score questionnaire was translated and adapted to the Portuguese language and can be used in clinical evaluation on the hip. Additional studies are underway with the objective of evaluating the reproducibility and validity of the Brazilian translation.

PubMed | Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro and University of Sao Paulo
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2016

Curcumin (CUR) is the major constituent of the rhizomes of Curcuma longa and has been widely investigated for its chemotherapeutic properties. The well-known activity of CUR against Leishmania sp., Trypanosoma brucei and Plasmodium falciparum led us to investigate its activity against Trypanosoma cruzi. In this work, we tested the cytotoxic effects of CUR and other natural curcuminoids on different forms of T. cruzi, as well as the ultrastructural changes induced in epimastigote form of the parasite. CUR was verified as the curcuminoid with more significant trypanocidal properties (IC50 10.13 M on epimastigotes). Demethoxycurcumin (DMC) was equipotent to CUR (IC50 11.07 M), but bisdemethoxycurcumin (BDMC) was less active (IC50 45.33 M) and cyclocurcumin (CC) was inactive. In the experiment with infected murine peritoneal macrophages all diarylheptanoids were more active than the control in the inhibition of the trypomastigotes release. The electron microscopy images showed ultrastructural changes associated with the cytoskeleton of the parasite, indicating tubulin as possible target of CUR in T. cruzi. The results obtained by flow cytometry analysis of DNA content of the parasites treated with natural curcuminoids suggested a mechanism of action on microtubules related to the paclitaxel`s mode of action. To better understand the mechanism of action highlighted by electron microscopy and flow cytometry experiments we performed the molecular docking of natural curcuminoids on tubulin of T. cruzi in a homology model and the results obtained showed that the observed interactions are in accordance with the IC50 values found, since there CUR and DMC perform similar interactions at the binding site on tubulin while BDMC do not realize a hydrogen bond with Lys163 residue due to the absence of methoxyl groups. These results indicate that trypanocidal properties of CUR may be related to the cytoskeletal alterations.

PubMed | Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro, Escola Nacional de Saude Publica Sergio Arouca, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz and Laboratorio Central Of Saude Publica Of Santa Catarina
Type: | Journal: BioMed research international | Year: 2016

The prevalence of Salmonella spp. was investigated in 109 wild birds poached in the illegal wildlife trade in Rio de Janeiro; most of them are passerines from Thraupidae family and three from Psittacidae. One strain of Salmonella ser. Typhimurium and two strains of Salmonella ser. Panama were isolated from passerine species and all of them showed resistance to multiple antimicrobial drugs, like ampicillin, ceftriaxone, ceftiofur, tetracycline, gentamicin, nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, and enrofloxacin. PFGE showed 100% similarity among the Salmonella ser. Typhimurium strain isolated from a Temmincks seedeater (Sporophila falcirostris) and the strains isolated from a human outbreak, in southern Brazil. The two Salmonella ser. Panama strains isolated from two chestnut-capped blackbirds (Chrysomus ruficapillus) present in the same catch showed the same clonal origin and have never been associated with epizooties and human outbreaks. Potential for dissemination of resistant Salmonella through situations offered by captive management and the isolation of the same strain from wild birds and human sources may become a problem for the conservation of natural populations and to public health.

PubMed | Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro and Federal University of Viçosa
Type: | Journal: The Science of the total environment | Year: 2017

Permafrost and active layer studies are important to understand and predict regional climate changes. The objectives of this work were: i) to characterize the soil thermal regime (active layer thickness and permafrost formation) and its interannual variability and ii) to evaluate the influence of different climate variability modes to the observed soil thermal regime in a patterned ground soil in Maritime Antarctica. The study was carried out at Keller Peninsula, King George Island, Maritime Antarctica. Six soil temperatures probes were installed at different depths (10, 30 and 80cm) in the polygon center (Tc) and border (Tb) of a patterned ground soil. We applied cross-correlation analysis and standardized series were related to the Antarctic Oscillation Index (AAO). The estimated active layer thickness was approximately 0.75cm in the polygon border and 0.64cm in the center, indicating the presence of permafrost (within 80cm). Results indicate that summer and winter temperatures are becoming colder and warmer, respectively. Considering similar active layer thickness, the polygon border presented greater thawing days, resulting in greater vulnerability to warming, cooling faster than the center, due to its lower volumetric heat capacity (Cs). Cross-correlation analysis indicated statistically significant delay of 1day (at 10cm depth) in the polygon center, and 5days (at 80cm depth) for the thermal response between atmosphere and soil. Air temperature showed a delay of 5months with the climate variability models. The influence of southern winds from high latitudes, in the south facing slopes, favored freeze in the upper soil layers, and also contributed to keep permafrost closer to the surface. The observed cooling trend is linked to the regional climate variability modes influenced by atmospheric circulation, although longer monitoring period is required to reach a more precise scenario.

PubMed | Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro, Federal University of Viçosa, State University of Maringá and Evonik Industries
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2015

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of heat stress and methionine supplementation on the gene expression of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), growth hormone receptor (GHR), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, and regulatory 1 (PI3KR1) in the liver, as well as the expression of the atrogin 1 and cathepsin L2 (CTSL2) genes in the breast muscle of broilers. Broilers from 1-21 and 22-42 days of age were divided into three treatments related to methionine supplementation as follows: without methionine supplementation (MD), recommended level of methionine (DL1), and excess supplementation of methionine (DL2). The animals were either maintained at a thermal comfort temperature or exposed to heat stress (HS) (38C for 24 hours, starting on day 20 or day 41 for experiments 1 and 2, respectively). The heat stress increased the body temperature at both ages. Starter period: The HS animals presented increased plasma creatinine content (P<0.0001) and the highest CTSL2 gene expression (P<0.0001). The methionine supplementation increased the IGF-I (P = 0.0144) and GHR (P = 0.0011) gene expression and decreased the CTSL2 (P = 0.0004) and atrogin 1 (P = 0.0012) gene expression. Grower period: Significant effects for the interaction between supplementation and environment were observed for GHR (P = 0.0252) and CTSL2 (P = 0.0011) gene expression. The highest GHR expression was observed in animals that remained in thermal comfort on the DL2 diet, and the lowest expression occurred in the HS animals fed the MD diet. For CTSL2, the HS animals fed the MD diet presented the highest CTSL2 gene expression, and the lowest expression was observed in the animals maintained at thermal comfort on DL1 and DL2 diets. Only methionine supplementation had effect on atrogin-1 gene expression (P<0.0001), with higher methionine content in the diet lower atrogin-1 gene expression was observed. Our results suggest that heat stress induces greater protein degradation and that methionine supplementation could induce protein deposition because methionine increased the expression of genes related to protein synthesis and decreased the expression of genes related to protein breakdown.

PubMed | Research Center for Sports science, Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Castelo Branco University and Royal University
Type: | Journal: Journal of human kinetics | Year: 2015

The current study aimed to compare the effects of two exercise programs (Strength Training and Hydro Gymnastics) on the functional and cardiorespiratory abilities of Portuguese postmenopausal women. The study population consisted of 38 volunteers (age: 66.9 6.1 years, body mass: 73.70 10.38 kg, and body height: 1.55 0.10 m). Subjects were randomly divided into two experimental groups and one control group: one group performed 24 weeks of strength training (GST; n = 14), another performed 24 weeks of hydro gymnastics (GH; n = 17) and a control group (CG; n = 7), where the subjects continued with their regular daily activities without involvement in any physical exercise program. Three assessments were performed: before the beginning of the program, 12 weeks after the start of the training program and 24 weeks after the start of the program. To assess the functional ability of the participants, several tests proposed by Jones and Rikli (2002) were performed. To evaluate the cardiorespiratory ability of the participants, a modified treadmill Bruce test was applied. Significant differences (p<0.05) were found between the two training methods in the tests, which primarily demanded muscular strength. Body mass and the body mass index showed significant differences during the three stages of assessment in the GST group (p<0.05). With respect to the values that represent the variables of cardiorespiratory ability, positive and significant changes were observed in the two experimental groups. It was concluded that both exercise programs promoted improvements in some indicators of the functional and cardiorespiratory abilities of Portuguese postmenopausal women.

PubMed | University of Calgary, University of Bristol, University of Malaya, University of Sao Paulo and Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience | Year: 2015

The Na-K-2Cl cotransporter 2 (NKCC2) was thought to be kidney specific. Here we show expression in the brain hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal system (HNS), wherein upregulation follows osmotic stress. The HNS controls osmotic stability through the synthesis and release of the neuropeptide hormone, arginine vasopressin (AVP). AVP travels through the bloodstream to the kidney, where it promotes water conservation. Knockdown of HNS NKCC2 elicited profound effects on fluid balance following ingestion of a high-salt solution-rats produced significantly more urine, concomitant with increases in fluid intake and plasma osmolality. Since NKCC2 is the molecular target of the loop diuretics bumetanide and furosemide, we asked about their effects on HNS function following disturbed water balance. Dehydration-evoked GABA-mediated excitation of AVP neurons was reversed by bumetanide, and furosemide blocked AVP release, both in vivo and in hypothalamic explants. Thus, NKCC2-dependent brain mechanisms that regulate osmotic stability are disrupted by loop diuretics in rats.

Access to scientific knowledge is a valuable resource than can inform and validate positions taken in formulating public policy. But access to this knowledge can be challenging, given the diversity and breadth of available scholarship. Communication between the fields of science and of politics requires the dissemination of scholarship and access to it. We conducted a study using an open-access search tool in order to map existent knowledge on a specific topic: agricultural contributions to the preservation of biodiversity. The present article offers a critical view of access to the information available through the Capes database on Brazilian theses and dissertations.

Martinele I.,Federal University of Juiz de fora | Tostes R.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Castro R.,Clinica Veterinaria Zoovet | D'Agosto M.,Federal University of Juiz de fora
Parasitology Research | Year: 2016

Captive terrestrial tortoises of the species Chelonoidis carbonaria (n = 17) and Chelonoidis denticulata (n = 37) in the state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil, were examined for hematozoans by using a combination of microscopic and molecular methods. Microscopic examination revealed young intra-erythrocytic forms in blood smears from both species of tortoises. The results of PCR, sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis indicated that these parasites belonged to the Haemoproteus spp., whose observed prevalence was 17.6 % in C. carbonaria and 13.5 % in C. denticulata. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that these sequences formed a clade that was grouped with other sequences of Haemoproteus spp. parasites in birds, separate from the clade formed by Haemoproteus spp. of reptiles. This study expands the information regarding the occurrence and distribution of hemosporidia in turtles and is the first study of blood parasites in C. carbonaria. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Bellay S.,State University of Maringá | Bellay S.,University of Northern Paraná | de Oliveira E.F.,Federal Technological University of Paraná | Almeida-Neto M.,Federal University of Goais | And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Specialized interactions tend to be more common in systems that require strong reciprocal adaptation between species, such as those observed between parasites and hosts. Parasites exhibit a high diversity of species and life history strategies, presenting host specificity which increases the complexity of these antagonistic systems. However, most studies are limited to the description of interactions between a few parasite and host species, which restricts our understanding of these systems as a whole. We investigated the effect of the developmental stage of the parasite on the structure of 30 metazoan fish-parasite networks, with an emphasis on the specificity of the interactions, connectance and modularity. We assessed the functional role of each species in modular networks and its interactions within and among the modules according to the developmental stage (larval and adult) and taxonomic group of the parasites. We observed that most parasite and host species perform a few interactions but that parasites at the larval stage tended to be generalists, increasing the network connectivity within and among modules. The parasite groups did not differ among each other in the number of interactions within and among the modules when considering only species at the larval stage. However, the same groups of adult individuals differed from each other in their interaction patterns, which were related to variations in the degree of host specificity at this stage. Our results show that the interaction pattern of fishes with parasites, such as acanthocephalans, cestodes, digeneans and nematodes, is more closely associated with their developmental stage than their phylogenetic history. This finding corroborates the hypothesis that the life history of parasites results in adaptations that cross phylogenetic boundaries. © 2013 Bellay et al.

Fay L.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Fay L.,University of Wollongong | Cooper P.,University of Wollongong | De Morais H.F.,Escola Superior de Propaganda e Marketing ESPM
Construction and Building Materials | Year: 2014

The current work developed the morphology of a new component of construction made with an easy acquisition and low cost material: soil-cement, a material and procedure proven, tested, and regulated. The redesign of a new construction component aims to facilitate the rise of the masonry through an innovative construction process, in which the settling mortar can be eliminated with a perfect fitting system. With the fitting block designed, the mould for pressing was developed and prototypes were conformed in three soil-cement mixtures showing production feasibility. Tested according to the related standards, the prototypes were submitted to resistance of compression, water absorption and sizing. The results showed that only the water absorption parameter did not comply with the standards and therefore must be targeted by future research in order to improve the mixture composition. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Bellay S.,State University of Maringá | Lima D.P.,State University of Maringá | Takemoto R.M.,State University of Maringá | Luque J.L.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro
Parasitology | Year: 2011

Properties of ecological networks facilitate the understanding of interaction patterns in host-parasite systems as well as the importance of each species in the interaction structure of a community. The present study evaluates the network structure, functional role of all species and patterns of parasite co-occurrence in a host-parasite network to determine the organization level of a host-parasite system consisting of 170 taxa of gastrointestinal metazoans of 39 marine fish species on the coast of Brazil. The network proved to be nested and modular, with a low degree of connectance. Host-parasite interactions were influenced by host phylogeny. Randomness in parasite co-occurrence was observed in most modules and component communities, although species segregation patterns were also observed. The low degree of connectance in the network may be the cause of properties such as nestedness and modularity, which indicate the presence of a high number of peripheral species. Segregation patterns among parasite species in modules underscore the role of host specificity. Knowledge of ecological networks allows detection of keystone species for the maintenance of biodiversity and the conduction of further studies on the stability of networks in relation to frequent environmental changes. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2011.

Neves L.R.,Laboratorio Of Aquicultura E Pesca | Pereira F.B.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Tavares-Dias M.,Laboratorio Of Aquicultura E Pesca | Luque J.L.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro
Journal of Parasitology | Year: 2013

Parasite infracommunities were studied in 202 specimens of Astronotus ocellatus collected from a freshwater lake in the State of Amapá, northern Brazil. Relationships between some host attributes (i.e., ontogeny, sex, and body size) and parasite infections were analyzed, but the primary focus was the seasonal variation in the parasite fauna. In total, 6,308,912 parasites belonging to 11 different taxa were found. Protozoa were the most abundant and dominant taxa, but monogeneans, trematode metacercariae, and nematode larvae were also prevalent and abundant. Fish ontogeny had a weak influence on parasite infection rates; juveniles were more parasitized by Dolops nana and Posthodiplostomum sp. The abundances of all parasite species were weakly correlated with host body size (low r2 values), except D. nana, Contracaecum sp., and Posthodiplostomum sp., which exhibited no correlation between abundance and host body size. Prevalence and abundance were different between flood and drainage seasons for all parasite species, except for D. nana and the 2 metacercarial species. Astronotus ocellatus may represent a link in food-web transmissions for parasites because it is used both as definitive and intermediate host. The parasite fauna of A. ocellatus was composed primarily of ectoparasites, and this could be considered typical of fishes that inhabit lentic waters. Seasonality was a strong determinant in the parasite community structure. © American Society of Parasitologists 2013.

Dos Santos R.P.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Da Silva T.C.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Goncalves M.L.A.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Louis B.,CNRS Institute of Chemistry | And 3 more authors.
Applied Catalysis A: General | Year: 2012

The location of vanadium species on δ-aluminas modified by lithium, sodium or potassium has been thoroughly investigated by means of several techniques. XRD, TPR and textural analyses showed that vanadium species are preferentially located on group I element or in its close vicinity when compared with the non-modified alumina. Vanadium species are localized nearby lithium and potassium cations, whilst vanadium species are partially distributed between sodium and alumina support in the sodium-modified alumina. A detailed XPS study was also carried out over potassium-promoted alumina catalysts and confirmed the vanadium distribution nearby potassium. Experiments of SOx capture and sulfate reduction to H2S were performed under realistic Fluid Catalytic Cracking (FCC) conditions with respect to the temperature of the catalyst regeneration (at 725 °C) and during hydrocarbon reactions (around 575 °C). Among different alkali cation modifiers, alumina modified by potassium exhibited the best performance in the DeSOx reaction (in terms of mole of absorbed sulfur per mole of group I cation) according to the following ratios: 0.74, 0.34 and 0.24 observed for K, Li and Na, respectively. Finally, vanadium largely improved the rate of SO2 oxidation as well as the rate of sulfate reduction to H2S. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Reis Dos C.M.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Pereira D.S.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | De Oliveira Paiva R.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Kneipp L.F.,Instituto Oswaldo Cruz FIOCRUZ | Echevarria A.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro
Molecules | Year: 2011

We present an efficient procedure for the synthesis of thirty-six N1,N4- substituted thiosemicarbazones, including twenty-five ones that are reported for the first time, using a microwave-assisted methodology for the reaction of thiosemicarbazide intermediates with aldehydes in the presence of glacial acetic acid in ethanol and under solvent free conditions. Overall reaction times (20-40 min when ethanol as solvent, and 3 min under solvent free conditions) were much shorter than with the traditional procedure (480 min); satisfactory yields and high-purity compounds were obtained. The thiosemicarbazide intermediates were obtained from alkyl or aryl isothiocyanates and hydrazine hydrate or phenyl hydrazine by stirring at room temperature for 60 min or by microwave irradiation for 30 min, with lower yields for the latter. The preliminary in vitro antifungal activity of thiosemicarbazones was evaluated against Aspergillus parasiticus and Candida albicans. © 2011 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

Luque J.L.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Vieira F.M.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Takemoto R.M.,State University of Maringá | Pavanelli G.C.,State University of Maringá | Eiras J.C.,University of Porto
Check List | Year: 2013

Here we provide a checklist of the crustacean species parasitizing both marine and freshwater fishes from Brazil. We list a total of 134 species of parasitic crustaceans associated with 205 species of fishes in Brazil. The data from this study added to the checklist of Copepoda in Brazilian fishes published in 2007 give a total of 251 species of parasitic crustaceans associated with 279 fish species currently known in Brazil. The majority of species of Crustacea listed as parasites of Brazilian fishes are Copepoda with 186 species registered. A total of 741 parasite-host associations were observed. Copepoda was the group with more host-parasite associations, totaling 419 associations. When comparing these data with those recorded for the fishes from other parasite hotspots of Neotropics (Mexico and Caribbean), it is possible to affirm that the fauna of parasitic crustaceans of Brazilian fishes is the richest in the region. © 2013 Check List and Authors.

Jindo K.,Organic Waste Management | Martim S.A.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Navarro E.C.,CSIC - Center of Edafology and Applied Biology of the Segura | Perez-Alfocea F.,CSIC - Center of Edafology and Applied Biology of the Segura | And 4 more authors.
Plant and Soil | Year: 2012

Background and aims: Besides general effect of organic residues on soil quality and plant crop, hormonal direct effect on plant growth by extracted humic acids of organic materials is interesting and profitable theme. In the present work, we studied on direct interaction between humic acid and root growth, depending on different origin of organic materials. Methods: All extracted humic acids of four organic materials (sewage sludge, compost sewage sludge, municipal solid waste, compost municipal solid waste) were characterized chemically by elemental analyses, ion pair chromatography (ICP), size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC), solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance ( 13C-CPMAS-NMR) and quantification of IAA. Later, different morphological effects on maize (principal root growth, lateral root growth, root area, root mitosic site, root dry weight and H+-ATPase activity of plasma membrane) were analyzed. Results: All humic acids samples promoted root growth and proton pump activity in maize vesicles, especially those composted samples, which contained more carboxylic groups and had a more hydrophobic character, produced preferentially morphological and biochemical effects. Conclusion: The conformational dynamics of humic hydrophobic associations in the rhizosphere may release auxin-like plant growth promoters and enhance plant biochemical activities. These organic wastes represent a renewable source of humic acid for use as plant root promoter. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Simoes R.O.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Simoes R.O.,Instituto Oswaldo Cruz | Junior A.M.,Instituto Oswaldo Cruz | Olifiers N.,Instituto Oswaldo Cruz | And 3 more authors.
Parasites and Vectors | Year: 2014

Background: The nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a zoonotic parasite and the most important cause of eosinophilic meningitis worldwide in humans. In Brazil, this disease has been reported in the states of Espírito Santo and Pernambuco. The parasite has been detected in the naturally infected intermediate host, in the states of Rio de Janeiro, Pernambuco and Santa Catarina. The murid Rattus norvegicus R. rattus were recently reported to be naturally infected in Brazil. In this study, we conducted a two-year investigation of the dissemination pattern of A. cantonensis in R. norvegicus in an urban area of Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil, and examined the influence of seasonality, year, host weight and host gender on parasitological parameters of A. cantonensis in rats. Methods. The study was conducted in an area of Trindade, São Gonçalo municipality, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Prevalence of infected rats, intensity and abundance of A. cantonensis were calculated, and generalized linear models were created and compared to verify the contribution of host gender, host weight, year and seasonality to the variations in A. cantonensis abundance and prevalence in rats. Results: The prevalence of A. cantonensis infection was stable during the rainy (71%, CI 58.9- 81.6) and dry seasons (71%, CI 57.9-80.8) and was higher in older rats and in females. Seasonality, host weight (used as a proxy of animal age) and gender were all contributing factors to variation in parasite abundance, with females and heavier (older) animals showing larger abundance of parasites, and extreme values of parasite abundance being more frequent in the dry season. Conclusions: The high prevalence of this parasite throughout the study suggests that its transmission is stable and that conditions are adequate for the spread of the parasite to previously unaffected areas. Dispersion of the parasite to new areas may be mediated by males that tend to have larger dispersal ability, while females may be more important for maintaining the parasite on a local scale due to their higher prevalence and abundance of infection. A multidisciplinary approach considering the ecological distribution of the rats and intermediate hosts, as well as environmental features is required to further understand the dynamics of angiostrongyliasis. © 2014 Simões et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Eiras J.C.,University of Porto | Takemoto R.M.,State University of Maringá | Pavanelli G.C.,State University of Maringá | Luque J.L.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro
Zootaxa | Year: 2012

Provided is a list of the protozoan parasites of freshwater and marine fishes from Brazil. This report includes information about the site of infection, host habitat, localities and references of 100 parasite species (1 amoeba, 70 flagellates, 13 apicomplexa and 16 ciliates) distributed among 112 different host species, mainly from freshwater. It is concluded that the diversity of protozoan parasites from Brazilian fish is understudied, and it is suggested that appropriate measures be taken in the research efforts to increase studies on the diversity of Protozoans parasites of fish from Brazil. Copyright © 2012 · Magnolia Press.

dos Santos D.R.L.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | de Paula V.S.,Instituto Oswaldo Cruz Fiocruz | de Oliveira J.M.,Instituto Oswaldo Cruz Fiocruz | Marchevsky R.S.,Laboratorio Of Neurovirulencia | Pinto M.A.,Instituto Oswaldo Cruz Fiocruz
Veterinary Microbiology | Year: 2011

Hepatitis E is an infectious disease which virus (HEV) is highly disseminated in swine herd populations. Sporadic acute human hepatitis E cases have been associated to genotype 3 and 4 strains of HEV also reported in swine populations of endemic and non-endemic areas. With the aim to evaluate the incidence of animals with current infection of HEV, 115 bile samples were collected from three slaughterhouses under inspection by Animal Sanitary Protection Agency of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. In parallel, effluent samples were collected from six sewage pipe exit sites of two slaughterhouses. HEV RNA was detected in 11 out of 115 (9.6%) bile samples collected and three waste samples from one slaughterhouse. Viral loads observed for bile samples varied from 101-105 genome copies/mL and for effluent samples mean load was 102 genome copies/mL. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis classified samples within genotype 3 subtype 3b closely related to the sample obtained from the first reported autochthonous human case and samples from swine of commercial herds in Brazil. Our data demonstrates that although most animals achieve slaughter age (around 20 weeks old) already immune to HEV, a significant number of animals are with current infection at commercial age. Further studies should be addressed to consider risk analysis and possible evaluation of inspection regulations considering food safety measures regarding hepatitis E zoonotic aspect in Brazil. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

da Costa T.V.,Federal University of Amazonas | de Mattos L.A.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Machado N.J.B.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro
Boletim do Instituto de Pesca | Year: 2016

The freshwater prawn M. amazonicum is widely consumed by the traditional communities of the Amazon basin. This species is captured by traps throughout the year and particularly during the Amazon dry season, when animals are concentrated in floodplain lakes. The aim of this paper was to know the populational biology of M. amazonicum in the Macurany and Catispera lakes, both located in the city of Parintins, Amazonas, Brazil. Samples were collected monthly from September 2009 to April 2010, using regional fishing gear. Males, females and total fertility were significantly higher in Catispera lake. The largest ovigerous female was recorded for the Catispera lake (56.2 mm) and low to the Macurany lake (18.3 mm). Sexually undifferentiated individuals were captured throughout the collection period in both lakes. It was observed a higher proportion of females than males (1: 2.6) in Macurany lake. The reproductive peak was in the full-flood period (December to April). It may be related to the greatest flow of river and overflowing the banks of lakes, which contribute to larvae dispersion. © 2016, Instytut Technologii Drewna. All rights reserved.

Bellay S.,State University of Maringá | De Oliveira E.F.,Federal Technological University of Paraná | Almeida-Neto M.,Federal University of Goais | Mello M.A.R.,Federal University of Minas Gerais | And 2 more authors.
Parasitology | Year: 2015

Hosts and parasites interact with each other in a variety of ways, and this diversity of interactions is reflected in the networks they form. To test for differences in interaction patterns of ecto- and endoparasites we analysed subnetworks formed by each kind of parasites and their host fish species in fish-parasite networks for 22 localities. We assessed the proportion of parasite species per host species, the relationship between parasite fauna composition and host taxonomy, connectance, nestedness and modularity of each subnetwork (n = 44). Furthermore, we evaluated the similarity in host species composition among modules in ecto- and endoparasite subnetworks. We found several differences between subnetworks of fish ecto- and endoparasites. The association with a higher number of host species observed among endoparasites resulted in higher connectance and nestedness, and lower values of modularity in their subnetworks than in those of ectoparasites. Taxonomically related host species tended to share ecto- or endoparasites with the same interaction intensity, but the species composition of hosts tended to differ between modules formed by ecto- and endoparasites. Our results suggest that different evolutionary and ecological processes are responsible for organizing the networks formed by ecto- and endoparasites and fish. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2015.

de Carvalho D.F.,Vegetal | da Silva D.G.,Institute Ciencias Agrarias e Ambientais | de Souza A.P.,FRRJ | Gomes D.P.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | da Rocha H.S.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro
Revista Brasileira de Engenharia Agricola e Ambiental | Year: 2011

The reference evapotranspiration (ETo) is dependent on the amount of energy available in the environment, being solar radiation (SR) as an important variable in its estimation. This study was carried out in order to determine the coefficients "a" and "b" of the Angstron-Prescott equation for Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, and to evaluate their effects on the SR and ETo estimation. Measures of global solar radiation and effective number of hours of sunshine were used from station Ecology Fund (83741 - INMET) for the period of 2000 to 2007. The coefficients were determined by linear regression analysis for the entire period and monthly and yearly periods. Using the calculated coefficients and those proposed by FAO (0.25 and 0.50) SR and ETo were estimated and evaluated their performance. The average monthly coefficients "a" ranged from 0.232 to 0.299 and "b" from 0.397 to 0.504. Annual mean coefficients "a" and "b" were 0.295 and 0.417, and for general period were 0.282 and 0.433, respectively. The best performance observed for the estimated SR and ETo was obtained when the monthly coefficients of the equation Angströn-Prescott were adopted.

Garcia E.S.,Instituto Oswaldo Cruz Fiocruz | Garcia E.S.,Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development | Castro D.P.,Instituto Oswaldo Cruz Fiocruz | Figueiredo M.B.,Instituto Oswaldo Cruz Fiocruz | And 3 more authors.
Parasites and Vectors | Year: 2012

Trypanosoma rangeli is a protozoan that is non-pathogenic for humans and other mammals but causes pathology in the genus Rhodnius. T. rangeli and R. prolixus is an excellent model for studying the parasite-vector interaction, but its cycle in invertebrates remains unclear. The vector becomes infected on ingesting blood containing parasites, which subsequently develop in the gut, hemolymph and salivary glands producing short and large epimastigotes and metacyclic trypomastigotes, which are the infective forms. The importance of the T. rangeli cycle is the flagellate penetration into the gut cells and invasion of the salivary glands. The establishment of the parasite depends on the alteration of some vector defense mechanisms. Herein, we present our understanding of T. rangeli infection on the vector physiology, including gut and salivary gland invasions, hemolymph reactions and behavior alteration. © 2012 Garcia et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Araujo F.G.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Costa De Azevedo M.C.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Lima Ferreira M.D.N.,Furnas Centrais Eletricas
Lake and Reservoir Management | Year: 2011

The water quality of a eutrophic tropical reservoir was studied over a 5-year period (2000-2004), with quarterly sampling (Jan, Apr, Jul, and Oct) carried out at 3 sampling stations with one station in each of 3 zones (fluvial, transitional, and lacustrine). During the wet season, large amounts of phosphorus were introduced into the reservoir by the increased inflow of the river. Dissolved oxygen, pH, and chlorophyll a levels peaked in the wet season; pH, chlorophyll a, and total phosphorus in several cases were recorded above the recommended Brazilian guidelines. Dissolved oxygen was lower than acceptable levels in the euphotic layer and reached very low levels in the hypolimnion, indicating thermal stratification. Efficient reservoir management is necessary to restore environmental quality, and our results indicate that selective withdrawal may be an effective means of improving the quality of water in Funil Reservoir. © Copyright by the North American Lake Management Society 2011.

Barbosa M.L.D.C.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Lima L.M.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Tesch R.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Sant'Anna C.M.R.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | And 5 more authors.
European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2014

Novel 2-chloro-4-anilino-quinazolines designed as EGFR and VEGFR-2 dual inhibitors were synthesized and evaluated for inhibitory effects. EGFR and VEGFR-2 are validated targets in cancer therapy and combined inhibition might be synergistic for both antitumor activity and resistance prevention. The biological data obtained proved the potential of 2-chloro-4-anilino-quinazoline derivatives as EGFR and VEGFR-2 dual inhibitors, highlighting compound 8o, which was approximately 7-fold more potent on VEGFR-2 and approximately 11-fold more potent on EGFR compared to the prototype 7. SAR and docking studies allowed the identification of pharmacophoric groups for both kinases and demonstrated the importance of a hydrogen bond donor at the para position of the aniline moiety for interaction with conserved Glu and Asp amino acids in EGFR and VEGFR-2 binding sites. © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

De-Souza M.R.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | De-Souza M.R.,Instituto Oswaldo Cruz Fiocruz | De-Souza M.R.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Molineri C.,National University of Tucuman
Zootaxa | Year: 2012

Asthenopus angelae sp. nov. is described based on male and female imagos and associated nymphs from Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil and Colombia. The new species described is similar to A. curtus (Hagen). The nymphal and adult female stages are indistinguishable from those of that species. The male adults can be separated from its congeners by the following characters: penes tubular, with well developed median basal protrusion, curved ventro-medially, with apex acutely projected, furrow separating penial lobe from median basal protrusion reduced or absent; forceps relatively slender; forelegs of male 0.6-0.7 × the length of the forewing; fore tarsal claws slightly widening distally; fore wings with 5-11 marginal intercalary veins relatively short. Copyright © 2012 · Magnolia Press.

Mello-Silva C.C.,Instituto Oswaldo Cruz Fiocruz | Vilar M.M.,Instituto Oswaldo Cruz Fiocruz | de Vasconcellos M.C.,Instituto Oswaldo Cruz Fiocruz | Pinheiro J.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Rodrigues M.L.A.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro
Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz | Year: 2010

This paper evaluates the alterations in the glycogen content of tissues (digestive gland and cephalopedal mass) and glucose in the haemolymph of Biomphalaria glabrata BH strain infected with Schistosoma mansoni BH strain and exposed to the latex of Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii. A reduction in the glycogen deposits was observed in infected snails exposed and not exposed to latex. However, the exposure to latex caused a greater depletion of the glycogen levels in both sites analysed, especially from the third week onward. The utilisation of latex as a molluscicide to control the population of infected B. glabrata selectively is proposed.

da Costa T.V.,Federal University of Amazonas | Oshiro L.M.Y.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | e Silva E.C.S.,Federal University of Alagoas
Boletim do Instituto de Pesca | Year: 2010

Mapará is a common name for three species of fish from Hypophthalmidae family found on Amazon river and its tributaries. Considering the increasing fishing pressure over these species, this study had as objective to gather information of these three species, that may help become possible their breeding in captivity, thus assisting on fish stocks. Using the Projeto Manejo dos Recursos Naturais Renováveis data base, it was possible to know the amount of mapará captured, classifying it as one of ten main fish captured on Amazon. The data were collected on Aquaculture and Fisheries Department, revealed that captured and commercialized mapará comes exclusively from artisanal fisheries, needing therefore of more studies for the breeding in captivity, since the Ibama/AM placed this species as the third most exploited species on Amazon, having therefore a good acceptance on national market. Data on the capture per unit effort indicated that sustainable maximum capacity point to mapará is between 21.00 and 30.99 kg fisherman -1 day -1. By centesimal composition analyses was possible to observe goods meat yield (53.04 ± 1.40% to fillet) and attractive chemical composition (12.85% PB; 65.18% U; 21.21% EE) to fillet.

Zeri M.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | Oliveira-Junior J.F.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Lyra G.B.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro
Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics | Year: 2011

Time series of pollutants and weather variables measured at four sites in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between 2002 and 2004, were used to characterize temporal and spatial relationships of air pollution. Concentrations of particulate matter (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2) and carbon monoxide (CO) were compared to national and international standards. The annual median concentration of PM10 was higher than the standard set by the World Health Organization (WHO) on all sites and the 24 h means exceeded the standards on several occasions on two sites. SO2 and CO did not exceed the limits, but the daily maximum of CO in one of the stations was 27% higher on weekends compared to weekdays, due to increased activity in a nearby Convention Center. Air temperature and vapor pressure deficit have both presented the highest correlations with pollutant's concentrations. The concentrations of SO2 and CO were not correlated between sites, suggesting that local sources are more important to those pollutants compared to PM10. The time series of pollutants and air temperature were decomposed in time and frequency by wavelet analysis. The results revealed that the common variability of air temperature and PM10 is dominated by temporal scales of 1-8 days, time scales that are associated with the passage of weather events, such as cold fronts. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

Alvarenga P.H.,National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases | Alvarenga P.H.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Francischetti I.M.B.,National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases | Calvo E.,National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases | And 4 more authors.
PLoS Biology | Year: 2010

The highly expressed D7 protein family of mosquito saliva has previously been shown to act as an anti-inflammatory mediator by binding host biogenic amines and cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs). In this study we demonstrate that AnSt-D7L1, a two-domain member of this group from Anopheles stephensi, retains the CysLT binding function seen in the homolog AeD7 from Aedes aegypti but has lost the ability to bind biogenic amines. Unlike any previously characterized members of the D7 family, AnSt-D7L1 has acquired the important function of binding thromboxane A2 (TXA2) and its analogs with high affinity. When administered to tissue preparations, AnSt-D7L1 abrogated Leukotriene C4 (LTC4)-induced contraction of guinea pig ileum and contraction of rat aorta by the TXA2 analog U46619. The protein also inhibited platelet aggregation induced by both collagen and U46619 when administered to stirred platelets. The crystal structure of AnSt-D7L1 contains two OBP-like domains and has a structure similar to AeD7. In AnSt-D7L1, the binding pocket of the C-terminal domain has been rearranged relative to AeD7, making the protein unable to bind biogenic amines. Structures of the ligand complexes show that CysLTs and TXA2 analogs both bind in the same hydrophobic pocket of the N-terminal domain. The TXA2 analog U46619 is stabilized by hydrogen bonding interactions of the v-5 hydroxyl group with the phenolic hydroxyl group of Tyr 52. LTC4 and occupies a very similar position to LTE4 in the previously determined structure of its complex with AeD7. As yet, it is not known what, if any, new function has been acquired by the rearranged C-terminal domain. This article presents, to our knowledge, the first structural characterization of a protein from mosquito saliva that inhibits collagen mediated platelet activation.

Schiavo J.A.,State University of Mato Grosso do Sul | Pereira M.G.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | de Miranda L.P.M.,São Paulo State University | Neto A.H.D.,UEMS | Fontana A.,Engenheiro Agronomo do INCRA
Revista Brasileira de Ciencia do Solo | Year: 2010

The Aquidauana geological formation consists of a set of up to 500 m thick sediments predominantly composed of sandstone with fine to medium grain size, interspersed with sandy conglomerates. In this environment, the topography is one of the main conditioning factors of the formation of different soil types in the landscape. The objective of this study was to characterize and classify soils developed from these sandstones. Four soils profiles along a representative toposequence of gentle slopes were sampled and studied. The profiles were located on the shoulder (P1), backslope (P2), footslope (P3) and toeslope (P4). The soil profiles were morphologically described and physical and chemical properties of their horizons evaluated. The sand fraction was predominant in all profiles (> 680 g kg-1), with textures ranging from sandy loam (P4) to clay sandy loam. The water pH values ranged from 4.2 to 6.5. The cation exchange capacity values ranged from 1.6 cmolc kg-1(in P4) to 10.3 cmolc kg-1 (in P2), with a predominance of hydrogen ions in P1 and P4, and calcium in profile P2 and P3. The P1 and P4 pedons were dystrophic, whereas in P2 and P3, a high base saturation status evidenced an eutrophic character. Except in P2, the profiles presented low activity clays. In all soil profiles the morphological, physical, chemical and mineralogical properties were conditioned by the parent material and relief, demonstrating the influence of these factors on the pedogenesis.

Bellay S.,State University of Maringá | Bellay S.,University of Northern Paraná | de Oliveira E.F.,Federal Technological University of Paraná | Almeida-Neto M.,Federal University of Goais | And 4 more authors.
International Journal for Parasitology | Year: 2015

The use of the complex network approach to study host-parasite interactions has helped to improve the understanding of the structure and dynamics of ecological communities. In this study, this network approach is applied to evaluate the patterns of organisation and structure of interactions in a fish-parasite network of a neotropical Atlantic Forest river. The network includes 20 fish species and 73 metazoan parasite species collected from the Guandu River, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. According to the usual measures in studies of networks, the organisation of the network was evaluated using measures of host susceptibility, parasite dependence, interaction asymmetry, species strength and complementary specialisation of each species as well as the network. The network structure was evaluated using connectance, nestedness and modularity measures. Host susceptibility typically presented low values, whereas parasite dependence was high. The asymmetry and species strength were correlated with host taxonomy but not with parasite taxonomy. Differences among parasite taxonomic groups in the complementary specialisation of each species on hosts were also observed. However, the complementary specialisation and species strength values were not correlated. The network had a high complementary specialisation, low connectance and nestedness, and high modularity, thus indicating variability in the roles of species in the network organisation and the expected presence of many specialist species. © 2015 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc.

Reis N.R.,State University Londrina | Gallo P.H.,State University of Maringá | Peracchi A.L.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Lima I.P.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Fregonezi M.N.,State University Londrina
Brazilian Journal of Biology | Year: 2012

Most natural forests have been converted for human use, restricting biological life to small forest fragments. Many animals, including some species of bats are disappearing and the list of these species grows every day. It seems that the destruction of the habitat is one of its major causes. This study aimed to analyze how this community of bats was made up in environments with different sizes and quality of habitat. Data from studies conducted in the region of Londrina, Parana, Brazil, from 1982 to 2000 were used. Originally, this area was covered by a semi deciduous forest, especially Aspidosperma polyneuron (Apocynaceae), Ficus insipida (Moraceae), Euterpe edulis (Arecaceae), Croton floribundus (Euforbiaceae), and currently, only small remnants of the original vegetation still exist. The results showed a decline in the number of species caught in smaller areas compared to the largest remnant. In about 18 years of sampling, 42 species of bats were found in the region, representing 67% of the species that occur in Paraná and 24.4% in Brazil. There were two species of Noctilionidae; 21 of Phyllostoma; 11 Vespertilionidae and eight Molossidae. Eight of these were captured only in the largest fragment, Mata dos Godoy State Park (680 ha). Ten species had a low capture rate in the smaller areas with less than three individuals. Of the total sampled, 14 species were found in human buildings, and were able to tolerate modified environments, foraging and even using them as shelter. As the size of the forest area increases, there is a greater variety of ecological opportunities and their physical conditions become more stable, i.e., conditions favorable for growth and survival of a greater number of species. Forest fragmentation limits and creates subpopulations, preserving only long-lived K-strategist animals for some time, where the supporting capacity of the environment is a limiting factor. The reduction of habitats, species and genetic diversity resulting from human activities are endangering the future adaptability in natural ecosystems, which promotes the disappearance of low adaptive potential species.

Pereira M.G.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Schiavo J.A.,State University of Mato Grosso do Sul | Fontana A.,Embrapa Solos | Neto A.H.D.,UEMS | de Miranda L.P.M.,São Paulo State University
Revista Brasileira de Ciencia do Solo | Year: 2013

The soils in the Serra da Bodoquena, a mountain chain in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, have peculiar features that differ from other regions of the Cerrado-Pantanal biome. This study aims to characterize soils formed on limestone, based on the physical, chemical and mineralogical properties and organic matter. A toposequence on limestone was selected and profile pits were opened on the summit (P1), backslope (P2), footslope (P3) and toeslope (P4 and P5). The profiles were morphologically described and physical, chemical and mineralogical analyses were carried out in all horizons. According to the Brazilian System of Soil Classification (SiBCS), the studied soils were classified as: (P1) Organossolo Fólico Sáprico lítico - OOs (Litic Ustifolist); (P2) Chernossolo Háplico Órtico típico - MXo (Typic Haplustoll); (P3) Chernossolo Argilúvico Órtico típico - MTo (Typic Haplustoll); (P4) Gleissolo Melânico Carbonático chernossólico - GMk1 (Typic Epiaquoll); and (P5) Gleissolo Melânico Carbonático organossólico - GMk2 (Terric Haplosaprist). The color of all studied profiles was dark in the surface horizons, and reddish or grayish in deeper layers, according to the drainage conditions. Base saturation was high in all layers, with calcium as dominant cation in the exchangeable complex. Humin was the dominant organic carbon fraction of the studied soils. A mineralogical analysis showed the presence of calcite in the sand fraction in the soil profiles GMK1 and GMk2 and kaolinite, illite and montmorillonite in the clay fraction of all soils. The occurrence of Ustifolist in non-mountainous environments, different from the characterization by the SiBCS, suggests a greater range of possible environmental conditions for the occurrence of this suborder.

Del Vesco A.P.,State University of Maringá | Gasparino E.,State University of Maringá | De Oliveira Grieser D.,State University of Maringá | Zancanela V.,State University of Maringá | And 2 more authors.
British Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2015

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of heat stress (HS) and methionine supplementation on the markers of stress and on the gene expression levels of uncoupling proteins (UCP), betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT), cystathionine β-synthase (CBS), glutathione synthetase (GSS) and glutathione peroxidase 7 (GPx7). Broilers from 1 to 21 d and from 22 to 42 d of age were divided into three treatment groups related to methionine supplementation: without methionine supplementation (MD); recommended level of methionine supplementation (DL1); excess methionine supplementation (DL2). The broilers were either kept at a comfortable thermal temperature or exposed to HS (38°C for 24 h). During the starter period, we observed the effects of the interaction between diet and environment on the gene expression levels of UCP, BHMT and GSS. Higher gene expression levels of UCP and BHMT were observed in broilers that were maintained at thermal comfort conditions and received the MD diet. HS broilers fed the DL1 and DL2 diets had the highest expression level of GSS. The expression levels of the CBS and GPx7 genes were influenced by both the environment and methionine supplementation. During the grower period, the gene expression levels of BHMT, CBS, GSS and GPx7 were affected by the diet × environment interaction. A higher expression level of BHMT was observed in broilers maintained at thermal comfort conditions and on the MD diet. HS induced higher expression levels of CBS, GSS and GPx7 in broilers that received the DL1 and DL2 diets. The present results suggest that under HS conditions, methionine supplementation could mitigate the effects of stress, since methionine contributed to the increased expression levels of genes related to antioxidant activity. © The Authors 2015.

PubMed | Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro, EMBRAPA - Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária, Catholic University Dom Bosco and Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz FIOCRUZ
Type: | Journal: Acta tropica | Year: 2016

Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) and Trypanossoma evansi are endemic in Brazilian Pantanal Biome, an important area for livestock production. In this sense, we evaluated the epidemiological single and co-infection effects of T. evansi and EIAV in naturally infected horses in the southern Pantanal wetland by serological tests and hematological assays. Both higher seroprevalence and heath poor condition of the sampled animals were associated with differences in horse management between farms. We found that the negative animals for both infectious agents (NN) represented the major group in F1 (37%), and the smallest group in F2 (19%). Furthermore, we recorded higher EIAV seroprevalence (56%) in F2, compared to F1 (38%). We observed that T. evansi infection was mostly related to young horses, as seen by their higher seroprevalence, ranging from 70.7% in the beginning of the rainy season to 81% in the end of flood period, in comparison with the values of 42% and 68%, respectively, in working animals. on the other hand, working animals showed a higher seroprevalence for EIAV (48%) in both seasons than young horses. We observed that the management of working horses could be a risk factor of EIAV infection. On the other hand, as T. evansi is maintained in the study region by many species of wild mammals, the mechanical transmission through blood-sucking vectors ensures the infection to horses since early. Our results showed that single or co-infection by EIAV and T. evansi caused different degree of anemia in the infected animals. Moreover, the health of horses in Brazilian Pantanal is also influenced by differences in horse management and environmental circumstances.

PubMed | University of the Republic of Uruguay, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz FIOCRUZ, University of Jaén, Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro and 2 more.
Type: | Journal: Infection, genetics and evolution : journal of molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics in infectious diseases | Year: 2016

The hemipteran subfamily Triatominae includes 150 blood-sucking species, vectors of Chagas disease. By far the most specious genus is Triatoma, assembled in groups, complexes and subcomplexes based on morphological similarities, geographic distribution and genetic data. However, many molecular studies questioned the species integration of several subcomplexes as monophyletic units. In triatomines, chromosomal position of major ribosomal DNA (rDNA) loci is extremely variable but seems to be species-specific and an evolutionary conserved genetic trait, so that closely related species tend to have ribosomal clusters in the same chromosomal location. Considering that the autosomal position as the ancestral character for all heteropteran species, including triatomines, we suggest that the movement of rDNA loci from autosomes to sex chromosomes rapidly established reproductive barriers between divergent lineages. We proposed that the rDNA translocation from the autosomes to the sex chromosomes restrict reproductive compatibility and eventually promote speciation processes. We analyzed the chromosomal position of 45S rDNA clusters in almost all species of the matogrossensis, rubrovaria, maculata and sordida subcomplexes. The fluorescent in situ hybridization results are discussed considering the available genetic data and we proposed new arrangements in the species that constitute each one of these subcomplexes.

PubMed | Federal University of Fluminense, Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro, National University of Rio Cuarto, University of Minho and Federal University of Minas Gerais
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Toxins | Year: 2015

Zearalenone (ZEA) and its derivatives are mycotoxins with estrogenic effects on mammals. The biotransformation for ZEA in animals involves the formation of two major metabolites, - and -zearalenol (-ZOL and -ZOL), which are subsequently conjugated with glucuronic acid. The capability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains isolated from silage to eliminate ZEA and its derivatives -ZOL and -ZOL was investigated as, also, the mechanisms involved. Strains were grown on Yeast Extract-Peptone-Dextrose medium supplemented with the mycotoxins and their elimination from medium was quantified over time by HPLC-FL. A significant effect on the concentration of ZEA was observed, as all the tested strains were able to eliminate more than 90% of the mycotoxin from the culture medium in two days. The observed elimination was mainly due to ZEA biotransformation into -ZOL (53%) and -ZOL (8%) rather than to its adsorption to yeast cells walls. Further, the biotransformation of -ZOL was not observed but a small amount of -ZOL (6%) disappeared from culture medium. ZEA biotransformation by yeasts may not be regarded as a full detoxification process because both main end-products are still estrogenic. Nonetheless, it was observed that the biotransformation favors the formation of -ZOL which is less estrogenic than ZEA and -ZOL. This metabolic effect is only possible if active strains are used as feed additives and may play a role in the detoxification performance of products with viable S. cerevisiae cells.

PubMed | Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro, Federal University of Juiz de fora and Clinica Veterinaria Zoovet
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Parasitology research | Year: 2016

Captive terrestrial tortoises of the species Chelonoidis carbonaria (n=17) and Chelonoidis denticulata (n=37) in the state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil, were examined for hematozoans by using a combination of microscopic and molecular methods. Microscopic examination revealed young intra-erythrocytic forms in blood smears from both species of tortoises. The results of PCR, sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis indicated that these parasites belonged to the Haemoproteus spp., whose observed prevalence was 17.6 % in C. carbonaria and 13.5 % in C. denticulata. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that these sequences formed a clade that was grouped with other sequences of Haemoproteus spp. parasites in birds, separate from the clade formed by Haemoproteus spp. of reptiles. This study expands the information regarding the occurrence and distribution of hemosporidia in turtles and is the first study of blood parasites in C. carbonaria.

PubMed | Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro and Instituto Oswaldo Cruz FIOCRUZ
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of medical entomology | Year: 2015

The stomach contents of culicids from the Atlantic Forest in Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil, were analyzed using the precipitin technique to evaluate the feeding patterns of the species. Sampling was performed from February 2012 to December 2013, using CO2-baited Centers for Disease Control and Prevention traps to catch mosquitoes from 15 00 to 07 00 hours. The following antisera were used: bird, rodent, opossum, human, horse, capybara, lizard, and frog. Of the 325 adult bloodfed females caught and analyzed, 273 (84.0%) reacted in the precipitin test. The percentage of specimens with a positive reaction to a single antiserum included bird (39.2%), rodent (22.5%), opossum (13.2%), capybara (6.6%), horse (5.7%), frog (6.2%), human (4.0%), and lizard (2.6%). The specimens that reacted positively against more than one blood source (46) most frequently presented the following combinations: bird+rodent and bird+frog (17.4%), followed by bird+human (13.0%). The predominance of positive results for birds suggested that the avian-rich environment might have influenced the feeding behavior of the culicids.

PubMed | Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro and Instituto Oswaldo Cruz Fiocruz
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Brazilian journal of microbiology : [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology] | Year: 2016

Non-typhoidal salmonellosis is an important zoonotic disease caused by Salmonella enterica. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance in Salmonella spp. and its association with fluoroquinolone susceptibility in Brazil. A total of 129 NTS isolates (samples from human origin, food from animal origin, environmental, and animal) grouped as from animal (n=62) and human (n=67) food were evaluated between 2009 and 2013. These isolates were investigated through serotyping, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, and the presence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes (qnr, aac(6)-Ib) and associated integron genes (integrase, and conserved integron region). Resistance to quinolones and/or fluoroquinolones, from first to third generations, was observed. Fifteen isolates were positive for the presence of qnr genes (8 qnrS, 6 qnrB, and 1 qnrD) and twenty three of aac(6)-Ib. The conserved integron region was detected in 67 isolates as variable regions, from 600 to >1000pb. The spread of NTS involving PMQR carriers is of serious concern and should be carefully monitored.

PubMed | Federal University of Goais, Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro, Sacred Heart University of Brazil, Federal Technological University of Paraná and State University of Maringá
Type: Journal Article | Journal: International journal for parasitology | Year: 2015

The use of the complex network approach to study host-parasite interactions has helped to improve the understanding of the structure and dynamics of ecological communities. In this study, this network approach is applied to evaluate the patterns of organisation and structure of interactions in a fish-parasite network of a neotropical Atlantic Forest river. The network includes 20 fish species and 73 metazoan parasite species collected from the Guandu River, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. According to the usual measures in studies of networks, the organisation of the network was evaluated using measures of host susceptibility, parasite dependence, interaction asymmetry, species strength and complementary specialisation of each species as well as the network. The network structure was evaluated using connectance, nestedness and modularity measures. Host susceptibility typically presented low values, whereas parasite dependence was high. The asymmetry and species strength were correlated with host taxonomy but not with parasite taxonomy. Differences among parasite taxonomic groups in the complementary specialisation of each species on hosts were also observed. However, the complementary specialisation and species strength values were not correlated. The network had a high complementary specialisation, low connectance and nestedness, and high modularity, thus indicating variability in the roles of species in the network organisation and the expected presence of many specialist species.

PubMed | Foundation University and Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro
Type: Journal Article | Journal: International journal for parasitology. Parasites and wildlife | Year: 2016

Sources of contamination such as animal feces runoff, organic fertilizer application, and the release of partially treated or untreated sewage can lead to the contamination of aquatic environments by Cryptosporidium spp. The quality of mussels as food is closely related to the sanitary conditions of the marine environment where these bivalves are found. Marine mollusks are filter feeders that are able to retain Cryptosporidium oocysts in their tissue, thus functioning as bioindicators. A total of 72 pooled mussel samples of the species Perna perna were collected at two sites (A and B) in the municipality of Mangaratiba, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Sampling involved removal of 30 mussels, from each collection site every month for one year. The 30 mussels from each sampling were then allocated into three groups of 10. Two Cryptosporidium spp. genes (18S and GP60) were targeted for DNA amplification from the samples obtained. After purification, all of the products obtained were sequenced and phylogenetic analyses were performed. Of the 72 samples analyzed using the nested-PCR for the 18S gene target, 29.2% were positive for the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. Of these samples, 52.4% were collected at site A (ie 11/21) and 47.6% at site B (ie 10/21). The 18S genes of all the samples considered positive for Cryptosporidium spp. were sequenced, and the following three species were identified: Cryptosporidium parvum, C. meleagridis, and C. andersoni. Three distinct C. parvum subtypes (IIaA19G2R2; IIaA20G2R2; IIaA20G3R2) were identified using the GP60 gene. More studies to evaluate the zoonotic potential of this species should be performed as both sampling locations contain human and/or animal fecal contaminants.

Da Silva C.J.,Mato Grosso State University | Da Silva C.J.,Federal University of Amazonas | Da Silva C.J.,University of Brasilia | Albernaz-Silveira R.,Federal University of Amazonas | And 4 more authors.
Climatic Change | Year: 2014

The latest scientific findings indicate that the increased concentration of greenhouse gases emitted by anthropogenic sources is significantly altering the balance of the global climate system. Considering forecasts of changes in the hydrological cycle and temperature related to global warming, the dynamics governing the functioning of the Pantanal Wetland, responsible for its rich biodiversity, find themselves threatened. Thus, this study was designed in the space-time of the Pantanal people called pantaneiros, and aims to discuss the Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) of the Traditional Community Cuiabá Mirim regarding climate change. The information presented was obtained from 22 pantaneiros, between March 2008 and March 2010. The population sample was selected by the Snow Ball method. For data collection, semi structured interviews and oral histories were used. The results were compared with observations, simulations and projections of the IPCC AR4 for the region. The main findings of this research indicate that TEK presents itself as a crucial and complementary source of information for the development of local/regional adaptation strategies to climate change, bringing a distinct and relevant point of view from vulnerable stakeholders to the decision makers. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Guanziroli C.,University of Buenos Aires | Guanziroli C.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Guanziroli C.,University of California | Guanziroli C.,Federal University of Fluminense | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Peasant Studies | Year: 2013

This article compares the main findings of Brazilian agricultural census data of 1996 with the same of 2006 by applying the methodology known as 'FAO/INCRA' (Food Agriculture Organization/Instituto Nacional de Colonização e Reforma Agrária) which allows the characterization of family farms in relation to the total universe of farms. In this comparison several variables are shown, including the share of family farming in the total value of production, in the total number of farms, utilization of modern technology and partial factor productivity. Census data shows that family farming has changed from 37.91 percent of total production value to 36.11 percent during a decade of strong expansion of agriculture as a whole, demonstrating the economic relevance of this segment which, besides producing food, is integrated in the most important productive agricultural chains of the Brazilian agribusiness. Family farming is a heterogeneous segment, with different sub-segments. During the studied period of ten years the most rich of these sub-segments (A) has increased participation in total production, while the poorer sub-segments (C and D) have only grown in absolute terms without a corresponding increase in production. © 2013 Taylor & Francis.

Radl V.,Embrapa Agrobiologia | Simoes-Araujo J.L.,Embrapa Agrobiologia | Leite J.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Passos S.R.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | And 5 more authors.
International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology | Year: 2014

16S rRNA gene sequence analysis of eight strains (BR 3299T, BR 3296, BR 10192, BR 10193, BR 10194, BR 10195, BR 10196 and BR 10197) isolated from nodules of cowpea collected from a semi-arid region of Brazil showed 97 % similarity to sequences of recently described rhizobial species of the genus Microvirga. Phylogenetic analyses of four housekeeping genes (gyrB, recA, dnaK and rpoB), DNA-DNA relatedness and AFLP further indicated that these strains belong to a novel species within the genusMicrovirga. Our data support the hypothesis that genes related to nitrogen fixation were obtained via horizontal gene transfer, as sequences of nifHgenes were very similar to those found in members of the genera Rhizobiumand Mesorhizobium, which are not immediate relatives of the genusMicrovirga, as shown by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Phenotypic traits, such as host range and carbon utilization, differentiate the novel strains from the most closely related species, Microvirga lotononidis, Microvirga zambiensis and Microvirga lupini. Therefore, these symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria are proposed to be representatives of a novel species, for which the name Microvirga vignae sp. nov. is suggested. The type strain is BR3299T (= HAMBI 3457T). © 2014 IUMS.

Pereira G.H.A.,Colegio Militar de Manaus Comando do 9o Distrito Naval Marinha do Brazil | Jordao H.C.K.,Sinobras Florestal LTDA | Silva V.F.V.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Pereira M.G.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2016

Extensive areas in the Brazilian Amazon have been flooded for the construction of hydroelectric dams. However, the water regime of these areas affects the dynamics of igarapés (streams) in adjacent terra firme (upland forests). When the reservoirs are filled, the water levels of streams rise above the normal levels and upland bank forests are flooded. We investigated how this flooding affects the litterfall and nutrient input in the upland forests upstream of a hydroelectric dam reservoir in the Central Amazonia. When the reservoir was filled, the forests were flooded and produced more than twice the litter (8.80 Mg·ha− 1 yr− 1), with three times more leaves (6.36 Mg·ha− 1 yr− 1) than when they were not flooded (4.20 and 1.92 Mg·ha− 1 yr− 1, respectively). During flooding, the decomposition rate was four times lower in flooded forests (0.328 g·g− 1 yr− 1) than in control forests (1.460 g·g− 1 yr− 1). Despite this, the flooding did not favor litter or nutrient accumulation. Therefore, dam construction changes the organic matter and nutrient cycling in upland Amazon rainforests. This may influence the important role that they play in organic matter dynamics and could have consequences for the regional carbon balance and, ultimately, global climate. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

Ronchi-Teles B.,National Institute of Amazonian Research | Dutra V.S.,National Institute of Amazonian Research | Tregue Costa A.P.,National Institute of Amazonian Research | Aguiar-Menezes E.D.L.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | And 2 more authors.
Florida Entomologist | Year: 2011

A natural host (Mouriri collocarpa) and a parasitoid (Doryctobracon areolatus) for Anastrepha pulchra are reported for the first time in Brazil. We report new hosts for Anastrepha atrigona and Anastrepha bahiensis in the Brazilian Amazon. Parasititoids attacking A. atrigona, Anastrepha coronilli, and A. pulchra are reported.

Gebara M.F.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Gebara M.F.,Center for International Forestry Research | Fatorelli L.,University of Leeds | May P.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | And 2 more authors.
Ecology and Society | Year: 2014

The prospective introduction of REDD+ (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation and enhancement of carbon stocks) in Brazil has generated many questions about its form of implementation and likely environmental effectiveness. These issues must be addressed to reduce the risks associated with REDD+, such as conflicts over land and forest resources, and increase the likelihood of successful outcomes, as equitable benefits sharing. In this study, we examine how policy actors such as NGOs, government, and the private sector influence the REDD+ policy process in Brazil. We analyze actors’ positions on key issues in REDD+ (conflicts; benefits sharing; free, prior, and informed consent; tenure; and coordination) to identify associated constraints and opportunities for REDD+ policy making with a focus on the national strategy. We examine the structure of three policy networks in this policy arena (prestige, information exchange, and collaboration) with the aim of explaining these constraints and opportunities, so that policy can be positively modified or adapted ahead of its implementation. We note that the presence of polarization on the issues analyzed implies the need for better negotiation among actors if REDD+ is to move forward effectively. Furthermore, the absence of coordination between types of actors (private sector, government, and NGOs) suggests that achieving optimal REDD+ governance in Brazil will be difficult. Finally, we propose some directions for REDD+ policy making in Brazil that could help policy managers and stakeholders improve the design and implementation of the national strategy. © 2014 by the author(s).

dos Santos R.S.,State University of Southwest Bahia | Scoriza R.N.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Ferreira J.S.,State University of Southwest Bahia
Floresta e Ambiente | Year: 2013

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are obligate mutualistic organisms that facilitate the survival and development of plants. They are influenced by forest cover and other biotic and abiotic factors. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the composition and diversity of AMF in the soil under three different forest covers in the municipality of Vitória da Conquista, Bahia state. The planting of Madeira nova showed greater abundance of spores then the planting of Eucalyptus. The Native Forest fragment showed a larger number of species when compared with plantations, with six unique species of the area studied, with potential to develop even greater diversity. AMF presented significant differences in composition and diversity in the forest covers assessed. The great abundance of spores and the homogeneity of sample species in the planting of Madeira nova are facilitating factors for further isolation of AMF.

Srivastava S.K.,University of Osnabrück | Schlucker S.,University of Osnabrück | Alves W.A.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro
Journal of Raman Spectroscopy | Year: 2010

High-resolution Raman spectra of pyrimidine (PD) and formamide (FA)mixtures with different compositions recorded in the ring breathing region of PD(ν1 ∼ 991 cm-1) are presented. The dilution of PDwith FA leads to the appearance of a new band at ν1' ∼ 994cm-1, which is assigned to hydrogen-bonded PD:FA species. From aquantitative analysis of the concentration-dependent Raman spectra, the averagenumber of FA molecules in the first solvation sphere of PD is determined asbeing equal to 2. This value is supported by density functional theory (DFT)calculations: a symmetric 1:2 complex is the most stable species among varioushydrogen-bonded PD:FA clusters with stoichiometries ranging from 1:1 to 1:4. Aqualitative explanation for the blue shift of the ν1 mode uponcomplexation is given. Additionally, we have observed not only similarities butalso some differences with respect to the PD:water system. Copyright © 2010John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Brown B.V.,Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County | Braganca M.A.L.,Federal University of Tocantins | Gomes D.S.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Queiros J.M.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Teixeira M.C.,Federal University of Recôncavo da Bahia
Zootaxa | Year: 2012

Phorid flies are well known natural enemies of leafcutter ants, but there is no information on phorid species associated with the threatened species Atta robusta Borgmeier. During 2009 and 2010 we collected phorid parasitoids of A. robusta at Guriri Island, Espirito Santo (18o43'S; 39o45'W) and at Rio de Janeiro city (23°01'S; 43°28'W). Three new species were found: Eibesfeldtphora breviloba Brown, E. digitata Brown, and Myrmosicarius exrobusta Brown. These species, the attack behavior of the two species of Eibesfeldtphora, as well as the anti-parasitoid defense behavior of A. robusta, are described. Copyright © 2012 Magnolia Press.

PubMed | Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro, Sinobras Florestal LTDA and Colegio Militar de Manaus Comando do 9o Distrito Naval Marinha do Brazil
Type: | Journal: The Science of the total environment | Year: 2016

Extensive areas in the Brazilian Amazon have been flooded for the construction of hydroelectric dams. However, the water regime of these areas affects the dynamics of igaraps (streams) in adjacent terra firme (upland forests). When the reservoirs are filled, the water levels of streams rise above the normal levels and upland bank forests are flooded. We investigated how this flooding affects the litterfall and nutrient input in the upland forests upstream of a hydroelectric dam reservoir in the Central Amazonia. When the reservoir was filled, the forests were flooded and produced more than twice the litter (8.80Mgha

PubMed | Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro, University Of The Northeast Of Rio Of Janeiro Darcy Ribeiro Uenf and Anhanguera
Type: | Journal: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo | Year: 2016

The aim of the present study was to analyze the status of the American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis (ATL) in the state of Rio de Janeiro, from 2004 to 2013, through its spatiotemporal distribution. We also described variables considered relevant to the epidemiology of the disease, such as the clinical form, gender, ethnic group, age group, and progression of disease. This is a descriptive study, which used notified secondary data from the Brazilian Information System of Notifiable Diseases (SINAN), Ministry of Health, Brazil, regarding confirmed diagnoses. To help the calculation of coefficients of detection and mortality, we used population data from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE). We analyzed 1,470 cases of ATL with the predominance of the cutaneous clinical form (1,292/87.89%). The data has also revealed seven deaths, a predominance of males (922/62.72%), and a higher incidence of ATL in the white ethnic group (731/49.72%). We observed a high incidence of ATL in the group of 20 - 39 years old (477/32.44%). We concluded that there was a decrease in the number of ATL cases in the state of Rio de Janeiro, based on a coefficient of detection of 1.44/100.000 inhabitants in 2004 decreasing to 0.20/100.000 inhabitants in 2013. The localities with the highest occurrences of ATL were the metropolitan region (843 cases) and the municipality of Rio de Janeiro (740 cases). In 2005, the highest incidence of the disease was observed (351 cases) in the study. Among the variables selected to describe the epidemiology of the disease, the following categories: cutaneous clinical form, male patients, white ethnic group, and the age group of 20 - 39 years old were more affected than the others.

PubMed | Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo State University and Federal University of Tocantins
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Revista brasileira de parasitologia veterinaria = Brazilian journal of veterinary parasitology : Orgao Oficial do Colegio Brasileiro de Parasitologia Veterinaria | Year: 2015

This study investigated occurrences of anti-Neospora caninum and anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibodies by means of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFAT), along with risk factors associated with toxoplasmosis and neosporosis, in 204 dogs from urban and rural areas of the municipality of Araguana, state of Tocantins, Brazil. One hundred and thirty samples (63.7%) were positive for T. gondii using ELISA: 57.1% and 70.7% in the urban and rural areas, respectively. The seropositivity frequency for T. gondii observed through IFAT was 57.4%, distributed between rural and urban areas as 62.6% and 52.4%, respectively. The factors associated with canine toxoplasmosis were age and breed (p<0.05). In relation to N. caninum, 88 samples (43.1%) were positive, according to ELISA, distributed as 42.9% in urban areas and 43.3% in rural areas. Anti - N. caninum antibodies were detected through IFAT in 62 dogs (30.4%), distributed as 31.3% and 29.5% between rural and urban areas, respectively. Age and breed were associated with neosporosis occurrence (p<0.05) by IFAT. This study provides the first detection of IgG antibodies for canine toxoplasmosis and neosporosis in the state of Tocantins and highlights the importance of dogs in the epidemiological chain of these diseases.

Sicupira P.M.L.,State University of Santa Cruz | de Magalhaes V.C.S.,State University of Santa Cruz | da Silva Galvao G.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Pereira M.J.S.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | And 2 more authors.
Veterinary Parasitology | Year: 2012

From August 2006 to 2008, 411 dogs in northeastern Brazil were evaluated for seropositivity to Neospora caninum. The dogs were clinically examined, and their owners were interviewed about the conditions in which the animals were maintained in order to assess the factors associated with infection by this parasite. A serum sample was taken from each dog for serological examination in an indirect fluorescent antibody test for N. caninum. The Yates' Chi-square test or Fisher's exact test was used to select the variables for the multivariate logistic regression model. Seropositivity was detected in 9.26% of dogs. The seropositivity rates of dogs from different environments were 2.6% (4/156) in urban areas, 13.1% (28/214) in peri-urban areas, and 14.6% (6/41) in rural areas. Factors associated with seropositivity for N. caninum were the following: contact with other dogs, access to food outside the home and residing in the peri-urban or rural environments (p< 0.05). Results of this study confirm that dogs in urban, rural and peri-urban areas of northeastern Brazil are exposed to N. caninum. Control measures to prevent infection of dogs in the studied region should be focused primarily on preventing access to potential sources of infection, which include environments with other dogs, bovines, and other small intermediate hosts, such as birds and rodents. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Almeida-Pereira G.,University of Sao Paulo | Rorato R.,University of Sao Paulo | Reis L.C.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Elias L.L.K.,University of Sao Paulo | Antunes-Rodrigues J.,University of Sao Paulo
Hormones and Behavior | Year: 2013

Estradiol (E2) plays an important role in controlling the homeostasis of body fluids. Several studies have reported the involvement of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis (HPA) in the homeostatic control of hydromineral balance and the influence of estrogens on the modulation of this system. Nevertheless, until now, the physiological relevance of HPA axis activity on the hydromineral balance in females has not yet been fully elucidated. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of E2 (20. μg/animal) pretreatment on neuroendocrine and hydroelectrolyte changes induced by adrenalectomy (ADX) with or without glucocorticoid hormone replacement (corticosterone, CORT; 10. mg/kg) in ovariectomized rats (OVX). The results show that sodium appetite, natriuresis and the elevated plasma angiotensin II (ANG II) concentration induced by ADX were attenuated by E2 pretreatment. Additionally, a reduction of AT1 mRNA expression in the subfornical organ (SFO) and an increase in plasma atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) concentrations by E2 pretreatment were observed. E2 pretreatment reversed the reduction in water intake induced by ADX in ADX CORT-replaced rats. Moreover, E2 pretreatment attenuated corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) mRNA expression in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) induced by ADX. In contrast, E2 pretreatment increased CRF mRNA expression in the PVN in ADX CORT-replaced rats. Taken together, these results suggest that E2 has an important role in the modulation of behavioral and neuroendocrine responses involved in the maintenance of body fluid homeostasis in ADX rats with or without glucocorticoid replacement therapy.© 2013 Elsevier Inc.

Kruger C.D.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Fernandes A.M.,University of Sao Paulo | Rosa C.A.R.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro
Food Additives and Contaminants: Part B Surveillance | Year: 2012

The occurrence of ochratoxin A (OTA) in wine from 2002 to 2008 harvest, traded in Rio de Janeiro State, was evaluated by analysing 43 national and 37 imported wines from Argentina (32) and Chile (5), adding up to 80 samples in total. OTA determination was performed using immunoaffinity columns and high-performance liquid chromatography. In 80 wine samples analysed, 25 (31.3%) were positive, presenting levels greater than 0.020 ng OTA mL -1. It was not detected in imported wines. Within national wines, 58.1% of the samples were contaminated, with levels ranging from 0.020 to 0.050 ng mL -1. The toxin was detected in 18 (69.2%) of 26 samples analysed of red table wine. Wines from 2008 harvest presented 84.6% of samples contaminated in 13 samples analysed. Despite the levels found in this study, they are below Brazilian tolerance limits. Nevertheless, the presence of OTA as found contributes to the human exposure to this toxin. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Fagundes G.M.,University of Sao Paulo | Modesto E.C.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Fonseca C.E.M.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Lima H.R.P.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Muir J.P.,Texas AgriLife Research Center
Small Ruminant Research | Year: 2014

High quality forage proteins for tropical goat dairy feeds are often difficult to find and many perennials contain condensed tannins (CT) that may not always benefit production. The objective of this study was to evaluate milk yield, apparent digestibility of nutrients and intake of crossbred dairy goats fed Tifton 85 ( Cynodon spp. hybrid) grass replaced by the leguminous shrub flemingia ( Flemingia macrophylla) with or without polyethylene glycol (PEG) to neutralize CT which were present at 105. g/kg DM. Treatments consisted of six diets containing 0%, 12.5% and 25% flemingia with or without PEG. Adding flemingia increased ( P≤. 0.05) dietary concentrations of CT, lignin, protein and rapidly degradable polysaccharides ( A+. B1). The digestibility of nutrients at 12.5% of flemingia inclusion did not differ ( P>. 0.05) from the legume-free diet; however, levels of 25% negatively influenced ( P≤. 0.05) intake of hemicellulose and dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and total carbohydrate digestibility, but this was neutralized when PEG was added. Histochemical tests on the leaf midrib, petiole and petiolule indicated the presence of idioblasts with phenolic compounds in trichome, collenchyma and parenchyma cells. We conclude that flemingia leaves can replace Tifton 85 grass as a supplement in low quality diets of dairy goats. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Da Silva E.F.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Siqueira L.J.A.,University of Sao Paulo | Alves W.A.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro
Vibrational Spectroscopy | Year: 2011

Hydrogen bonding between pyridazine (PRD) and formamide (FA) molecules has been investigated both experimentally by Raman spectroscopy on their binary mixtures and theoretically by DFT calculations on various gas-phase PRD:FA clusters. The band at 1160 cm-1 of PRD was used for the first time as a marker for monitoring the degree of complexation. Upon dilution with FA, a new band at 1169 cm-1 is observed and attributed to hydrogen-bonded PRD. The Raman experiments were complemented by DFT calculations and the corresponding structures, vibrational spectra and binding energies were determined. The most stable species were found to be the 1:2 PRD:FA complexes and such stoichiometry is in excellent agreement with the experimental determination. The shift to higher frequency observed to the prominent modes of PRD may be related to a shortening of the NC and CC bonds, upon complexation, which causes a decrease in the electron delocalization in PRD ring. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Moratelli R.,Campus Fiocruz da Mata Atlantica | Peracchi A.L.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | De Oliveira J.A.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Zootaxa | Year: 2011

Twelve species are recognized in the South American bat genus Myotis Kaup (Vespertilionidae, Myotinae), with several nominal forms currently regarded as synonyms, among them Myotis guaycuru Proenca, 1943. Its holotype, so far the only specimen assigned to the species, has not been examined in recent taxonomic reviews. To address the taxonomic status of M. guaycuru, we located and redescribed its holotype and compared it to representatives and/or descriptions of all South American species in the genus. Qualitative traits, namely the plagiopatagium attached at ankles, the short and wooly fur and the lingually displaced P3, unambiguously assign the holotype of M. guaycuru to Myotis simus Thomas (1901). The analysis of cranial variation and pelage color across a wide geographical range of M. simus reveals morphometric and morphological discontinuity between Bolivian and Amazonian/Peruvian samples, the latter including topotypes of M. simus. The holotype of M. guaycuru was found to be morphometrically and morphologically more similar to these Amazonian samples than to the geographically nearer Bolivian sample, preventing the use of this nominal form to refer to the Bolivian population if its distinction suggested by morphometric analyses is confirmed by the analyses of other character systems. Copyright © 2011 Magnolia Press.

Montes C.S.,World Agroforestry Center | da Silva D.A.,Federal University of Paraná | Garcia R.A.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Bolzon de Muniz G.I.,Federal University of Paraná | Weber J.C.,World Agroforestry Center
Biomass and Bioenergy | Year: 2011

Prosopis africana and Balanites aegyptiaca are native tree species in the West African Sahel and provide wood for fuel, construction and other essential products. A provenance/progeny test of each species was established at one relatively dry site in Niger, and evaluated at 13 years. Gross calorific value of the wood was determined for a random sample of trees in each test: gross CV and CVm3=gross calorific value in MJkg-1 and MJm-3, respectively. The major objectives were to determine if gross CV was positively correlated with wood density and tree growth, and if gross CV and/or CVm3 varied with rainfall gradients in the sample region. Provenances were grouped into a drier and more humid zone, and correlations were computed among all trees and separately in each zone. Results indicated that gross CV was not significantly correlated with density in either species. Gross CV was positively correlated with growth of P. africana (but not B. aegyptiaca) only in the drier zone. Gross CVm3 was positively correlated with growth of both species, and the correlations were stronger in the drier zone. Multiple regressions with provenance latitude, longitude and elevation indicated that provenance means for gross CV increased, in general, from the drier to the more humid zones. Regressions with gross CVm3 were not significant. Results are compared with earlier research reports from the provenance/progeny tests and with other tropical hardwood species; and practical implications are presented for tree improvement and conservation programs in the region. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Mecawi A.S.,University of Sao Paulo | Vilhena-Franco T.,University of Sao Paulo | Araujo I.G.,University of Sao Paulo | Reis L.C.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | And 2 more authors.
American Journal of Physiology - Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology | Year: 2011

Estrogen receptors are located in important brain areas that integrate cardiovascular and hydroelectrolytic responses, including the subfornical organ (SFO) and supraoptic (SON) and paraventricular (PVN) nuclei. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of estradiol on cardiovascular and neuroendocrine changes induced by hemorrhagic shock in ovariectomized rats. Female Wistar rats (220 -280 g) were ovariectomized and treated for 7 days with vehicle or estradiol cypionate (EC, 10 or 40 μg/kg, sc). On the 8th day, animals were subjected to hemorrhage (1.5 ml/100 g for 1 min). Hemorrhage induced acute hypotension and bradycardia in the ovariectomized-oil group, but EC treatment inhibited these responses. We observed increases in plasma angiotensin II concentrations and decreases in plasma atrial natriuretic peptide levels after hemorrhage; EC treatment produced no effects on these responses. There were also increases in plasma vasopressin (AVP), oxytocin (OT), and prolactin levels after the induction of hemorrhage in all groups, and these responses were potentiated by EC administration. SFO neurons and parvocellular and magnocellular AVP and OT neurons in the PVN and SON were activated by hemorrhagic shock. EC treatment enhanced the activation of SFO neurons and AVP and OT magnocellular neurons in the PVN and SON and AVP neurons in the medial parvocellular region of the PVN. These results suggest that estradiol modulates the cardiovascular responses induced by hemorrhage, and this effect is likely mediated by an enhancement of AVP and OT neuron activity in the SON and PVN. © 2011 by the American Physiological Society.

Beati L.,Georgia Southern University | Nava S.,Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria | Burkman E.J.,Georgia Southern University | Burkman E.J.,University of Georgia | And 9 more authors.
BMC Evolutionary Biology | Year: 2013

Background: Amblyomma cajennense F. is one of the best known and studied ticks in the New World because of its very wide distribution, its economical importance as pest of domestic ungulates, and its association with a variety of animal and human pathogens. Recent observations, however, have challenged the taxonomic status of this tick and indicated that intraspecific cryptic speciation might be occurring. In the present study, we investigate the evolutionary and demographic history of this tick and examine its genetic structure based on the analyses of three mitochondrial (12SrDNA, d-loop, and COII) and one nuclear (ITS2) genes. Because A. cajennense is characterized by a typical trans-Amazonian distribution, lineage divergence dating is also performed to establish whether genetic diversity can be linked to dated vicariant events which shaped the topology of the Neotropics. Results: Total evidence analyses of the concatenated mtDNA and nuclear + mtDNA datasets resulted in well-resolved and fully congruent reconstructions of the relationships within A. cajennense. The phylogenetic analyses consistently found A. cajennense to be monophyletic and to be separated into six genetic units defined by mutually exclusive haplotype compositions and habitat associations. Also, genetic divergence values showed that these lineages are as distinct from each other as recognized separate species of the same genus. The six clades are deeply split and node dating indicates that they started diverging in the middle-late Miocene. Conclusions: Behavioral differences and the results of laboratory cross-breeding experiments had already indicated that A. cajennense might be a complex of distinct taxonomic units. The combined and congruent mitochondrial and nuclear genetic evidence from this study reveals that A. cajennense is an assembly of six distinct species which have evolved separately from each other since at least 13.2 million years ago (Mya) in the earliest and 3.3 Mya in the latest lineages. The temporal and spatial diversification modes of the six lineages overlap the phylogeographical history of other organisms with similar extant trans-Amazonian distributions and are consistent with the present prevailing hypothesis that Neotropical diversity often finds its origins in the Miocene, after the Andean uplift changed the topology and consequently the climate and ecology of the Neotropics. © 2013Beati et al.2013 Beati et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. BioMed Central Ltd.

Lopes P.M.,Netherlands Institute of Ecology | Bozelli R.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Bini L.M.,Federal University of Goais | Santangelo J.M.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Declerck S.A.J.,Netherlands Institute of Ecology
Freshwater Biology | Year: 2016

Metacommunity theory assumes that communities are not only affected by local processes but also interact with each other through dispersal. It is generally assumed that zooplankton can quickly recolonise water bodies after droughts, via both dormant egg banks and dispersal of resting eggs. Hitherto, few studies have evaluated the relative importance of resting egg bank recruitment and airborne dispersal in the re-establishment of zooplankton communities. As zooplankton communities of temporary ponds are frequently confronted by dry phases and have the potential to build up large resting egg banks, we expected the contribution of such resting egg bank to be more important than airborne dispersal for community re-establishment after drought. We also expected that the relative importance of airborne dispersal would be higher for rotifers than for microcrustaceans, as the former group has key traits (e.g. smaller body sizes, shorter generation times and higher reproductive potential) that are thought to enhance the dispersal to and colonisation of vacant habitat. We performed an enclosure experiment in the vicinity of seven temporary ponds, simulating the colonisation by zooplankton exclusively via the resting egg bank, exclusively via airborne dispersal and via both pathways simultaneously. The enclosures were sampled five times during a period of 53 days. Our results show that zooplankton organisms were able to rapidly colonise the experimental enclosures, either through their resting egg bank or by airborne dispersal of resting eggs. However, microcrustaceans tended to rely more on recolonisation from the resting egg banks than rotifers, at least for the spatial and temporal scales considered in our study. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Amado-Filho G.M.,Institute Pesquisas Jardim Botanico Do Rio Of Janeiro | Moura R.L.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Bastos A.C.,Federal University of Espirito Santo | Salgado L.T.,Institute Pesquisas Jardim Botanico Do Rio Of Janeiro | And 12 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Rhodoliths are nodules of non-geniculate coralline algae that occur in shallow waters (&150 m depth) subjected to episodic disturbance. Rhodolith beds stand with kelp beds, seagrass meadows, and coralline algal reefs as one of the world's four largest macrophyte-dominated benthic communities. Geographic distribution of rhodolith beds is discontinuous, with large concentrations off Japan, Australia and the Gulf of California, as well as in the Mediterranean, North Atlantic, eastern Caribbean and Brazil. Although there are major gaps in terms of seabed habitat mapping, the largest rhodolith beds are purported to occur off Brazil, where these communities are recorded across a wide latitudinal range (2°N - 27°S). To quantify their extent, we carried out an inter-reefal seabed habitat survey on the Abrolhos Shelf (16°50′ - 19°45′S) off eastern Brazil, and confirmed the most expansive and contiguous rhodolith bed in the world, covering about 20,900 km 2. Distribution, extent, composition and structure of this bed were assessed with side scan sonar, remotely operated vehicles, and SCUBA. The mean rate of CaCO 3 production was estimated from in situ growth assays at 1.07 kg m -2 yr -1, with a total production rate of 0.025 Gt yr -1, comparable to those of the world's largest biogenic CaCO 3 deposits. These gigantic rhodolith beds, of areal extent equivalent to the Great Barrier Reef, Australia, are a critical, yet poorly understood component of the tropical South Atlantic Ocean. Based on the relatively high vulnerability of coralline algae to ocean acidification, these beds are likely to experience a profound restructuring in the coming decades. © 2012 Amado-Filho et al.

Garcia R.A.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | De Carvalho A.M.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | De Figueiredo Latorraca J.V.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | De Matos J.L.M.,Federal University of Paraná | And 2 more authors.
Wood Science and Technology | Year: 2012

The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of heat treatment of eucalypt wood (Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden) on the dynamic modulus of elasticity by using the stress wave nondestructive method and also to determine the air-dry density variation, weight loss and equilibrium moisture content following treatment. Heat treatments were performed at four different temperatures (180, 200, 215 and 230°C) and for three different durations (15 min, 2 and 4 h). The results revealed a significant reduction in air-dry density following heat treatment independent of temperature and time. A significant weight loss was observed between and within treatments. The treatment at 230°C for 2 and 4 h produced a weight loss of 20.5 and 26.5%, respectively, which was statistically different from other treatment conditions. The dynamic modulus of elasticity decreased by about 13% in the most severe treatment (230°C for 4 h). Depending on the temperature and time, the equilibrium moisture content was significantly reduced within the range of 40-74%. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

Marques T.M.,Federal University of Paraná | Boeger W.A.,Federal University of Paraná | de Carvalho Brasil-Sato M.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro
Systematic Parasitology | Year: 2015

Three species of Ergasilus Nordmann, 1832 are reported from the gills of Salminus spp. in Brazil. Ergasilus salmini Thatcher & Brazil-Sato, 2008 from Salminus brasiliensis Cuvier is redescribed, based on examination of paratypes. The study revealed morphological differences from the original description, especially in the morphology of the cephalothorax and the ornamentation of antenna, antennule and legs. Ergasilus lacusauratus n. sp. described from S. brasiliensis in lake Lagoa Dourada (Paraná) differs from the only known species from this host group, E. salmini, in the shape and size of the cephalothorax and the general morphology of the egg-sacs. Ergasilus sinefalcatus n. sp. from S. franciscanus Lima & Britsky in River São Francisco (Minas Gerais) closely resembles E. pitalicus, E. coatiarus and E. leporinidis in the lack of a pectinate seta on the first exopodal segment, a feature common in species of Ergasilus in the Neotropics. Ergasilus sinefalcatus n. sp. differs from these species in the presence of a spiniform process on the coxae of legs 2, 3 and 4, an ornament never reported from freshwater species of Ergasilus in South America. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Montes C.S.,World Agroforestry Center | Weber J.C.,World Agroforestry Center | Garcia R.A.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Silva D.A.,Federal University of Paraná | Muniz G.I.B.,Federal University of Paraná
Canadian Journal of Forest Research | Year: 2013

There is very little published information about variation in the wood properties of African tree species. To expand markets for wood products from these species, we must understand the factors that affect wood properties, and select the best species and sites to produce wood with the preferred properties. Wood color may be affected by edaphic and climatic conditions, tree age, wood density, and other biological and environmental factors. The major objective of this research was to determine if the mean and variability of wood color variables (L*, a*, and b*) of Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Delile, Combretum glutinosum Perr. ex DC., Guiera senegalensis J.F. Gmel., Piliostigma reticulatum (DC.) Hochst., and Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. trees varied among regions, soil types, land-use types, and terrain types; and were linearly related with geographical coordinates and mean annual rainfall in the Sahelian and Sudanian ecozones of Mali. Correlations were also investigated among color variables and between wood density and color variables. Results indicated that there was considerable intraspecific variation in wood color variables due to all factors except land-use type; variation patterns were similar for some wood color variables and species, but there were notable differences among some species; and correlations among wood color variables and wood density differed among some species. © 2013 Published by NRC Research Press.

Sant'Ana L.D.,Rural University | Buarque Ferreira A.B.,Rural University | Lorenzon M.C.A.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Berbara R.L.L.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Castro R.N.,Rural University
International Journal of Food Properties | Year: 2014

Sixty Brazilian honey samples were analysed for their total phenolic content with the Folin-Denis reagent, total flavonoid content by aluminium chloride method, and antioxidant activity by reaction with 2,2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl radical. Colour was also classified according to visual analysis and Pfund scale. Linear relationships were observed between colour and flavonoid content, total phenolics and antioxidant capacity, and total flavonoid and phenolic contents. The white-coloured Citrus honey showed the lowest antioxidant activity, while the light ambar Verbenaceae honey showed the highest total phenolics and antioxidant activity. Dark-coloured and polyfloral honeys, though less popularized among consumers, showed average to high antioxidant capacity. © Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Dematte J.A.M.,University of Sao Paulo | Bortoletto M.A.M.,University of Sao Paulo | Vasques G.M.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Rizzo R.,University of Sao Paulo
Bragantia | Year: 2011

This study aimed to derive mathematical models to predict the soil organic matter content based on soil color obtained by a colorimeter in the Munsell color system. A total of 907 soil samples were collected in the region of Porto Grande (Amapá, Brazil) and analyzed in the laboratory for chemical properties, particle size distribution and color of dry and wet samples. The Munsell color components value and croma obtained using a colorimeter were used to predict soil organic matter content based on stepwise multiple linear regression. Models derived using all samples had R 2 of 0.66 for wet samples and 0.56 for dry samples, respectively, when validated using independent samples. It was possible to improve the models by separating the samples by soil class or texture. The models derived using colors obtained from wet samples were systematically better than those based on dry samples. Among soil classes, best results were obtained for Argissolos (Ultisols) and Latossolos (Oxisols), both having an R 2 of independent validation of 0.73 (wet sample). For texture, best results were obtained for very clayey soils, with an R 2 of validation of 0.81 (wet sample). The soil organic matter prediction models based on soil color have simplicity and potential to be used in the laboratory and in the field with quick and unnecessary chemical products, especially for Ultisols and Oxisols of clayey texture.

Rivero T.S.,University of Sao Paulo | Nunez L.M.H.,Free University of Colombia | Pires E.U.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Bueno O.F.A.,University of Sao Paulo
Frontiers in Psychiatry | Year: 2015

Empirical research studies have highlighted the need to investigate whether video game can be useful as a tool within a neuropsychological rehabilitation program for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) patients. However, little is known about the possible gains that this kind of video game-based interventions can produce and even if these gains can be transferred to real life abilities. The present paper aims to uncover key information related to the use of video game in ADHD neuropsychological rehabilitation/intervention by focusing on its gains and its capability to transfer/generalize these gains to real life situation via a systematic review of the empirical literature. The PRISMA guidelines were adopted. Internet-based bibliographic searches were conducted via seven major electronic databases (i.e., PsycARTICLES, PsycINFO, Web of Science, Core Collection BIOSIS Citation Index, MEDLINE, SciELO Citation Index, and PubMed) to access studies examining the association between video game interventions in ADHD patients and behavioral and cognitive outcomes. A total of 14 empirical studies meeting the inclusion criteria were identified. The studies reported the attention, working memory, and the behavioral aspects as the main target of the intervention. Cognitive and behavioral gains were reported after the video game training (VGT). However, many bias related to the choice of outcome instruments, sampling and blindness of assessors, weaken the results power. Additional researches are important to clarify the effects and stability of the VGT programs, and an important effort should be made to construct better methods to assess improvements on everyday cognitive abilities and real world functioning. © 2015 Strahler Rivero, Herrera Nuñez, Uehara Pires and Amodeo Bueno.

Chagas C.S.,Rua Jardim Botanico | Fernandes Filho E.I.,DPS UFV | Rocha M.F.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro
Revista Brasileira de Engenharia Agricola e Ambiental | Year: 2010

In Brazil, the digital elevation models (DEMs) are usually produced by users themselves and little attention has been given to their limitations as source of spatial information. The objective of this study was to evaluate different DEMs to help in choosing an appropriate model to derive topographical attributes used in a digital soil mapping based on a neural networks approach. The evaluation consisted of the following analysis: determination of root mean square error (RMSE) of elevation; analysis of the spurious depressions; comparison between mapped drainage and numeric drainage and between derived contour lines and original contour lines; and analysis of the derived contribution basins. The results demonstrated that RMSE was not enough to evaluate the quality of these models. DEMs derived from contour lines (CARTA, obtained using the TOPOGRID module) presented better quality than those derived from remote sensors (ASTER and SRTM). These presented great amount of errors that can negatively affect the establishment of relationships between topographical attributes and local conditions of soils.

de Oliveira J.R.,INCRA SR.14 AC | Pinto M.F.,University of Sao Paulo | Souza W.J.,University of Sao Paulo | Guerra J.G.M.,EMBRAPA - Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária | de Carvalho D.F.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro
Revista Brasileira de Engenharia Agricola e Ambiental | Year: 2010

This study was carried out in order to determine the soil, water and nutrient losses in a Yellow-Red Ultisol, under four different patterns of simulated rainfall. The experiment was conducted at the Embrapa Agrobiologia experimental field, located in the municipality of Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The study consisted in the application of simulated rains using variable rainfall intensity classified in different patterns as: advanced (AD), intermediate (IN), delayed (DE), and constant (CT), in plots 0.8 m wide and 1.0 m long. The rain had a duration of 60 min, with a total applied depth of 30 mm, and a peak of 110 mm h-1, for the variable intensity patterns. With the results obtained it was possible to verify that after 60 min of simulated DE pattern provided losses higher than CT, AD and IN, in 61.6, 46.4 and 13.6%, respectively (soil), and 42.0, 19.0 and 19.0% (run-off), respectively, for the AD, IN and CT patterns; and the nutrients losses did not differ among the rainfall patterns, being more affected by water run-off than solid material in suspension.

Montes C.S.,World Agroforestry Center | Weber J.C.,World Agroforestry Center | Silva D.A.,Federal University of Paraná | Andrade C.,Federal University of Paraná | And 3 more authors.
Annals of Forest Science | Year: 2012

• Context There is little information about inter- and intraspecific variation in fuelwood properties of trees/shrubs in West Africa. • Aims We studied variation in fuelwood properties of Balanites aegyptiaca, Combretum glutinosum, Guiera senegalensis, Piliostigma reticulatum, and Zizyphus mauritiana in the Sahelian and Sudanian ecozones of Mali. • Methods Trees were sampled on different soil (sandy, sandy/loam, or rocky), land use (parkland agroforest or woodland), and terrain (flat, temporarily flooded, or hill slope) types in five regions extending from the drier eastern to the more humid western parts of Mali. Basic density, volatile matter, fixed carbon, ash content, moisture content, gross calorific value, and fuel value index were measured for each tree and adjusted for tree age. • Methods Trees were sampled on different soil (sandy, Results All fuelwood properties differed significantly among species, but there were significant species by region interactions.Most fuelwood properties of four species differed significantly among regions. Soil and/or land use type had significant effects on a few fuelwood properties of four species. • Conclusion In general, fuelwood production is recommended in all regions for G. senegalensis, in drier regions for B. aegyptiaca and C. glutinosum, in more humid regions for Z. mauritiana, and on rocky soils for all species. Fuelwood production of P. reticulatum is not recommended. © INRA/Springer-Verlag France 2012.

Pereira M.G.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Loss A.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Beutler S.J.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Torres J.L.R.,Institute Federal of Education
Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems | Year: 2012

The plant cover use preceding grain crops in Cerrado soil can increase the carbon stocks of chemical and physical fractions of soil organic matter (SOM). The present study aimed to quantify the carbon stocks of SOM granulometric and humic fractions in a Cerrado area under no-tillage system with different plant cover, and compare the results with those from conventional tillage and fallow areas, in Uberaba, MG, Brazil. The implemented plant covers were: millet, tropical grass and sunn hemp. Furthermore, an area was used in fallow and another as a control area (conventional tillage). After plant cover removal, the areas were subdivided (subplots) for the corn and soybean plantation. Soil samples were collected in the 0.0-0.025, 0.025-0.05, 0.05-0.10 and 0.10-0.20 m depths, with posterior quantification of total organic carbon (TOC) levels and chemical and granulometric fractionation of SOM. Humic acid carbon (C-HAF), fulvic acids (C-FAF) and humin (C-HUM) were quantified through these fractionations. The granulometric fractions consisted in particulate organic matter (POM) and mineral organic matter (MOM). Using the carbon levels for each fraction, the respective stocks for each depth were calculated, including the 0.0-0.20 m layer. In the depth of 0.0 to 0.025 and 0.025 to 0.05 m, the TOC had the highest stock for the plant covers of tropical grass, fallow and sunn, respectively, with the lowest stoks found under conventional management The highest POM stocks were found for the corn plantation over sunn hemp and the fallow and soybean area over millet and tropical grass (0.0-0.20 m). In relation to the MOM stocks, the highest values were observed in the areas with millet, sunn hemp and tropical grass, all superior to those found in the conventional tillage and fallow areas, independent of evaluated culture (0.10-0.20 m). The highest C-HUM stocks were observed in the area with tropical grass when compared to conventional tillage, independent of evaluated culture (corn and soybean) or the depth (0.0-0.025 and 0.10-0.20 m). The highest C-FAH stocks in the depth of 0.0-0.025 m were found in the areas with plat covers than the conventional tillage and fallow areas. In a general manner, the use of grasses (millet and tropical grass) as plant cover preceding soybean tillage and legumes (sunn hemp) preceding corn tillage, favored a raise in the stocks of humic and granulometric fractions of SOM, especially POM and C-FAH, the fractions most benefitted by this soil management.

Moldes C.A.,National University of La Pampa | Camina J.M.,National University of La Pampa | Camina J.M.,Institute Las Ciencias Of La Tierra Y Ambientales Of La Pampa Incitap | Medici L.O.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | And 2 more authors.
Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology | Year: 2012

This paper compares the responses of conventional and transgenic soybean to glyphosate application in terms of the contents of 17 detectable soluble amino acids in leaves, analyzed by HPLC and fluorescence detection. Glutamate, histidine, asparagine, arginine. +. alanine, glycine. +. threonine and isoleucine increased in conventional soybean leaves when compared to transgenic soybean leaves, whereas for other amino acids, no significant differences were recorded. Univariate analysis allowed us to make an approximate differentiation between conventional and transgenic lines, observing the changes of some variables by glyphosate application. In addition, by means of the multivariate analysis, using principal components analysis (PCA), cluster analysis (CA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) it was possible to identify and discriminate different groups based on the soybean genetic origin. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

Jensen S.,Federal University of Paraná | da Cruz Meleiro L.A.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Zanoelo T.F.,Federal University of Paraná
Biosystems Engineering | Year: 2011

The paper presents an empirical soft-sensor model to control the moisture content of mate leaves in the discharge of a virtual conveyor-belt dryer. The empirical model is applied to infer the unmeasured control variable based on virtual transient readings of temperature in the solid phase of the dryer. The inferential control uses a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller, which manipulates the conveyor speed to keep the outlet moisture content of mate leaves between 0.024 and 0.034 (dry basis). The parameters of the soft-sensor model were tuned on a set of around 2000 experimental data of surface temperature and moisture content of mate leaves. These results emerged from batch drying experiments at between 70 and 120 °C for up to 9600 s using leaves with initial moisture content varying from 0.14 to 1.7 (dry basis). Open- and closed-loop responses of moisture content and temperature of the mate leaves were obtained by simulation with a dynamic model. It was represented by a system of two partial differential equations derived from energy and mass balance for water in the solid phase of the dryer. Closed-loop simulations in the presence of arbitrary process disturbances confirmed the reliability of the inferential designed controller. © 2010 IAgrE.

Faccini J.L.H.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Cardoso A.C.B.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Onofrio V.C.,Instituto Butantan | Labruna M.B.,University of Sao Paulo | Barros-Battesti D.M.,Instituto Butantan
Experimental and Applied Acarology | Year: 2010

The life cycle of Amblyomma auricularium (Conil) is reported for the first time, using rabbits as experimental host. Developmental periods of free-living stages were observed in an incubator at 27 ± 1°C, 80 ± 10% RH and 24 h darkness. The complete life cycle, including pre-feeding periods for each parasitic stage, ranged from 97 to 162 days. The overall sex ratio was 1.16:1 (M:F). Feeding and premolt periods, molting success, and engorgement weight of nymphs were statistically different between males and females (P < 0.01), but because their ranges overlapped, they cannot be used to predict the sex with accuracy. The potential role of rabbits as experimental hosts for rearing A. auricularium in the laboratory is discussed. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009.

Frazao A.,University of Sao Paulo | Da Silva H.R.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | De Moraes Russo C.A.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

The largest anuran diversity belongs to the Neobatrachia, which harbor more than five thousand extant species. Here, we propose a new hypothesis for the historical aspects of the neobatrachian evolution with a formal biogeographical analysis. We selected 12 genes for 144 neobatrachian genera and four archaeobatrachian outgroups and performed a phylogenetic analysis using a maximum likelihood algorithm with the rapid bootstrap test. We also estimated divergence times for major lineages using a relaxed uncorrelated clock method. According to our time scale, the diversification of crown Neobatrachia began around the end of the Early Cretaceous. Our phylogenetic tree suggests that the first split of Neobatrachia is related to the geological events in the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. Hence, we propose names for these clades that indicate this connection, i.e., Atlanticanura and Indianura. The Atlanticanura is composed of three major neobatrachian lineages: Heleophrynidae, Australobatrachia and Nobleobatrachia. On the other hand, the Indianura consists of two major lineages: Sooglossoidea and Ranoides. The biogeographical analysis indicates that many neobatrachian splits occurred as a result of geological events such as the separation between South America and Africa, between India and the Seychelles, and between Australia and South America. © 2015 Frazão et al.This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Moratelli R.,Campus Fiocruz da Mata Atlantica | Peracchi A.L.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Dias D.,Instituto Oswaldo Cruz | De Oliveira J.A.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Mammalian Biology | Year: 2011

The genus Myotis (Vespertilionidae, Myotinae) comprises a diverse group of small to large-sized vespertilionid bats that present a worldwide distribution. Twelve South American species are currently recognized. In this paper we evaluate the morphological and morphometric variation observed in South American populations of the most widespread species, Myotis nigricans. Against this background, two forms can be morphologically distinguished from M. nigricans and other known South American species. We describe these new species, documenting their diagnostic external and cranial characters by comparing them to other sympatric and cryptic species of South American Myotis. In addition, we provide an emended diagnosis of Myotis nigricans. © 2011 Deutsche Gesellschaft für Säugetierkunde.

Fernandes L.A.,Federal University of Paraná | Magalhaes Ribeiro C.M.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro
Journal of South American Earth Sciences | Year: 2015

The Bauru Basin was one of the great Cretaceous desert basins of the world, evolved in arid zone called Southern Hot Arid Belt. Its paleobiological record consists mainly of dinosaurs, crocodiles and turtles. The Bauru Basin is an extensive region of the South American continent that includes parts of the southeast and south of Brazil, covering an area of 370,000km2. It is an interior continental basin that developed as a result of subsidence of the central-southern part of the South-American Platform during the Late Cretaceous (Coniacian-Maastrichtian). This sag basin is filled by a sandy siliciclastic sequence with a preserved maximum thickness of 480m, deposited in semiarid to desert conditions. Its basement consists of volcanic rocks (mainly basalts) of the Lower Cretaceous (Hauterivian) Serra Geral basalt flows, of the Paraná-Etendeka Continental Flood Basalt Province. The sag basin was filled by an essentially siliciclastic psammitic sequence. In lithostratigraphic terms the sequence consists of the Caiuá and Bauru groups. The northern and northeastern edges of the basin provide a record of more proximal original deposits, such as associations of conglomeratic sand facies from alluvial fans, lakes, and intertwined distributary river systems. The progressive basin filling led to the burial of the basaltic substrate by extensive blanket sand sheets, associated with deposits of small dunes and small shallow lakes that retained mud (such as loess). Also in this intermediate context between the edges (more humid) and the interior (dry), wide sand sheet areas crossed by unconfined desert rivers (wadis) occurred. In the central axis of the elliptical basin a regional drainage system formed, flowing from northeast to southwest between the edges of the basin and the hot and dry inner periphery of the Caiuá desert (southwest). Life in the Bauru Basin flourished most in the areas with the greatest water availability, in which dinosaurs, crocodiles, turtles, fish, amphibians, molluscs, crustaceans, and charophyte algae lived. The fossil record mainly consists of transported bones and other skeletal fragments. In the northeastern and eastern marginal regions fossils are found in marginal alluvial fan deposits, broad plains of braided streams and ephemeral alkaline water lakes. In the basin interior the fossil record is related to deposits in sand sheets with braided streams, small dunes, and shallow lakes. In the great Caiuá inner desert a few smaller animals could survive (small reptiles and early mammals), sometimes leaving their footprints in dune foreset deposits. The aim of this article is to present and link the basin sedimentary evolution, palaeoecological features and palaeontological record. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Angelo I.C.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Fernandes E.K.K.,Federal University of Goais | Bahiense T.C.,Federal University of Bahia | Perinotto W.M.S.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | And 3 more authors.
Parasitology Research | Year: 2012

Rhipicephalus microplus (Canestrini) is an ectoparasite accountable for great economic losses. The use of entomopathogenic fungi to control arthropods has shown promising responses. The present study evaluated the virulence of Isaria farinosa (Holmsk.) Fr., Isaria fumosorosea (Wize) Brown and Smith, and Purpureocillium lilacinum (0Paecilomyces lilacinus) (Thom.) Samson to engorged females, eggs, and larvae of R. microplus. There were four treatment groups (105, 106, 107, and 108 conidia ml-1) and the control group (water and Tween 80, 0.1 %v/v). The treatment was based on immersion of the specimen in 1 ml of the suspension or control solution. The study observed changes in egg viability and larval mortality after treatment. The results showed that I. farinosa, P. lilacinum, and I. fumosorosea caused alterations in the biological parameters of R. microplus ticks. I. fumosorosea presented the greatest potential to control R. microplus engorged females in vitro, causing a 49 % decrease in nutritional index. All fungal isolates presented significant reduction in the egg production index. I. farinosa reduced the hatching percentage if the eggs were treated with the two highest conidial concentrations. All conidial concentrations of I. fumosorosea were able to reduce the hatching percentage significantly. All tested isolates showed pathogenicity toward unfed R. microplus larvae. As far as we know, this is the first study reporting the effect in vitro of I. farinosa, I. fumosorosea, and P. lilacinum to different developmental stages of R. microplus ticks. © Springer-Verlag 2012.

De Lucas N.C.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Fraga H.S.,Federal University of Bahia | Cardoso C.P.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Correa R.J.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | And 3 more authors.
Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics | Year: 2010

The hydrogen abstraction (HA) reaction by the triplet of α-naphthoflavone (1) has been investigated experimentally by the use of laser flash photolysis (LFP) and theoretically with density functional theory (DFT) and atoms in molecules (AIM). The triplet excited state of 1, in acetonitrile, has an absorption maximum at 430 nm and lifetime of 10 μs. The quenching rate constants for the triplet of 1 with 1,4-cyclohexadiene, substituted phenols and amines were determined. The low reactivity of this ketone with respect to HA from 1,4-cyclohexadiene is in accord with a π,π* excited state. HA from phenols in acetonitrile is proposed to occur in a diffusion controlled reaction from free phenol based upon the determination of the Abraham βH 2 value for acetonitrile and correction of the quenching rate constants for hydrogen bonding of the phenols to acetonitrile. A molecular orbital analysis of the triplet (SOMO and SOMO-1) of 1 reveals contributions from the carbonyl oxygen atom, but principally from the α-carbon and the associated π-bond network, consistent with a π,π* excited state. From a thermodynamic point of view, the triplet HA from phenol to oxygen of the carbonyl group is 17 kcal mol-1 less demanding than the transfer to the α-carbon, consistent with the acidic nature of the phenolic hydrogen atom. DFT and AIM analysis of the hydrogen abstraction reaction reveals that the transition state (TS) is pseudo-symmetrically polarized and that HA in the hydrogen bonded exciplex occurs in a concerted manner but not necessarily by simultaneous electron and proton transfer. © 2010 the Owner Societies.

Pires K.C.C.,University of Sao Paulo | Lichtenthaler R.,University of Sao Paulo | Lepine-Szily A.,University of Sao Paulo | Morcelle V.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro
Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics | Year: 2014

Elastic angular distributions of the He6 + Be9 scattering at Elab=16.2 and 21.3 MeV have been analyzed in the context of the optical model. The projectile-target optical potential was calculated in a cluster model where the contributions from the fragment target (α-9Be) and the dineutron target (2n-9Be) are separated and the latter was searched to reproduce the experimental data. The total reaction cross sections for the He6+9Be system have been obtained, and the error bars have been estimated considering the spread between the present optical model and previous coupled channels and continuum discretized coupled-channels calculations. The cross sections have been reduced and compared in a systematics involving tightly bound, weakly bound, and the exotic He6 projectiles, all on Be9 target. An analysis of the enhancements observed in the total reaction cross section induced by He6 on light, medium mass, and heavy targets is presented. © 2014 American Physical Society.

Mecawi A.S.,University of Sao Paulo | Vilhena-Franco T.,University of Sao Paulo | Fonseca F.V.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Reis L.C.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Neuroendocrinology | Year: 2013

The present study aimed to investigate the role of angiotensin II (Ang II) on sodium appetite in rats subjected to a normal or a low-sodium diet (1% or > 0.1% NaCl) for 4 days. During sodium restriction, a reduction in water intake, urinary volume and sodium excretion was observed. After a low-sodium diet, we observed decreased plasma protein concentrations and haematocrit associated with a slight reduction in arterial pressure, without any significant changes in heart rate, natraemia, corticotrophin-releasing hormone mRNA expression in the paraventricular nucleus and corticosterone levels. After providing hypertonic saline, there was an increase in saline intake followed by a small increase in water intake, resulting in an enhanced saline intake ratio and the recovery of arterial pressure. Sodium deprivation increased plasma but not brain Ang I and II concentrations. A low-sodium diet increased kidney renin and liver angiotensinogen mRNA levels but not lung angiotensin-converting enzyme mRNA expression. Moreover, Ang II type 1a receptor mRNA expression was increased in the subfornical organ and the dorsal raphe nucleus and decreased in the medial preoptic nuclei, without changes in the paraventricular nucleus and the nucleus of solitary tract after a low-sodium diet. Blockade of AT1 receptors or brain Ang II synthesis led to a reduction in sodium intake after a low-sodium diet. Intracerebroventricular injection of Ang II led to a similar increase in sodium and water intake in the control and low-sodium diet groups. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggest that Ang II is involved in the increased sodium appetite after a low-sodium diet. © 2012 British Society for Neuroendocrinology.

Bigansolli A.R.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | da Cruz T.G.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Rodrigues D.,University of Sao Paulo
Materials Science Forum | Year: 2016

The use of superconductors of high critical temperatures in applied superconductivity leads to higher operation temperatures and economy of cryogenic fluids. High temperature superconductor materials exhibits limited transport properties due to grain boundary weak-links and anisotropy on the critical currents. The texturing development in these superconductors decreases in an efficient way the number of high-angle grain boundaries, increasing the values of the critical current densities. Several quantitative analysis methods have been developed to study the morphologic and topologic characteristics improving our understanding of structural parameters. In this work the grain size distribution characterization of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ Bi2212 superconductor bulk samples heat treated under the influence of an external applied magnetic field of 5T was carried out using a processing technique and analysis of images. The analyzed images were obtained by SEM in the c axis direction. All samples showed similar microstructures on both cases, but with the use of an external applied magnetic field during the heat treatments the average grain size decreased. © 2016 Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

Ribeiro A.M.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Bertoti A.R.,Federal University of Bahia | Netto-Ferreira J.C.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Netto-Ferreira J.C.,Federal University of Bahia
Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society | Year: 2010

Triplet ketones are known to oxidize biological substrates which can lead to damage of several biomolecules such as amino acids, nucleosides and DNA. As part of our systematic study on the interaction between carbonyl compounds and phenols, the triplet reactivity of thiochromanone (1) towards substituted phenols, in acetonitrile, was investigated employing the laser fash photolysis technique. The quenching rate constants ranged from (1.1 ± 0.1) × 108 L mol-1 s-1 (4-cyanophenol) to (5.8 ± 1.0) × 109 L mol-1 s-1 (hydroquinone). A Hammett plot for the reaction of triplet 1 with phenols containing polar substituents resulted in a reaction constant ρ =-0.90. This negative value observed for the reaction constant ρ is in accord with a mechanism in which the hydrogen transfer from phenols to the triplet carbonyl involves a coupled electron/proton transfer. © 2010 Sociedade Brasileira de Química.

Rodrigues J.F.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | De Assis Da Silva F.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Netto-Ferreira J.C.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Netto-Ferreira J.C.,Federal University of Bahia
Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society | Year: 2010

The photoreactivity of the triplet excited state of thioxanthone (TX) was investigated employing the laser fash photolysis technique. The wavelength for the absorption maximum and the lifetime of the triplet excited state are solvent dependent. When hydrogen donor solvents were employed, a new band at 410 nm was observed in the triplet absorption spectrum, which was attributed to the ketyl radical derived from thioxantone. Quenching rate constants, kq, ranged from (1.7 0.1) × 106 L mol-1 s-1 for toluene to ca. 109 L mol-1 s-1 for phenol and its derivatives containing polar substituents, as well as for indole, triethylamine and DABCO. © 2010 Sociedade Brasileira de Química.

This paper aimed at investigating the influence of aerial calibration of the low cost camera (physically integrated with a LIDAR system) on systematic error correction of the photogrammetric observations for the aerial triangulation process. The calibration was performed using aerial photographs taken from a test field with two configurations of photogrammetric blocks: no cross strips and cross strips. The camera station's positions, from the integration with LIDAR system sensor's orientation and position, were used in the aerial calibration process. The performance verification of the interior orientation parameters was performed by means of an aerotriangulation process (supported by camera station's position) using different photogrammetric blocks. Interior orientation parameters from a terrestrial calibration process were also used in the aerotriangulation process for comparison purpose. The obtained results showed that the aerotriangulation supported by camera station's position, using the interior orientation parameters from aerial calibrations, provided higher accuracy than the aerotriangulation process using interior orientation parameters determined in the terrestrial calibration, especially the vertical accuracy. It has been concluded that the vertical accuracy of the process with constraints in the perspective center is more dependent on the quality of the interior orientation parameters than the planimetric accuracy.

Milani J.F.,University of Sao Paulo | Rocha J.F.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | de Padua Teixeira S.,University of Sao Paulo
Trees - Structure and Function | Year: 2012

Although studies have addressed the chemical analysis and the biological activity of oleoresin in species of Copaifera, the cellular mechanisms of oleoresin production, storage, and release have rarely been investigated. This study detailed the distribution, ontogeny, and ultrastructure of secretory cavities and canals distributed in leaf and stem, respectively, of Copaifera trapezifolia, a Brazilian species included in a plant group of great economic interest. Axillary vegetative buds, leaflets, and portions of stem in primary and secondary growth were collected and processed in order to study the anatomy, histolocalization of substances, and ultrastructure. Secretory cavities are observed in the foliar blade and secretory canals in the petiolule and stem. They are made up of a uniseriate epithelium delimiting an isodiametric or elongated lumen. Biseriate epithelium is rarely observed and is a novelty for Leguminosae. Cavities and canals originate from ground meristem cells and the lumen is formed by schizogenesis. The content of the cavities and canals of both stem and leaf is oily and resinous, which suggests that the oleoresin could be extracted from the leaf instead of the stem. Phenolic compounds are also detected in the epithelial cell cytoplasm. Cavities and canals in the beginning of developmental stages have polarized epithelial cells. The cytoplasm is rich in smooth and rough endoplasmic reticula connected to vesicles or plastids. Smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum and plastids were found to be predominant in the epithelial cells of the secretory cavities and canals of C. trapezifolia. Such features testify the quantities of oleoresin found in the lumen and phenolic compounds in the epithelial cell cytoplasm of these glands. Other studies employing techniques such as correlative light electron microscopy could show the vesicle traffic and the compartmentalization of the produced substances in such glands. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

Sampaio G.R.,University of Sao Paulo | Saldanha T.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Soares R.A.M.,University of Sao Paulo | Torres E.A.F.S.,University of Sao Paulo
Food Chemistry | Year: 2012

The effect of combinations of sage, oregano and honey on lipid oxidation in cooked chicken meat during refrigeration at 4 °C for 96 h was determined. Chicken samples (thigh and breast) were then separated into five groups: control; butylated hydroxytoluene; oregano + sage; oregano + sage + 5%honey and oregano + sage + 10%honey. Quantitative measurements of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, conjugated dienes, hexanal, fatty acids, cholesterol and cholesterol oxides were used as indicators of lipid oxidation. Acceptability and preference were also evaluated. The effectiveness of the natural antioxidants for reducing the velocity of lipid oxidation in cooked chicken thigh and breast was demonstrated after 48 and 96 h of refrigeration at 4 °C. The treatments that presented the lowest hexanal values after 96 h of refrigeration were oregano + sage + 5%honey and oregano + sage + 10%honey. Only traces of free cholesterol oxides were found (25-OH, 7-k, 7α-OH and 7β-OH). The natural antioxidants protected cooked chicken meat from oxidation processes and resulted in great acceptability. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Mello-Silva C.C.,Instituto Oswaldo Cruz IOC Fiocruz Av | de Vasconcellos M.C.,Biologia e controle de endoparasitos de importancia medica e veterinaria IOC Fiocruz Av | Bezerra J.C.B.,Setor Universitario | Rodrigues M.D.L.A.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Pinheiro J.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro
Acta Tropica | Year: 2011

The aim of this work was to analyze the content of total protein and nitrogen degradation products in Biomphalaria glabrata infected with Schistosoma mansoni and exposed to Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii latex. The LC50 of this latex was 1.0mg/l. Concentrations of uric acid, urea and total proteins were determined in the hemolymph of B. glabrata infected with five S. mansoni miracidia and exposed to a sublethal concentration of E. splendens var. hislopii latex for 24h. The exposure to this molluscicide caused total depletion of the alterative sources of energy (total proteins) and significant variation in the nitrogen degradation products. The urea content increased while the uric acid level decreased. These results reflect a disturbance in the snails regulation of their metabolism due to intoxication caused by the latex exposure. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Bizetto E.L.,Federal University of Paraná | Noleto G.R.,Federal University of Paraná | Echevarria A.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Canuto A.V.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Cadena S.M.S.C.,Federal University of Paraná
Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry | Year: 2012

In an earlier article, we demonstrated that sydnone SYD-1 (3-[4-chloro-3-nitrophenyl]-1,2,3-oxadiazolium-5-olate) inhibits electron transport in the respiratory chain and uncouples oxidative phosphorylation, and postulated that these effects are probably involved in its antitumor activity. We now report the effect of SYD-1 on certain macrophage functions, considering the important role of these cells in inflammatory response and also the relevant anti-inflammatory activity reported for some sydnones. Incubation of macrophages with SYD-1 (5-100 μM) for 48 h did not affect the cell viability up to a concentration of 50 μM. However, at the highest concentration (100 μM), the compound decreased macrophage viability by ~20%. In assays involving 2 h and 24 h of incubation, SYD-1 (5-100 μM) did not affect the cell viability. The incubation of macrophages with the compound for 2 h promoted a dose-dependent reduction of phagocytic activity of up to ~65% (100 μM). SYD-1 (100 μM) was also able to increase the production of superoxide anion (~50%). In the absence of LPS, SYD-1 decreased NO production dose-dependently by up to ~80% (100 μM). When SYD-1 and LPS were incubated concomitantly, the decrease of NO promoted by SYD was the most pronounced, reaching up to ~98% at the same concentration (50 μM). SYD-1 dose-dependently suppressed IL-6 secretion by LPS-stimulated macrophages, reaching up to ~90% of inhibition at the highest concentration (100 μM). These results indicate that SYD-1 promotes effects similar to those described for anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive drugs, thus motivating further studies to clarify the mechanisms involved in this activity. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Teixeira A.P.,Federal University of Bahia | Quintella C.M.,Federal University of Bahia | Korn M.D.G.A.,Federal University of Bahia | Fernandes A.P.,Federal University of Alagoas | Castro M.T.P.O.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro
Quimica Nova | Year: 2012

A simple, fast and inexpensive method was developed to determine essential elements in pellets of rice samples using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF). The accuracy and precision were evaluated using Standard Reference Material (rice flour NIST 1568a), and yielding relative standard deviation below 5%. The paired t-test showed good agreement within 95% confidence values. The detection limits (3?) of Mn and Zn were 5.1 and 2.2 mg kg-1, respectively. The proposed method proved to be effective when used to determine Mn and Zn in commercial samples of rice without go by stage of decomposition.

Diogo D.D.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Herbst M.H.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Ribeiro R.,Federal University of Paraná | Teixeira V.G.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Reactive and Functional Polymers | Year: 2011

The influence of the crosslinking degree and monomer dilution with a porogenic agent on the binding of copper(II) by four amidoxime chelating resins was studied by EPR. The amidoxime resins were characterized by FTIR and surface area measurements, and were loaded with Cu(II). Room temperature EPR spectra of the Cu(II)-loaded resins were best simulated with two Cu(II) species, namely Species 1, corresponding to isolated Cu(II) sites, and Species 2, whose broad lines where assigned to clustering of Cu(II) centers. All the spectra also presented a pattern of ligand hyperfine lines (aN = 1.4 mT) corresponding to two magnetically equivalent nitrogen nuclei bonded to the Cu(II) center. The concentration and distribution of amidoxime groups in the polymer matrix influenced the environment of Cu(II) ions. The formation of Cu(II) clusters was improved by two factors: high pore diameter and high amidoxime group content of the chelating resins. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Souza W.J.,University of Sao Paulo | Botrel T.A.,University of Sao Paulo | de Carvalho D.F.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | da Silva L.D.B.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro
Revista Brasileira de Engenharia Agricola e Ambiental | Year: 2011

The use of localized irrigation using microtube as emitter under turbulent flow regime can be a technically feasible alternative. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of a fertigation system in nursery of citrus plants (greenhouse) projected by universal mathematical model, using the microtubes as emitters, under turbulent flow rate and to compare the development of the fertigated plants by microtubesto the system that use the traditional method with hoses. In the size of the length of the emitters was considered the K coefficient of localized energy dissipation using a microtube with internal diameter of 0,761 mm. The fertigation system presented great performance with clogging degree, Christiansen uniformity and emission uniformity values equal to 0,50; 99,95 and 98,21%, respectively, after 160 days of study. Plants that were grown using fertigation with both microtubes and hoses showed no difference as regards to stem diameter and height. Thus, the use of the microtube under turbulent flow rate presented technical feasible for fertigation system.

Piranda E.M.,Curso de Medicina Veterinaria | Faccini J.L.H.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Pinter A.,Superintendencia de Controle de Endemias | Pacheco R.C.,Federal University of Mato Grosso | And 2 more authors.
Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases | Year: 2011

We evaluated if Rickettsia rickettsii-experimentally infected dogs could serve as amplifier hosts for Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks. In addition, we checked if Rh. sanguineus ticks that acquired Ri. rickettsii from dogs could transmit the bacterium to susceptible hosts (vector competence), and if these ticks could maintain the bacterium by transstadial and transovarial transmissions. Uninfected larvae, nymphs, and adults of Rh. sanguineus were allowed to feed upon three groups of dogs: groups 1 (G1) and 2 (G2) composed of Ri. rickettsii-infected dogs, infected intraperitoneally and via tick bites, respectively, and group 3 composed of uninfected dogs. After larval and nymphal feeding on rickettsemic dogs, 7.1-15.2% and 35.8-37.9% of the molted nymphs and adults, respectively, were shown by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to be infected by Ri. rickettsii, confirming that both G1 and G2 dogs were efficient sources of rickettsial infection (amplifier host), resulting in transstadial transmission of the agent. These infected nymphs and adults successfully transmitted Ri. rickettsii to guinea pigs, confirming vector competence after acquisition of the infection from rickettsemic dogs. Transovarial transmission of Ri. rickettsii was observed in engorged females that had been infected as nymphs by feeding on both G1 and G2 dogs, but not in engorged females that acquired the infection during adult feeding on these same dogs. In the first case, filial infection rates were generally <50%. No tick exposed to G3 dogs was infected by rickettsiae in this study. No substantial mortality difference was observed between Ri. rickettsii-infected tick groups (G1 and G2) and uninfected tick group (G3). Our results indicate that dogs can be amplifier hosts of Ri. rickettsii for Rh. sanguineus, although only a minority of immature ticks (<45%) should become infected. It appears that Rh. sanguineus, in the absence of horizontal transmission, would not maintain Ri. rickettsii through successive generations, possibly because of low filial infection rates. © Copyright 2011, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

Cunha M.M.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Franzen A.J.,Centro Universitrio da Zona Oeste | Seabra S.H.,Centro Universitrio da Zona Oeste | Herbst M.H.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | And 4 more authors.
BMC Microbiology | Year: 2010

Background. The pathogenic fungus Fonsecaea pedrosoi constitutively produces the pigment melanin, an important virulence factor in fungi. Melanin is incorporated in the cell wall structure and provides chemical and physical protection for the fungus. We evaluated the production of nitric oxide (NO) in macrophages, the oxidative burst and the inducible nitric oxide synthase (i-NOS) activity in interactions between activated murine macrophages and F. pedrosoi. Experiments were carried out with or without tricyclazole (TC) treatment, a selective inhibitor of the dihydroxynaphthalene (DHN)-melanin biosynthesis pathway in F. pedrosoi. The paramagnetisms of melanin and the TC-melanin were analysed by electron spin resonance. The fungal growth responses to H 2O2and to S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP), a nitric oxide donor, were also evaluated. Results. Melanised F. pedrosoi cells were more resistant to both H2O2and NO. Nitrite was not detected in the supernatant of macrophages incubated with melanised fungal cells. However, i-NOS expression was unaffected by the presence of either untreated control F. pedrosoi or TC-treated F. pedrosoi. In addition, the inhibition of the DHN-melanin pathway by TC improved the oxidative burst capability of the macrophages. Conclusion. The NO-trapping ability of F. pedrosoi melanin is an important mechanism to escape the oxidative burst of macrophages. © 2010 Cunha et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Kanashiro A.,University of Sao Paulo | Figueiredo M.J.,University of Sao Paulo | Do Malvar D.C.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Souza G.E.P.,University of Sao Paulo
Brain Research | Year: 2015

Recent literature has revealed that centrally generated prostaglandins participate in the febrile response in zymosan-induced arthritis in rats. However, it is not clear whether other centrally acting pyrogenic mediators such as cytokines, endothelins (ETs), and the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) contribute to the febrile response in this model. In the present study, rats were pretreated with intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injections of soluble TNF receptor I (sTNFRI), recombinant IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), anti-rat IL-6 monoclonal antibody (AbIL-6), α-helical CRF9-41 (a nonselective CRF1/CRF2 receptor antagonist), BQ-123 (an ETA receptor antagonist), BQ-788 (an ETB receptor antagonist), and artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF, control) prior to an intra-articular zymosan (4 mg) injection. Rectal temperatures were measured with a telethermometer. The administration of IL-1ra (200 μg), sTNFRI (500 ng), and AbIL-6 (5 μg) attenuated body temperature elevations after a zymosan injection. The administration of BQ-788 (3 pmol), BQ-123 (3 pmol), and α-helical CRF9-41 (25 μg) did not affect the zymosan-induced febrile response. All the compounds used to pretreat the animals did not significantly alter their basal body temperatures. Together, the results here demonstrate that the febrile response in zymosan-induced arthritis in rats depends on the centrally acting pyrogenic cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6, but does not depend on either CRF or ET-1. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Dias G.M.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Yokoyama L.Q.,University of Sao Paulo
Invertebrate Biology | Year: 2011

The effects of spatial competition among colonial marine organisms are often evident in the contact zones between colonies. These effects are especially pronounced when the interaction results in overgrowth or necrosis of one of the competitors. Ascidians, one of the dominant taxonomic groups in subtidal sessile communities, have specialized morula cells that provide a defense against microbial infections. Injuries resulting from interspecific competitive interactions might also act as a stimulus for this defensive mechanism. Therefore, we expected to see the recruitment of morula cells in tissues near competitor contact zones. To test the hypothesis that spatial competition elicits this immune response, we placed colonies of the ascidian Didemnum perlucidum from southeastern Brazil in four different types of competitive situations: (1) overgrowth of the competitor, (2) stand-off interactions, (3) overgrowth by the competitor, and (4) free of competitors. Our results indicate that competitive interactions increase the population of morula cells in contact zones, as more cells were observed in interactions that resulted in the overgrowth of individuals of D. perlucidum, and fewer cells were observed in colonies that were free of competitors. We identified the defensive function of the morula cells by showing the presence of the enzyme phenoloxidase within its vacuoles. Phenoloxidase is a widespread enzyme among animals and plants, and is frequently used in defense by synthesizing toxic quinones from polyphenol substrates. This is the first study to document the presence of morula cells in didemnid ascidians and the mobilization of these cells by spatial competition by heterospecifics, and one of the first studies to identify phenoloxidase activity in morula cells. © 2011, The American Microscopical Society, Inc.

Da Costa R.C.,University of Brasilia | Santana D.B.,University of Brasilia | Araujo R.M.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte | De Paula J.E.,University of Brasilia | And 4 more authors.
Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2014

Leishmaniasis and fungal infections are significant diseases impacting worldwide public health. Treatments have developed greatly over time, however, there is a necessity to discover less toxic drugs, which have greater efficacy and are more economically accessible. This work conducted a screening of Cerrado species extracts: Connarus suberosus Planch. (Connaraceae), Neea theifera Oerst. (Nyctaginaceae) and Myrcia linearifolia Cambess. (Myrtaceae) against Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis, dermatophytes and yeasts. Leishmanicidal and antifungal tests were conducted using MTT colorimetric assay and CLSI methodology, respectively. Connarus suberosus extracts presented the most promising results against the aforementioned microorganisms, which has not been described in the literature. The root bark EtOAc extract was selected for chemical fractionation resulting in a mixture of rapanone (1) and a previously unreported compound named as suberonone (2); a mixture of β-sitosterol (3) and stigmasterol (4); oleic acid (5); geranilgeraniol (6); and two derivatives obtained from 1 and 2 mixture. The rapanone and suberonone mixture demonstrated a MIC of 15.62 μg/mL against Candida albicans ATCC 10231. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Durigon V.L.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Carvalho D.F.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Antunes M.A.H.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Oliveira P.T.S.,University of Sao Paulo | Fernandes M.M.,Federal University of Piauí
International Journal of Remote Sensing | Year: 2014

Land cover, an important factor for monitoring changes in land use and erosion risk, has been widely monitored and evaluated by vegetation indices. However, a study that associates normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) time series to climate parameters to determine soil cover has yet to be conducted in the Atlantic Rainforest of Brazil, where anthropogenic activities have been carried out for centuries. The objective of this paper is to evaluate soil cover in a Brazilian Atlantic rainforest watershed using NDVI time series from Thematic Mapper (TM) Landsat 5 imagery from 1986 to 2009, and to introduce a new method for calculating the cover management factor (C-factor) of the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) model. Twenty-two TM Landsat 5 images were corrected for atmospheric effects using the 6S model, georeferenced using control points collected in the field and imported to a GIS database. Contour lines and elevation points were extracted from a 1:50,000-scale topographic map and used to construct a digital elevation model that defined watershed boundaries. NDVI and RUSLE C-factor values derived from this model were calculated within watershed limits with 1 km buffers. Rainfall data from a local weather station were used to verify NDVI and C-factor patterns in response to seasonal rainfall variations. Our proposed method produced realistic values for RUSLE C-factor using rescaled NDVIs, which highly correlated with other methods, and were applicable to tropical areas exhibiting high rainfall intensity. C-factor values were used to classify soil cover into different classes, which varied throughout the time-series period, and indicated that values attributed to each land cover cannot be fixed. Depending on seasonal rainfall distribution, low precipitation rates in the rainy season significantly affect the C-factor in the following year. In conclusion, NDVI time series obtained from satellite images, such as from Landsat 5, are useful for estimating the cover management factor and monitoring watershed erosion. These estimates may replace table values developed for specific land covers, thereby avoiding the cumbersome field measurements of these factors. The method proposed is recommended for estimating the RUSLE C-factor in tropical areas with high rainfall intensity. © 2013 © Taylor & Francis.

Onofrio V.C.,Instituto Butantan | Labruna M.B.,University of Sao Paulo | Faccini J.L.H.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Barros-Battesti D.M.,Instituto Butantan
Zootaxa | Year: 2010

The tick Ixodes luciae occurs in many countries within the Neotropical region but only adult ticks have been morphologically described. Larvae and nymphs parasitize marsupials and rodents while adults are common on marsupials. A colony of I. luciae was obtained from females collected on marsupials from the State of Rondônia, Northern Brazil. After being fed on rabbits, the specimens were maintained under controlled conditions of temperature and humidity. Unfed larvae, nymphs, males and females of the first generation were cleaned and prepared for both optical and scanning electron microscopy. Ixodes luciae is closely related to Ixodes loricatus, Ixodes schulzei, and Ixodes amarali, although each species has its own array of distinctive characters. The larva of I. luciae differs from those of both I. schulzei and I. amarali in the length of the capitulum and from I. schulzei in the number of posthalleral setae in the Haller's organ. Nymphs differ from I. amarali, I. loricatus and I. schulzei by the length of the external spur on coxae I, and from I. schulzei and I. amarali in having slender and shorter capitulum and hypostome. Males and females of I. luciae differ from the other three species by the length of the external spur on coxae I and by the scutal punctations, which are much longer and larger, respectively, in I. luciae. However, except for a few features, the chaetotaxy is the same for larvae of the four species, not only on the idiosoma (e.g. scutum with four pairs of setae), palpi and tarsus I, but also the number of porose setae within the capsule of Haller's organ and the prehalleral setae. © 2010 .Magnolia Press.

de Lima S.S.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Leite L.F.C.,EMBRAPA - Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária | de Aquino A.M.,EMBRAPA - Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária | Castro A.A.J.F.,Federal University of Piauí
Revista Arvore | Year: 2010

This work aimed to evaluate litter deposition and quantify contents of N, P, K, Ca and Mg in agroforest systems six (AFS6) and ten (AFS10) years after implantation, in three-year old ecological based systems (ES3), slash-and-burn agriculture (SBA) and native forest (NF), all located in Esperantina, northern region of Piauí, Brazil. Collections were carried out in the wet and dry seasons of 2007. The litter was separated into leaves and branches and weighted to estimate the deposition on the soil. The highest leaf depositions were found in NF (3.8 Mg ha-1), in the dry season, whereas for branches, in the AFS10 (2.2 Mg ha-1), in the wet season. AFS showed the highest nutrient contents in the litter fractions, and, among them the N concentration was higher than the others, in both seasons. The estimate transfer of nutrients by the litter followed the sequence N>Ca>K>P>Mg. The values for litter deposition and contents and input of nutrients in the AFS systems show the contribution of the agroforest management to soil quality and the economic sustainability of the system.

Medici L.O.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Reinert F.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Carvalho D.F.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Kozak M.,Warsaw University of Life Sciences | Azevedo R.A.,University of Sao Paulo
Environmental and Experimental Botany | Year: 2014

Deficit irrigation agriculture is defined as the application of water below crop requirements. Water use efficiency is the main trait used to evaluate the efficiency of agriculture under deficit irrigation, determined as the harvested biomass per applied volume of water. Agriculture under deficit irrigation is based on the widely accepted belief that it saves water and increases water use efficiency, as opposed to agriculture under optimal water availability. Nevertheless, there is considerable literature reporting high crop yielding in response to high water availability without wasting water, because the highest water use efficiency was achieved with a very light decrease in water availability, still inside the field capacity (10-33. kPa of soil water tension). The deficit irrigation concept is well summarized by the slogan "more crop per drop". In this review, we would like to explore another slogan: more drop, more crop. We discuss research carried out which demonstrates that when the criterion to schedule irrigation is the soil water tension - which is the real expression of water availability in soil - the highest water use efficiency is achieved when plants are still well watered, and not when there is expressive water deficit. Therefore, low soil water tension seems to be worthy for agriculture under high water availability, while more severe deficit for agriculture under low water availability. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Netto-Ferreira J.C.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Netto-Ferreira J.C.,Federal University of Bahia | Lopes Da Silva E.S.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | De Lucas N.C.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry | Year: 2011

The steady state photolysis of thioxanthen-9-one-10,10-dioxide (1) in dichloromethane does not result in any product formation. In hydrogen donor solvents, such as 2-propanol, toluene or cyclohexane, the formation of the corresponding pinacol was readily observed. The phosphorescence spectrum of 1 in EPA, at 77 K, reveals a triplet energy of 66.3 kcal mol -1. Laser flash photolysis irradiation of a degassed acetonitrile solution of 1 led to the formation of its triplet excited state (λ max = 375 and 520 nm, τ = 11 μs) that was quenched by oxygen, β-carotene and 1,3-cycloexadiene at a diffusion controlled rate constant. The quenching rate constants for the triplet of 1 with 1,4-cyclohexadiene, methanol, ethanol, 2-propanol, cyclohexane, substituted phenols and amines were determined, ranging from 7.1 × 10 6 (for methanol) to 3.1 × 10 10 L mol -1 s -1 (for triethylamine). From the quenching rate constants observed for the triplet excited state and from the steady state photolysis, it was concluded that the remarkable reactivity of 1 is due to the n,π* character of the carbonyl chromophore. © 2011 Published by Elsevier B.V.

Barros-Battesti D.M.,Instituto Butantan | Landulfo G.A.,Instituto Butantan | Onofrio V.C.,Instituto Butantan | Faccini J.L.H.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | And 4 more authors.
Experimental and Applied Acarology | Year: 2011

Carios mimon is an argasid tick common on Chiroptera, originally described from larvae collected on bats Mimon crenulatum from Bolivia and Eptesicus brasiliensis from Uruguay. Later it was also registered from Argentina and recently included among the Brazilian tick fauna. In Brazil, this species is very aggressive to man, resulting in intense inflammatory response and pain. It is known only by the larval description and its morphology resembles that from other species currently included into the genus Carios, formerly classified into the subgenus Alectorobius, genus Ornithodoros. Here we describe adults and redescribe the larva of C. mimon, based on light and scanning electron microscopy. Remarks about its morphological similarity with other species of this genus are also discussed. Molecular analysis inferred from a portion of the 16S rRNA mitochondrial gene placed C. mimon in a cluster supported by maximal bootstrap value (100%) with other argasid species (mostly bat parasites in the New World), which have been classified into either the genus Ornithodoros or Carios, depending on the Argasidae classification adopted by different authors. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Pernambuco C.S.,Rio de Janeiro State Federal University | Borba-Pinheiro C.J.,Rio de Janeiro State Federal University | Borba-Pinheiro C.J.,Instituto Federal Of Educacao | Vale R.G.D.S.,Rio de Janeiro State Federal University | And 4 more authors.
Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics | Year: 2013

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of an AAG on BMD, osteocalcin and functional autonomy in older women. The sample consisted of eighty-two post-menopausal women with low BMD, randomly divided into two groups: the Aquatic Aerobics Group [AAG; n=42; age: 66.8±4.2years], submitted to two weekly sessions over eight months, and the Control Group (GC; n=42; age: 66.9±3.2years), which did not participate in regular exercise. BMD was measured by Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry [DXA] of the lumbar and femur, and serum osteocalcin was measured using electrochemiluminescence. A functional autonomy assessment protocol (GDLAM, 2004) was also applied. Statistical analyses used were repeated measures ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc tests. The results showed a significant improvement in tests following the GDLAM protocol: 10 meters walk (10mw) - p=0.003; rising from a ventral decubitus position (RVDP) - Δ%=0.78, p<0.001; rising from a chair and moving around the house (RCMH) - p<0.001 and autonomy index (AI) - p=0.007, with more favorable results observed in the AAG when compared to the CG. The AAG achieved the best results for BMD; however, no inter or intragroup statistical differences were recorded for total femur - p=0.975 and lumbar L2-L4 p=0.597. For serum osteocalcin, intra and intergroup statistical differences of p=0.042 and p=0.027 were observed in the AAG, respectively. This demonstrates that an eight-month aquatic aerobic exercise program can improve functional autonomy and osteocalcin levels, although training did not improve lumbar and total femur BMD in the older women. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Dilkin P.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Direito G.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Simas M.M.S.,University of Sao Paulo | Mallmann C.A.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Correa B.,University of Sao Paulo
Chemico-Biological Interactions | Year: 2010

Toxicokinetics and the toxicological effects of culture material containing fumonisin B1 (FB1) were studied in male weaned piglets by clinical, pathological, biochemical and sphingolipid analyses. The animals received a single oral dose of 5mgFB1/kg of body weight, obtained from Fusarium verticillioides culture material. FB1 was detected by HPLC in plasma collected at 1-h intervals up to 6h and at 12-h intervals up to 96h. FB1 eliminated in feces and urine was quantified over a 96-h period and in liver samples collected 96h post-intoxication. Blood samples were obtained at the beginning and end of the experiment to determine serum enzyme activity, total bilirubin, cholesterol, sphinganine (Sa), sphingosine (So) and the Sa/So ratio. FB1 was detected in plasma between 30min and 36h after administration. The highest concentration of FB1 was observed after 2h, with a mean concentration of 282μg/ml. Only 0.93% of the total FB1 was detected in urine between 75min and 41h after administration, the highest mean concentration (561μg/ml) was observed during the interval after 8 at 24h. Approximately 76.5% of FB1 was detected in feces eliminated between 8 and 84h after administration, with the highest levels observed between 8 and 24h. Considering the biochemical parameters, a significant increase only occurred in cholesterol, alkaline phosphatase and aspartate aminotransferase activities. In plasma and urine, the highest Sa and Sa/So ratios were obtained at 12 and 48h, respectively. © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Monteiro C.C.,University of Sao Paulo | Carvalho R.F.,University of Sao Paulo | Gratao P.L.,University of Sao Paulo | Carvalho G.,University of Sao Paulo | And 4 more authors.
Environmental and Experimental Botany | Year: 2011

In order to further address the known interaction between ethylene and components of the oxidative system, we have used the ethylene-insensitive Never ripe (Nr) tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) mutant, which blocks ethylene responses. The mutant was compared to the control Micro-Tom (MT) cultivar subjected to two stressful situations: 100mM NaCl and 0.5mM CdCl2. Leaf chlorophyll, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme activities in roots, leaves and fruits, and Na and Cd accumulation in tissues were determined. Although we verified a similar growth pattern and Na and Cd accumulation for MT and Nr, the mutant exhibited reduced leaf chlorophyll degradation following stress. In roots and leaves, the patterns of catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), guaiacol peroxidase (GPOX), superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzyme activity as well as malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production under the stressful conditions tested were very similar between MT and Nr mutant. However, Nr fruits showed increased H2O2 production, reduced and enhanced APX activity in NaCl and CdCl2, respectively, and enhanced GPOX in NaCl. Moreover, through non-denaturing PAGE, a similar reduction of SOD I band intensity in both, control MT and Nr mutant, treated with NaCl was observed. In leaves and fruits, a similar SOD activity pattern was observed for all periods, genotypes and treatments. Overall the results indicate that the ethylene signaling associated with NR receptor can modulate the biochemical pathways of oxidative stress in a tissue dependent manner, and that this signaling may be different following Na and Cd exposure. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Da Silva G.N.S.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Da Silva G.N.S.,University of Sao Paulo | Maria N.R.G.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Schuck D.C.,University of Sao Paulo | And 7 more authors.
Malaria Journal | Year: 2013

Background: The discovery and development of anti-malarial compounds of plant origin and semisynthetic derivatives thereof, such as quinine (QN) and chloroquine (CQ), has highlighted the importance of these compounds in the treatment of malaria. Ursolic acid analogues bearing an acetyl group at C-3 have demonstrated significant anti-malarial activity. With this in mind, two new series of betulinic acid (BA) and ursolic acid (UA) derivatives with ester groups at C-3 were synthesized in an attempt to improve anti-malarial activity, reduce cytotoxicity, and search for new targets. In vitro activity against CQ-sensitive Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 and an evaluation of cytotoxicity in a mammalian cell line (HEK293T) are reported. Furthermore, two possible mechanisms of action of anti-malarial compounds have been evaluated: effects on mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and inhibition of β-haematin formation. Results: Among the 18 derivatives synthesized, those having shorter side chains were most effective against CQ-sensitive P. falciparum 3D7, and were non-cytotoxic. These derivatives were three to five times more active than BA and UA. A DiOC§ssub§6§esub§(3) ΔΨm assay showed that mitochondria are not involved in their mechanism of action. Inhibition of β-haematin formation by the active derivatives was weaker than with CQ. Compounds of the BA series were generally more active against P. falciparum 3D7 than those of the UA series. Conclusions: Three new anti-malarial prototypes were obtained from natural sources through an easy and relatively inexpensive synthesis. They represent an alternative for new lead compounds for anti-malarial chemotherapy. © 2013 Da Silva et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Pereira M.G.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Silva A.N.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Paula R.R.,University of Sao Paulo | Menezes L.F.T.,Federal University of Espirito Santo
Ciencia Florestal | Year: 2012

Restinga (sandbank) areas are fragile environments, which have been subjected to anthropogenic pressures since the country colonization. So that mitigate actions can be taken, it must be developed studies to better understand the ecological processes in these environments. Thus, this study aims to quantify litter and nutrients devolution and litter decomposition in a periodically flooded forest in 'Restinga da Marambaia', Rio de Janeiro. In the study area 10 conic collectors and 30 litter bags were installed. The annual litter devolution was 7.64 Mg.ha -1, and September was the highest contribution month. Nitrogen was the element returned to the soil to a higher amount (71.9 kg ha -1 yr -1), followed by potassium (41.1 kg ha -1 yr -1). Litter decomposition rate 0.0015 g g -1 day -1 and the half-life were 462 days. Potassium was the element that showed the highest losses in comparison to the others. Cellulose appeared as a major participant in the structure of leaf litter, followed by lignin, the latter being associated with the leathery texture of the leaves in this formation.

Dias D.,Instituto Oswaldo Cruz | Esberard C.E.L.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Moratelli R.,Campus Fiocruz da Mata Atlantica
Check List | Year: 2016

Lonchophylla peracchii was recently described from Rio de Janeiro Atlantic Forest samples previously assigned to either L. bokermanni Sazima, Vizotto & Taddei, 1978 or L. mordax Thomas, 1903. The species is currently restricted to the Atlantic Forest of Southeastern Brazil. Based on museum specimens, we extend the species distribution to the Atlantic Forest of Northeastern Brazil. The specimens reported here were collected in Ilhéus, Bahia state, representing a range extension of ca. 500 km northward. © 2016 Check List and Authors.

Ravacci G.R.,University of Sao Paulo | Brentani M.M.,University of Sao Paulo | Tortelli T.,University of Sao Paulo | Torrinhas R.S.M.M.,University of Sao Paulo | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry | Year: 2013

In HER-2-overexpressing breast cells, HER-2 receptors exist on the cell surface as monomers, homodimers and heterodimers. For signal activation and transduction to occur, HER-2 must be localized to lipid rafts. Therefore, we hypothesized that the amount of lipid rafts on the cell membrane would be a factor in HER-2 signaling. To test this, we used HB4a (an untransformed human mammary epithelial cell line) and HB4aC5.2 cells. HB4aC5.2 cells are HB4a derivatives that have been transfected with five copies of pJ5E.c-ErbB-2 and express approximately 900 times more HER-2 than HB4a cells. In these cells, HER-2 overexpression was accompanied by increased lipid rafts in cell membranes, a hyperactivation of downstream Akt and ERK1/2 proteins, and an increased rate of cell growth compared to HB4a. In addition, HER-2 overexpression was associated with an increased activation of FASN, a key enzyme involved in cellular lipogenesis. Its final product, palmitate, is frequently used to synthesize lipid rafts. We further hypothesized that treatment with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an omega-3 fatty acid, would disrupt the lipid rafts and lead to a growth arrest. In HB4aC5.2 cells, but not HB4a cells, we found that DHA treatment disrupted lipid raft; inhibited HER-2 signaling by decreasing activation of Akt, ERK1/2 and FASN proteins; and induced apoptosis. Although little is known about lipid rafts, our data support the idea that disturbances in these microdomains induced by DHA may represent a useful tool for controlling the signaling initiated by HER-2 receptors and its therapeutic potential in the treatment of HER-2 positive breast cancer. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

Nieri-Bastos F.A.,University of Sao Paulo | Lopes M.G.,University of Sao Paulo | Cancado P.H.D.,Embrapa Gado de Corte | Rossa G.A.R.,University of Sao Paulo | And 3 more authors.
Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz | Year: 2014

Adult ticks of the species Amblyomma parvum were collected from the vegetation in the Pantanal biome (state of Mato Grosso do Sul) and from horses in the Cerrado biome (state of Piauí) in Brazil. The ticks were individually tested for rickettsial infection via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting three rickettsial genes, gltA, ompA and ompB. Overall, 63.5% (40/63) and 66.7% (2/3) of A. parvum ticks from Pantanal and Cerrado, respectively, contained rickettsial DNA, which were all confirmed by DNA sequencing to be 100% identical to the corresponding fragments of the gltA, ompA and ompB genes of Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae. This report is the first to describe Ca. R. andeanae in Brazil.

Debiasi P.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Hainosz F.,Federal University of Paraná | Mitishita E.A.,Federal University of Paraná
Boletim de Ciencias Geodesicas | Year: 2012

Knowledge of the internal camera geometry is an important task to perform photogrammetric works. However, IOPs from camera calibration using dataset with the same techniques and environmental conditions of the aerial survey is a prerequisite to produce photogrammetric mapping using direct georeferencing technique. In direct georeferencing, the exterior orientation parameters are determined based on GPS and INS observations. The use of these parameters, in the calibration process with additional ones, reduces the correlations between interior and exterior orientation parameters. This paper investigates the use of camera position and different configurations of vertical control points in the on-the-job calibration of digital camera Kodak DSC Pro SLR/c. The advantages of using cross strips to perform on-the job calibration were analyzed by statistical correlations between interior and exterior orientation parameters. Finally, the vertical and horizontal accuracies from the calibration experiments, with different configurations of vertical control points and flights strips were compared using the analysis of discrepancies in the check points.

Jacques P.D.,CPRM | Jacques P.D.,University of Sao Paulo | Machado R.,University of Sao Paulo | Nummer A.R.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro
Pesquisas em Geociencias | Year: 2010

This paper presents the study of structural lineaments in part of the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. The study area comprises Paleoproterozoic and Neoproterozoic rocks, as well as different stratigraphic units of the Paraná Basin (Paleozoic and Mesozoic). The lineaments were interpreted from the digital analysis of LANDSAT satellite images and shaded relief images generated from the SRTM project, with the use of geoprocessing technologies. The data obtained from the LANDSAT and SRTM project were effective in the identification of brittle lineaments for the scales 1:100,000 and 1:500,000. The application of this methodology shows that the trends of these structural lineaments, grouped in domain lithologies, depend on the kind of remote sensor images. The results of rose diagrams obtained from the images of the Project SRTM do not follow the same pattern according to the scale adopted. For the final analysis, the two sets of obtained lineaments (LANDSAT and SRTM) were merged. The main patterns of orientations observed are distributed in three main systems: NW-SE, NS ± 5 and NE-SW. The lineament analysis according the lithologic domains shows that main direction do not vary, taking into account different scale products. An exception is the Serra Geral Formation, in the 1:100,000 scale, that highlights the NE-SW direction. The analysis of lineaments on the 1:500,000 scale, for the area corresponding to the Catarinense Shield, shows preferential NS ± 5° directions. The Paleozoic and Mesozoic structures are preferentially oriented in NW-SE direction and secondary NS ± 5° direction. In the region of the Lages Dome, a few lineaments were identified on the lithologic sedimentary units of Itararé and Guatá groups. In general, the intensity and density of the lineaments on the 1:100,000 scale are present in lithologic groups. This demonstrates that, for the identification of shallow structures, this scale is more appropriate.

Paula R.R.,University of Sao Paulo | Pereira M.G.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Machado D.L.,São Paulo State University
Ciencia Florestal | Year: 2013

This study aimed to evaluate and characterize the chemical properties of soil organic matter under two periodically flooded forest formations on the island of Marambaia, Rio de Janeiro. These formations differ on the degree of soil water saturation, caused by the influence of water table, and in the (F1) formation presents the water table nearer the surface compared to the (F2) formation. Samples were collected in layers from 0.00 to 0.05, 0.05-0.10 and 0.10-0.20 m. The soil properties evaluated were: pH, H+ + Al+3, Ca+2, Mg+2, Na+, K+, P, N, total organic carbon (TOC) and base saturation (V%), humin carbon fraction (C-HUM), carbon of humic acid fraction (HAF-C) and fulvic acid fraction carbon (FAF-C). Statistically higher pH values were observed for F1. In F2 there are higher values of Mg+2, P, N and V% value. Correlation was found between the concentrations of Mg+2, N, humic acid and fulvic acid with water table in F1, and water table in F2 with Na+ and K+. Fraction C-HUM was more representative of the total organic carbon, followed by C-HAF and C-FAF. The TOC levels were higher in F1. The C / N ratio was lower in F2, with values ranging between 9 and 12, and F1 were found higher values of this relationship, ranging from 9 to 15. Among the pathways of formation of organic soils in both areas it appears that the major route for organic matter accumulation is the inheritance route.

de Araujo T.P.,University of Sao Paulo | de Mello F.M.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro
Geociencias | Year: 2010

The use of images from digital remote sensing (satellites) has shown great utility in environmental geological surveys and researches. The advantage of employing such remote sensing technique is due to its wider coverage area and to its high spatial resolution quality, allowing a range of possibilities by means of operations among electromagnetic bands. In this study, it is presented the Band Ratios operation, which is composed of various mathematical operations in order to achieve subtle differences in the spectral behavior of different objects, which allows discriminating multiple targets in a single image. So, observing the spectral behavior of the targets for Band Ratios application, the bands might be selected aiming their maximum and minimum values of reflectance, in order to express the spectral curve gradients, providing the highlight of the objects. The results indicate that the operation of Band Ratios proved to be very efficient for geoenvironmental studies as characterization, intervention and/or environmental recovery of degraded areas, due to its greater information of certain objects through the individualization of them.

Werneck C.G.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Breda F.A.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Zonta E.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Lima E.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | And 3 more authors.
Pesquisa Agropecuaria Brasileira | Year: 2012

The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of zeolite addition to granules of urea and of its particles sizes on the loss of NH3 by volatilization and on the N uptake by sorghum plants. Formulations of urea with addition of zeolites and organic binder, with three-size particles (lower than 2 mm, 2-4 mm, and greater than 4 mm), and ammonium sulfate and urea-NBPT were applied to soil surface on trays in a greenhouse. Natural zeolites addition onto urea granule surface or to granule's composition decreased NH3-N volatilization by 20% and increased the amount of N absorbed by plants. Nitrogen accumulation in the sorghum plants was inversely proportional to N losses by volatilization.

Rossi C.Q.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Pereira M.G.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Giacomo S.G.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Betta M.,Graduando em Agronomia da FESURV | Polidoro J.C.,Rua Jardim Botanico
Revista Ciencia Agronomica | Year: 2012

The key role of organic matter (OM) in the physical, chemical and biological soil features justifies the growing interest in identifying use and management systems which contribute to increase the stock of carbon (StC) in tropical soils. The aim of this study was to evaluate the stock of carbon in the particulate (>53 !m) and mineral-associated soil organic matter fractions (<53 mm). Soil samples from a Rhodic Udox collected in Montividiu, Goiás State (Brazil), were taken at five depths in the following agricultural systems: a) brachiaria cultivated in the soybean fallow period (SB), b) sorghum cultivated in the soybean fallow period (SS) and Cerrado as reference area. The levels of total organic carbon (TOC), granulometric fractioning of soil organic matter and the stock of carbon in each of the fractions were quantified. There were significant differences in the TOC levels at all depths. The highest values were found in the StC of SB system, at all depths. The fraction of particulate organic matter (POM) was an effective parameter to demonstrate differences between management systems, achieving the highest levels in the SB system due to the higher biomass input in this system, however for the mineral-associated fraction, the highest levels were recorded in the reference area, followed by the SS system.

Valladares G.S.,Federal University of Piauí | Gomes A.D.S.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Torresan F.E.,Embrapa Monitoramento por Satelite | Rodrigues C.A.G.,Embrapa Monitoramento por Satelite | Grego C.R.,Embrapa Monitoramento por Satelite
Pesquisa Agropecuaria Brasileira | Year: 2012

The objective of this work was to evaluate the construction of an erosion susceptibility map for a rural area of the municipality of Guararapes, SP, Brazil, using a multicriteria additive model. Digital maps on the themes relief (declivity and length of the slopes), pedology (obtained at the field), land use and land cover of the region, and interpretation of the digital elevation model were used. The digital maps were treated in a geographic information system environment using the additive multicriteria method and were validated by the universal soil loss equation (USLE) model. Five erosion susceptibility classes were generated: low, moderate, high, very high, and extremely high. The risk map obtained by additive multicriteria had good correspondence with the USLE model. The erosion susceptibility map can be used for the agricultural and environmental planning of the rural area of the municipality of Guararapes.

de Oliveira A.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Fonseca A.H.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | da Costa C.M.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Mantovani E.,University of Sao Paulo | Yoshinari N.H.,University of Sao Paulo
Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz | Year: 2010

The aim of the present paper was to evaluate cyst formation and growth parameters of Borrelia garinii in a range of media differing in formulation and cost. A qualitative assessment of morphology and motility of B. garinii was conducted. All media were prepared aseptically and used in test tubes or Petri dishes. For each medium, the initial spirochete concentration was standardized to 103 spirochets/mL. The following culture media were suitable to grow B. garinii: Barbour-Stoenner-Kelly, brain heart infusion and PMR. Growth was minimal at six weeks post-inoculation and maximum spirochete density was observed between 9-12 weeks. Often, the cultures developed cysts of different sizes, isolated or in groups, with a spiraled portion of variable sizes, mainly in unfavorable culture media. Brazilian Lyme disease-like illness, also known as Baggio-Yoshinari syndrome (BYS), is a new and interesting emerging tick-borne disease, caused by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato spirochetes, only during its cystic forms. It has been assumed that the peculiar clinical and laboratory features of BYS are consequential to the absence of a human sucker Ixodes ricinus complex tick at risk areas in Brazil, supporting the concept that the borrelia phenotypic expression pattern is modified as it is transmitted through the host.

Pistor V.,University of Caxias do Sul | Scuracchio C.H.,Federal University of ABC | Oliveira P.J.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Fiorio R.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Zattera A.J.,University of Caxias do Sul
Polymer Engineering and Science | Year: 2011

Vulcanized rubbers are materials commonly used in various industrial applications. In this study, scraps of ethylene-propylene-diene rubber (EPDM-r) from the automotive industry were submitted to different microwave exposure times (2-5 min). Samples of recycled rubber with (as received) and without (after extraction) paraffinic oil were analyzed. The devulcanized EPDM-r was characterized by gel content, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The gel content indicated that the presence of paraffin oil in EPDM-r affects the devulcanization process. The DSC analysis showed significant changes in the glass transition temperature (Tg). The Tg values for EPDM-r decreased with an increase in the microwave exposure time. Furthermore, the presence of a thermal phenomenon characteristic of uncured material was observed. Sample degradation was studied through TGA, and the values for the activation energy (E a) of the degradation process were determined using the Flynn-Wall-Ozawa method. For conversions up to 0.10, the E a values of the EPDM-r samples without oil decreased with an increase in the microwave exposure time. POLYM. ENG. SCI., 2011. © 2010 Society of Plastics Engineers.

PubMed | Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro, Nucleo de Informacao and Escola Nacional de Saude Publica
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Ciencia & saude coletiva | Year: 2016

The article analyzes the social protection policy for people with disabilities in Brazil. It describes the patterns of demand and eligibility for Continued Benefit of Social Assistance (Benefcio de Prestao Continuada - BPC) in the 1996-2014 period. The article argues that BPC is a direct result of the social pact achieved by the Brazilian Federal Constitution of 1988. BPC is a social assistance benefit consisting in an unconditional and monthly transference of the equivalent of a minimum wage, to poor people with deficiency and elders with more than 65 years. Disabled person eligibility depends on means-test, and social and medical evaluation by public bureaucracy. The research strategy was based on time series, and cross-sectional data collection and analysis. Dummy qualitative variables were also used to describe the pattern of demand and eligibility. The article demonstrates that BPC has provided income to disabled and elder people. However, systematic barriers were identified to disabled peoples access to BPC. The work suggests that the pattern of refusal could be associated to a means testing application by street-level-bureaucracy. In this sense, the work draws attention to the necessary revision of street-level-bureaucracy tools and procedures to increase BPC positive discrimination.

PubMed | Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro and University of Sao Paulo
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience | Year: 2016

The control of the excitability in magnocellular neurosecretory cells (MNCs) of the supraoptic nucleus has been attributed mainly to synaptic inputs from circunventricular organs. However, nitric oxide (NO), a gaseous messenger produced in this nucleus during isotonic and short-term hypertonic conditions, is an example of a modulator that can act directly on MNCs to modulate their firing rate. NO inhibits the electrical excitability of MNCs, leading to a decrease in the release of vasopressin and oxytocin. Although the effects of NO on MNCs are well established, the mechanism by which this gas produces its effect is, so far, unknown. Because NO acts independently of synaptic inputs, we hypothesized that ion channels present in MNCs are the targets of NO. To investigate this hypothesis, we used the patch-clamp technique in vitro and in situ to measure currents carried by hyperpolarization-activated and nucleotide-gated cation (HCN) channels and establish their role in determining the electrical excitability of MNCs in rats. Our results show that blockade of HCN channels by ZD7288 decreases MNC firing rate with significant consequences on the release of OT and VP, measured by radioimmunoassay. NO induced a significant reduction in HCN currents by binding to cysteine residues and forming S-nitrosothiol complexes. These findings shed new light on the mechanisms that control the electrical excitability of MNCs via the nitrergic system and strengthen the importance of HCN channels in the control of hydroelectrolyte homeostasis.Cells in our organism live in a liquid environment whose composition and osmolality are maintained within tight limits. Magnocellular neurons (MNCs) of the supra optic nucleus can sense osmolality and control the synthesis and secretion of vasopressin (VP) and oxytocin (OT) by the neurohypophysis. OT and VP act on the kidneys controlling the excretion of water and sodium to maintain homeostasis. Here we combined electrophysiology, molecular biology, and radioimmunoassay to show that the electrical activity of MNCs can be controlled by nitric oxide (NO), a gaseous messenger. NO reacts with cysteine residues (S-nitrosylation) on hyperpolarization-activated and nucleotide-gated cation channels decreasing the firing rate of MNCs and the consequent secretion of VP and OT.

PubMed | Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro and University of Sao Paulo
Type: | Journal: Physiology & behavior | Year: 2016

Dogs are highly sensitive to sound stimuli, especially fireworks, firearms, and thunder, and therefore these sounds are used as models of stress reactivity in dogs. Companion and laboratory dogs may respond differently to stressful stimuli, due to differences in management and their relationship with humans. Therefore, the reactivity of beagle dogs (laboratory) and companion dogs to an acute acoustic stress model was studied by analysing the heart rate variability (HRV; cardiac interval values), serum cortisol levels and various behavioural parameters. Eight beagles and six privately owned dogs with no history of phobia to thunder were used. The sound stimulus consisted of a standardized recording of thunder for 2.5min with a maximum intensity of 103-104dB. To evaluate the HRV, cardiac intervals were recorded using a frequency meter (Polar RS800CX model), and later the data were analysed using CardioSeries 2.4.1 software. In both laboratory and companion dogs, thunder promoted an increase in the power of the LF band of the cardiac interval spectrum, in the LF/HF ratio and in the HR, and a decrease in the power of the HF band of the cardiac interval spectrum. Companion dogs showed higher cortisol levels, than beagles, independently of the time point studied and a significant increase in the cortisol levels 15min after acoustic stress, while beagles did not show any alterations in their cortisol levels in response to the sound. On the other hand, beagles showed higher scores in the trembling, hiding, vigilance, running, salivation, bolting and startle parameters than companion dogs. Our results showed that independently of the sound stimulus, companion dogs had higher cortisol levels than laboratory dogs. Furthermore, the sound stimulus induced a marked autonomic imbalance towards sympathetic predominance in both laboratory and companion dogs. However a significant increase in the cortisol was observed only in companion dogs. On the other hand, in general the behavioural response was more pronounced in laboratory dogs than in companion dogs.

PubMed | Fasteris SA, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro, Federal University of Paraná and 2 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2016

Sugarcane is an important tropical crop mainly cultivated to produce ethanol and sugar. Crop productivity is negatively affected by Acidovorax avenae subsp avenae (Aaa), which causes the red stripe disease. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms triggered in response to the infection. We have investigated the molecular mechanism activated in sugarcane using a RNA-seq approach. We have produced a de novo transcriptome assembly (TR7) from sugarcane RNA-seq libraries submitted to drought and infection with Aaa. Together, these libraries present 247 million of raw reads and resulted in 168,767 reference transcripts. Mapping in TR7 of reads obtained from infected libraries, revealed 798 differentially expressed transcripts, of which 723 were annotated, corresponding to 467 genes. GO and KEGG enrichment analysis showed that several metabolic pathways, such as code for proteins response to stress, metabolism of carbohydrates, processes of transcription and translation of proteins, amino acid metabolism and biosynthesis of secondary metabolites were significantly regulated in sugarcane. Differential analysis revealed that genes in the biosynthetic pathways of ET and JA PRRs, oxidative burst genes, NBS-LRR genes, cell wall fortification genes, SAR induced genes and pathogenesis-related genes (PR) were upregulated. In addition, 20 genes were validated by RT-qPCR. Together, these data contribute to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms triggered by the Aaa in sugarcane and opens the opportunity for the development of molecular markers associated with disease tolerance in breeding programs.

PubMed | Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro and University of Sao Paulo
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's archives of pharmacology | Year: 2016

Recent studies have demonstrated that the central nervous system controls inflammatory responses by activating complex efferent neuroimmune pathways. The present study was designed to evaluate the role that central gamma-aminobutyric acid type B (GABA-B) receptor plays in neutrophil migration in a murine model of zymosan-induced arthritis by using different pharmacological tools. We observed that intrathecal administration of baclofen, a selective GABA-B agonist, exacerbated the inflammatory response in the knee after zymosan administration characterized by an increase in the neutrophil recruitment and knee joint edema, whereas saclofen, a GABA-B antagonist, exerted the opposite effect. Intrathecal pretreatment of the animals with SB203580 (an inhibitor of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase) blocked the pro-inflammatory effect of baclofen. On the other hand, systemic administration of guanethidine, a sympatholytic drug that inhibits catecholamine release, and nadolol, a beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist, reversed the effect of saclofen. Moreover, saclofen suppressed the release of the pro-inflammatory cytokines into the knee joint (ELISA) and pain-related behaviors (open field test). Since the anti-inflammatory effect of saclofen depends on the sympathetic nervous system integrity, we observed that isoproterenol, a beta-adrenergic receptor agonist, mimics the central GABA-B blockade decreasing knee joint neutrophil recruitment. Together, these results demonstrate that the pharmacological manipulation of spinal GABAergic transmission aids control of neutrophil migration to the inflamed joint by modulating the activation of the knee joint-innervating sympathetic terminal fibers through a mechanism dependent on peripheral beta-adrenergic receptors and central components, such as p38 MAPK.

PubMed | Federal Foundation University of Rio Grande, Federal University of Pelotas, Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro and Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Revista brasileira de parasitologia veterinaria = Brazilian journal of veterinary parasitology : Orgao Oficial do Colegio Brasileiro de Parasitologia Veterinaria | Year: 2015

This study has evaluated the parasitic fauna of 79 pearl cichlids (Geophagus brasiliensis) from the estuary of Patos Lagoon (31 57 S and 52 06 W), Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, during the months of May and June in 2011 and 2012. All the hosts analyzed were infected with at least one species of parasite. A total of eleven metazoa were identified in 459 specimens collected. The trematode Austrodiplostomum compactum (34.2%) and ergasilids Ergasilus lizae (32.9%) and Gauchergasilus lizae (32.9%) were the most prevalent species. The trematodes Thometrema overstreeti and Posthodiplostomum sp. had significantly higher prevalence in fish longer than 20 cm. The sex of the host had no effect on parasite prevalence and abundance. Pearl cichlids are registered as a new host for the trematodes Lobatostoma sp., Homalometron pseudopallidum and Thometrema overstreeti, for the ergasilids Ergasilus lizae and Gauchergasilus euripedesi and for the argulid Argulus spinolosus. The crustacean E. lizae is recorded in Rio Grande do Sul for the first time.

PubMed | Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro, University of Montréal, University of Sao Paulo and Southern Illinois University Carbondale
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of molecular neuroscience : MN | Year: 2016

The neural system is one of the earliest systems to develop and the last to be fully developed after birth. This study presents a detailed description of organogenesis of the central nervous system (CNS) at equine embryonic/fetal development between 19 and 115days of pregnancy. The expression of two important biomarkers in the main structure of the nervous system responsible for neurogenesis in the adult individual, and in the choroid plexus, was demonstrated by Nestin and glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP) co-labeling. In the 29th day of pregnancy in the undifferentiated lateral ventricle wall, the presence of many cells expressing Nestin and few expressing GFAP was observed. After the differentiation of the lateral ventricle wall zones at 60days of pregnancy, the subventricular zone, which initially had greater number of Nestin

PubMed | Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro and University of Sao Paulo
Type: | Journal: Neuroscience | Year: 2016

The angiotensin II (ANGII) receptor AT1 plays an important role in the control of hydromineral balance, mediating the dipsogenic and natriorexigenic effects and neuroendocrine responses of ANGII. While estradiol (E2) is known to modulate several actions of ANGII in the brain, the molecular and cellular mechanisms of the interaction between E2 and ANGII and its physiological role in the control of body fluids remain unclear. We investigated the influence of E2 (40 g/kg) pretreatment and extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) cell signaling on the dipsogenic and natriorexigenic effects, as well as the neuroendocrine responses to angiotensinergic central stimulation in ovariectomized rats (OVX). We showed that the inhibitory effect of E2 on ANGII-induced water and sodium intake requires the ERK1/2 and JNK signaling pathways. On the other hand, E2 pretreatment prevents the ANGII-induced phosphorylation of ERK and JNK in the lamina terminalis. E2 therapy decreased oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (AVP) secretion and decreased ERK1/2 phosphorylation in the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei (SON and PVN, respectively). We found that the AVP secretion induced by ANGII required ERK1/2 signaling, but OT secretion did not involve ERK1/2 signaling. Taken together, these results demonstrate that E2 modulates ANGII-induced water and sodium intake and AVP secretion by affecting the ERK1/2 and JNK pathways in the lamina terminalis and ERK1/2 signaling in the hypothalamic nuclei (PVN and SON) in OVX rats.

PubMed | Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro, Federal University of Mato Grosso and University of Sao Paulo
Type: | Journal: Natural product research | Year: 2016

The study about Eugenia dysenterica led to the isolation of 3-acetyl-urs-12-en-28-oic (1), 3-acetyl-olean-12-en-28-oic acid (2) and isoquercetin (3) from the stem barks, and of 3-O--glucopyranosyl--sitosterol (4), methyl 3-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzoate (5), methyl 4-hydroxyphenyl propionate (6), E-methyl-4-hydroxycinnamate (7), quercetin-3-O-(6-O-galloyl)--d-glucopyranoside (8) and quercetin-3-O--d-galactopyranoside (9) from the leaves. The structures 1-9 were set through the analysis of their NMR spectroscopic data. Compounds 2, 3 and 5-8 were reported for the first time in the Eugenia genus. Compound 8 reduced cell viability and presented IC

PubMed | Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro and University of Sao Paulo
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of food science | Year: 2016

Fish and fish products are important from a nutritional point of view due to the presence of high biological value proteins and the high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially those of the n-3 series, and above all eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. However, these important food products also contain significant amounts of cholesterol. Although cholesterol participates in essential functions in the human body, it is unstable, especially in the presence of light, oxygen, radiation, and high temperatures that can cause the formation of cholesterol oxidation products or cholesterol oxides, which are prejudicial to human health. Fish processing involves high and low temperatures, as well as other methods for microbiological control, which increases shelf life and consequently added value; however, such processes favor the formation of cholesterol oxidation products. This review brings together data on the formation of cholesterol oxides during the preparation and processing of fish into food products which are recognized and recommended for their nutritional properties.

PubMed | Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro, Free University of Colombia and University of Sao Paulo
Type: | Journal: Frontiers in psychiatry | Year: 2015

Empirical research studies have highlighted the need to investigate whether video game can be useful as a tool within a neuropsychological rehabilitation program for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) patients. However, little is known about the possible gains that this kind of video game-based interventions can produce and even if these gains can be transferred to real life abilities. The present paper aims to uncover key information related to the use of video game in ADHD neuropsychological rehabilitation/intervention by focusing on its gains and its capability to transfer/generalize these gains to real life situation via a systematic review of the empirical literature. The PRISMA guidelines were adopted. Internet-based bibliographic searches were conducted via seven major electronic databases (i.e., PsycARTICLES, PsycINFO, Web of Science, Core Collection BIOSIS Citation Index, MEDLINE, SciELO Citation Index, and PubMed) to access studies examining the association between video game interventions in ADHD patients and behavioral and cognitive outcomes. A total of 14 empirical studies meeting the inclusion criteria were identified. The studies reported the attention, working memory, and the behavioral aspects as the main target of the intervention. Cognitive and behavioral gains were reported after the video game training (VGT). However, many bias related to the choice of outcome instruments, sampling and blindness of assessors, weaken the results power. Additional researches are important to clarify the effects and stability of the VGT programs, and an important effort should be made to construct better methods to assess improvements on everyday cognitive abilities and real world functioning.

PubMed | Federal University of Goais, Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro, Federal University of Santa Catarina and Federal University of Bahia
Type: | Journal: Life sciences | Year: 2015

Piperazinic derivatives have therapeutic potential by acting as analgesic, antidepressant-like, anticonvulsant and antipsychotic in preclinical studies. In order to develop new drugs to treat mental disorders, we designed and synthesized the 4-(1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-4-ylmethyl)-piperazine-1-carboxylic acid ethyl ester (PPMP), a new piperazine derivative with putative activities on central nervous system that seems to involve serotonergic system.In order to investigate the antidepressant-like activity of PPMP, mice were treated acutely and tested in the forced swimming test (FST) and tail suspension test. Pretreatment with the 5-HT synthesis inhibitor p-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA, 100 mg/kg, i.p., 4 days), and the non-selective blocker of catecholamine synthesis -methyl para-tyrosine (AMPT, 100 mg/kg, i.p.) were used to assay the involvement of serotonergic and catecholaminergic systems. Ex vivo monoamine oxidase (MAO) enzymatic assay and quantification of hippocampal level of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were carried out.PPMP reduced the immobility time in both tests. PCPA or AMPT (100 mg/kg, i.p.) pretreatment blocked the effects of PPMP, thereby suggesting the involvement of serotonergic and catecholaminergic systems in the antidepressant-like effect of PPMP. PPMP did not inhibit the activity of MAO. Moreover, after 14 days of treatment, PPMP 15 mg/kg/day induced antidepressant-like effect and increased hippocampal level of BDNF. None of the treatments in this study altered the locomotor activity in the open field test.In conclusion, PPMP demonstrates antidepressant-like effect that involve both serotonergic and catecholaminergic systems without inhibition of MAO activity. PPMP administration increased the hippocampal levels of BDNF.

PubMed | Federal University of Paraná, University of Lyon and Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro
Type: | Journal: Chemico-biological interactions | Year: 2016

Toxicity of the SYD-1 mesoionic compound (3-[4-chloro-3-nitrophenyl]-1,2,3-oxadiazolium-5-olate) was evaluated on human liver cancer cells (HepG2) grown in either high glucose (HG) or galactose (GAL) medium, and also on suspended cells kept in HG medium. SYD-1 was able to decrease the viability of cultured HepG2 cells in a dose-dependent manner, as assessed by MTT, LDH release and dye with crystal violet assays, but no effect was observed on suspended cells after 1-40min of treatment. Respiration analysis was performed after 2min (suspended cells) or 24h (cultured cells) of treatment: no change was observed in suspended cells, whereas SYD-1 inhibited as well basal, leak and uncoupled states of the respiration in cultured cells with HG medium. These inhibitions were consistent with the decrease in pyruvate level and increase in lactate level. Even more extended results were obtained with HepG2 cells grown in GAL medium where, additionally, the ATP amount was reduced. Furthermore, SYD-1 appears not to be transported by the main ABC multidrug transporters. These results show that SYD-1 is able to change the metabolism of HepG2 cells, and suggest that its cytotoxicity is related to impairment of mitochondrial metabolism. Therefore, we may propose that SYD-1 is a potential candidate for hepatocarcinoma treatment.

PubMed | Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro and University of Sao Paulo
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Revista brasileira de parasitologia veterinaria = Brazilian journal of veterinary parasitology : Orgao Oficial do Colegio Brasileiro de Parasitologia Veterinaria | Year: 2016

In this paper, the authors report ticks parasitizing bats from the Serra das Almas Natural Reserve (RPPN) located in the municipality of Crates, state of Cear, in the semiarid Caatinga biome of northeastern Brazil. The study was carried out during nine nights in the dry season (July 2012) and 10 nights in the rainy season (February 2013). Only bats of the Phyllostomidae and Mormoopidae families were parasitized by ticks. The species Artibeus planirostris and Carolia perspicillata were the most parasitized. A total of 409 larvae were collected and classified into three genera: Antricola (n = 1), Nothoaspis (n = 1) and Ornithodoros (n = 407). Four species were morphologically identified as Nothoaspis amazoniensis, Ornithodoros cavernicolous, Ornithodoros fonsecai, Ornithodoros hasei, and Ornithodoros marinkellei. Ornithodoros hasei was the most common tick associated with bats in the current study. The present study expand the distributional ranges of at least three soft ticks into the Caatinga biome, and highlight an unexpected richness of argasid ticks inhabiting this arid ecosystem.

Vieira A.L.G.,University of Sao Paulo | Vieira A.L.G.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Camilo C.M.,University of Sao Paulo
Fungal Genetics and Biology | Year: 2011

Agrobacterium tumefaciens is widely used for plant DNA transformation and more recently, has also been used to transform yeast, filamentous fungi and even human cells. Using this technique, we developed the first transformation protocol for the saprobic aquatic fungus Blastocladiella emersonii, a Blastocladiomycete localized at the base of fungal phylogenetic tree, which has been shown as a promising and interesting model of study of cellular function and differentiation. We constructed binary T-DNA vectors containing hygromycin phosphotransferase (hph) or enhanced green fluorescent protein (egfp) genes, under the control of Aspergillus nidulans trpC promoter and terminator sequences. 24. h of co-cultivation in induction medium (IM) agar plates, followed by transfer to PYG-agar plates containing cefotaxim to kill Agrobacterium tumefsciens and hygromycin to select transformants, resulted in growth and sporulation of resistant transformants. Genomic DNA from the pool o resistant zoospores were shown to contain T-DNA insertion as evidenced by PCR amplification of hph gene. Using a similar protocol we could also evidence the expression of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in zoospores derived from transformed cells. This protocol can also open new perspectives for other non-transformable closely related fungi, like the Chytridiomycete class. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

Do Amaral D.N.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Cavalcanti B.C.,Federal University of Ceará | Bezerra D.P.,Federal University of Ceará | Ferreira P.M.P.,Federal University of Piauí | And 8 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Cancer is the second most common cause of death in the USA. Among the known classes of anticancer agents, the microtubule-targeted antimitotic drugs are considered to be one of the most important. They are usually classified into microtubule-destabilizing (e.g., Vinca alkaloids) and microtubule-stabilizing (e.g., paclitaxel) agents. Combretastatin A4 (CA-4), which is a natural stilbene isolated from Combretum caffrum, is a microtubule-destabilizing agent that binds to the colchicine domain on β-tubulin and exhibits a lower toxicity profile than paclitaxel or the Vinca alkaloids. In this paper, we describe the docking study, synthesis, antiproliferative activity and selectivity index of the N-acylhydrazone derivatives (5a-r) designed as CA-4 analogues. The essential structural requirements for molecular recognition by the colchicine binding site of β-tubulin were recognized, and several compounds with moderate to high antiproliferative potency (IC50 values ≤ 18 μM and ≥4 nM) were identified. Among these active compounds, LASSBio-1586 (5b) emerged as a simple antitumor drug candidate, which is capable of inhibiting microtubule polymerization and possesses a broad in vitro and in vivo antiproliferative profile, as well as a better selectivity index than the prototype CA-4, indicating improved selective cytotoxicity toward cancer cells. © 2014 do Amaral et al.

Andrade L.F.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Johnsson R.,Federal University of Bahia | Senna A.R.,Federal University of Bahia
Zoologia | Year: 2015

A new amphipod species of Metharpinia Schellenberg, 1931 is described from Campos Basin, southeastern Brazilian coast. The material was collected with van Veen grab from unconsolidated substratum, off the mouth of the Paraíba do Sul River. The new species can be distinguished from its congeners by presenting a strongly constricted rostrum and a slender palp of maxilla 1. There are four species in Metharpinia from the South Atlantic: M. dentiurosoma Alonso de Pina, 2003, M. grandirama Alonso de Pina, 2003 and M. iado Alonso de Pina, 2003, and Metharpinia taylorae sp. nov. This is the first record of a species of the genus from Brazilian waters. © 2015, Sociedade Brasileira de Zoologia. All rights reserved.

PubMed | Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro, Instituto Nacional Of Cancer and Federal University of Alfenas
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of medicinal chemistry | Year: 2016

This manuscript describes a novel class of N-acylhydrazone (NAH) derivatives that act as histone deacetylase (HDAC) 6/8 dual inhibitors and were designed from the structure of trichostatin A (1). Para-substituted phenyl-hydroxamic acids presented a more potent inhibition of HDAC6/8 than their meta analogs. In addition, the effect of compounds (E)-4-((2-(4-(dimethylamino)benzoyl)hydrazono)methyl)-N-hydroxybenzamide (3c) and (E)-4-((2-(4-(dimethylamino)benzoyl)-2-methylhydrazono)methyl)-N-hydroxybenzamide (3f) on the acetylation of -tubulin revealed an increased level of acetylation. These two compounds also affected cell migration, indicating their inhibition of HDAC6. An analysis of the antiproliferative activity of these compounds, which presented the most potent activity, showed that compound 3c induced cell cycle arrest and 3g induced apoptosis through caspase 3/7 activation. These results suggest HDAC6/8 as a potential target of future molecular therapies for cancer.

PubMed | Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro, Federal University of Mato Grosso and University of Sao Paulo
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of natural products | Year: 2016

A new orbitide named [1-8-NC]-zanriorb A1 (1) was isolated and characterized from the leaves of Zanthoxylum riedelianum using NMR and mass spectrometry. The absolute configuration of the amino acids was determined using Marfeys method on the acid hydrolysates. Compound 1 induced cell death by apoptosis in Jurkat leukemia T cells (IC50 218 nM).

PubMed | Federal University of Paraná, Federal University of Bahia, Federal University of Fluminense, Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro and 4 more.
Type: | Journal: Parasites & vectors | Year: 2015

Canine heartworm infections were frequently diagnosed in Brazil before the new millennium. After the year 2000, the frequency of diagnosis showed a sharp decline; however, a few years later, new evidence indicated that the parasite was still present and that canine infection rates seemed to be increasing. Therefore, an updated survey of canine heartworm prevalence was conducted in several locations in south, southeast, and northeast Brazil.Dogs from 15 locations having previously reported a high prevalence of heartworm infection were included in the survey according to defined criteria, including the absence of treatment with a macrocyclic lactone for at least 1year. Blood samples from 1531 dogs were evaluated by an in-clinic immunochromatography test kit (Witness Heartworm, Zoetis, USA) for detection of Dirofilaria immitis antigen. At each location, epidemiologic data, including physical characteristics and clinical signs reported by owners or observed by veterinarians, were recorded on prepared forms for tabulation of results by location, clinical signs, and physical characteristics.The overall prevalence of canine heartworm infection was 23.1%, with evidence of heartworm-infected dogs detected in all 15 locations studied. There was a tendency for higher prevalence rates in environmentally protected areas, despite some locations having less-than-ideal environmental temperatures for survival of vector mosquitoes. Among physical characteristics, it was noted that dogs with predominantly white hair coats and residing in areas with a high (20%) prevalence of heartworm were less likely to have heartworm infection detected by a commercial heartworm antigen test kit than were dogs with other coat colors. In general, dogs older than 2years were more frequently positive for D. immitis antigen than were younger dogs. Clinical signs of heartworm infections were rare or owners were unable to detect them, and could not be used for reliable prediction of the presence of heartworm.These results indicate that the prevalence of D. immitis has increased in these areas of Brazil over the past few years. Small animal practitioners in these areas should include routine screening tests for heartworm infections in every dogs annual evaluation protocol and make sure to have uninfected dogs on prevention.

PubMed | Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro, University of Sao Paulo and Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Experimental & applied acarology | Year: 2016

Ticks associated with bats have been poorly documented in the Neotropical Zoogeographical Region. In this study, a total of 1028 bats were sampled for tick infestations in the southern portion of the Brazilian Pantanal. A total of 368 ticks, morphologically identified as Ornithodoros hasei (n = 364) and O. mimon (n = 4), were collected from the following bat species: Artibeus planirostris, Platyrrhinus lineatus, Phyllostomus hastatus, Mimon crenulatum and Noctilio albiventris. Morphological identification of O. hasei was confirmed by molecular analysis. Regarding the most abundant bat species, only 40 (6.2%) out of 650 A. planirostris were infested by O. hasei, with a mean intensity of 7.2 ticks per infested bat, or a mean abundance of 0.44 ticks per sampled bat. Noteworthy, one single P. hastatus was infested by 55 O. hasei larvae, in contrast to the 2.5-7.2 range of mean intensity values for the whole study. As a complement to the present study, a total of 8 museum bat specimens (6 Noctilio albiventris and 2 N. leporinus), collected in the northern region of Pantanal, were examined for tick infestations. These bats contained 176 ticks, which were all morphologically identified as O. hasei larvae. Mean intensity of infestation was 22, with a range of 1-46 ticks per infested bat. Our results suggest that A. planirostris might play an important role in the natural life cycle of O. hasei in the Pantanal.

PubMed | Federal University of Paraná and Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Basic & clinical pharmacology & toxicology | Year: 2016

This study evaluated the antitumour activity of the mesoionic compound sydnone 1 (Syd-1) against Walker-256 carcinosarcoma. Tumour cells were subcutaneously inoculated in the hind limb in male Wistar rats. The animals were orally treated for 12 days with Syd-1 (75 mg/kg) or vehicle. At the end of treatment, considerable decreases in tumour volume and tumour weight were observed in treated animals. Samples of these tumours presented increases in apoptotic bodies and pro-apoptotic protein expression (Bax and p53), while the expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 was reduced. A decrease in reduced glutathione levels and an increase in glutathione peroxidase activity were observed in tumour after Syd-1 treatment. However, significant splenomegaly was evident in animals that received Syd-1, most likely attributable to the induction of haemolysis. This study demonstrated the antitumour activity of Syd-1 against Walker-256 carcinosarcoma. Its mechanism of action is linked to the activation of apoptotic pathways that lead to tumour cell death.

PubMed | Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro and University of Sao Paulo
Type: | Journal: Brain research | Year: 2015

Recent literature has revealed that centrally generated prostaglandins participate in the febrile response in zymosan-induced arthritis in rats. However, it is not clear whether other centrally acting pyrogenic mediators such as cytokines, endothelins (ETs), and the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) contribute to the febrile response in this model. In the present study, rats were pretreated with intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injections of soluble TNF receptor I (sTNFRI), recombinant IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), anti-rat IL-6 monoclonal antibody (AbIL-6), -helical CRF9-41 (a nonselective CRF1/CRF2 receptor antagonist), BQ-123 (an ETA receptor antagonist), BQ-788 (an ETB receptor antagonist), and artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF, control) prior to an intra-articular zymosan (4 mg) injection. Rectal temperatures were measured with a telethermometer. The administration of IL-1ra (200 g), sTNFRI (500 ng), and AbIL-6 (5 g) attenuated body temperature elevations after a zymosan injection. The administration of BQ-788 (3 pmol), BQ-123 (3 pmol), and -helical CRF9-41 (25 g) did not affect the zymosan-induced febrile response. All the compounds used to pretreat the animals did not significantly alter their basal body temperatures. Together, the results here demonstrate that the febrile response in zymosan-induced arthritis in rats depends on the centrally acting pyrogenic cytokines TNF-, IL-1, and IL-6, but does not depend on either CRF or ET-1.

PubMed | Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro and University of Sao Paulo
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of dairy science | Year: 2016

This research investigated the removal of adherent cells of 4 strains of Staphylococcus aureus and 1 Listeria monocytogenes strain (previously isolated from dairy plants) from polystyrene microtiter plates using peracetic acid (PAA, 0.5%) for 15, 30, 60, and 120 s, and the inactivation of biofilms formed by those strains on stainless steel coupons using the same treatment times. In the microtiter plates, PAA removed all S. aureus at 15 s compared with control (no PAA treatment). However, L. monocytogenes biofilm was not affected by any PAA treatment. On the stainless steel surface, epifluorescence microscopy using LIVE/DEAD staining (BacLight, Molecular Probes/Thermo Fisher Scientific, Eugene, OR) showed that all strains were damaged within 15 s, with almost 100% of cells inactivated after 30 s. Results of this trial indicate that, although PAA was able to inactivate both S. aureus and L. monocytogenes monospecies biofilms on stainless steel, it was only able to remove adherent cells of S. aureus from polystyrene microplates. The correct use of PAA is critical for eliminating biofilms formed by S. aureus strains found in dairy plants, although further studies are necessary to determine the optimal PAA treatment for removing biofilms of L. monocytogenes.

PubMed | Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro and University of Sao Paulo
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2016

Microtubules play critical roles in vital cell processes, including cell growth, division, and migration. Microtubule-targeting small molecules are chemotherapeutic agents that are widely used in the treatment of cancer. Many of these compounds are structurally complex natural products (e.g., paclitaxel, vinblastine, and vincristine) with multiple stereogenic centers. Because of the scarcity of their natural sources and the difficulty of their partial or total synthesis, as well as problems related to their bioavailability, toxicity, and resistance, there is an urgent need for novel microtubule binding agents that are effective for treating cancer but do not have these disadvantages. In the present work, our lead discovery effort toward less structurally complex synthetic compounds led to the discovery of a series of acridinones inspired by the structure of podophyllotoxin, a natural product with important microtubule assembly inhibitory activity, as novel mechanism-based tubulin assembly inhibitors with potent anticancer properties and low toxicity. The compounds were evaluated in vitro by wound healing assays employing the metastatic and triple negative breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231. Four compounds with IC50 values between 0.294 and 1.7 M were identified. These compounds showed selective cytotoxicity against MDA-MB-231 and DU-145 cancer cell lines and promoted cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase and apoptosis. Consistent with molecular modeling results, the acridinones inhibited tubulin assembly in in vitro polymerization assays with IC50 values between 0.9 and 13 M. Their binding to the colchicine-binding site of tubulin was confirmed through competitive assays.

PubMed | Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro, Federal University of São Paulo and University of Sao Paulo
Type: | Journal: Physiology & behavior | Year: 2016

Thyroidectomy is a surgical procedure indicated in cases of several maligned or benign thyroid diseases, thus, the aim of our study was to verify how the hypothyroidism induced by thyroidectomy influences behavioral parameters and its relation to thyroid hormones metabolism and neurogenesis at hippocampus. For this purpose, Adult male Wistar rats underwent to thyroidectomy to induce hypothyroidism. Behavioral tests, the thyroid profile and hippocampal gene expression were evaluated in control and in thyroidectomized animals. It was observed that thyroidectomized group had a significant increasing in serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and a decreasing in thyroxine (T4) levels as well as in triiodothyronine (T3) serum level. It was also observed reduction of the monocarboxylate transporter 8 (Mct8), thyroid hormone receptor alfa (Tr1), deiodinase type 2 (Dio2), ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 2 (Enpp2) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf) mRNA expression in hippocampus of thyroidectomized animals. In the forced swimming test, it was verified that thyroidectomy promotes a decrease in time of immobility and climbing when compared with the control group. In summary, we demonstrated that antidepressant behavior in thyroidectomized Wistar rats is induced by hippocampal hypothyroidism. This effect could be associated to an impaired neuronal activity in acute stress response as it is observed in forced swimming paradigm.

De Souza T.M.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Fragoso V.M.D.S.,Oswaldo Cruz Institute | Cruz F.A.D.O.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro
AIP Conference Proceedings | Year: 2015

In this paper, we are presenting a model for electrophoretic motion of a charged particle through the membrane before it reaches the steady state, based on concepts of Physics. Some results from analysis of the model are discussed. © 2015 AIP Publishing LLC.

Soares M.A.G.,State University of Rio de Janeiro | Cruz F.A.O.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Silva D.,State University of Rio de Janeiro
AIP Conference Proceedings | Year: 2015

We determined the magnetic field around sodium and potassium ionic channels based on a physico-mathematical model that took into account charges in the surface bilayer. For the numerical simulation, we applied the finite element method. Results show that each channel produces its specific and individual response to the ion transport, according to its individual intrinsic properties. The existence of a number of active Na+-channels in a given membrane region seems not to interfere directly in the functioning of K+-channel located among them, and vice-versa. © 2015 AIP Publishing LLC.

Linhares F.N.,State University of Rio de Janeiro | Correa H.L.,State University of Rio de Janeiro | Correa H.L.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Khalil C.N.,Petrobras | And 2 more authors.
Energy | Year: 2013

Biodiesel is being proposed as an efficient replacement for fossil fuels. However, because of the difference in chemical compositions between biodiesel and fossil fuels, the resistance of polymeric materials to biodiesel may not be the same as that of fossil fuels. Thus, the aim of this work is to evaluate the resistance of different nitrile rubber (NBR) samples when in contact with biodiesel samples obtained separately from coconut oil and castor bean oil. The samples with lower acrylonitrile compositions (28 and 33%) exhibited low resistance to both pure biofuels. On the other hand, the mechanical properties of the NBR sample comprising 45% acrylonitrile appeared unchanged even after immersion in biodiesel oils. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

de Lima S.S.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | de Aquino A.M.,Embrapa Agrobiologia | Leite L.F.C.,Embrapa Meio Norte | Velasquez E.,National University of Colombia | Lavelle P.,Institute Of Recherche Pour Le Developpement
Pesquisa Agropecuaria Brasileira | Year: 2010

The objective of this study was to evaluate land use effects on the abundance and diversity of invertebrate macrofauna and its relationship with the soil chemical characteristics in different agroecosystems. Five systems were studied: ecological based system at three years of adoption (ES3), agroforestry systems at six (AFS6) and ten years of adoption (AFS10), slash and burn agriculture (SBA), and native forest (NF). In each system, five samples were collected in the form of soil monoliths (25×25 cm) at 10 cm depth, during the dry (October 2006) and rainy seasons (May 2007). The relationship between edaphic macrofauna and chemical attributes in the different land use systems was determined by coinertia analysis. The highest abundance of macrofauna was observed in the rainy season. Systems SE3, SAF6 and SAF10 showed higher species richness and indices of Shannon and Pielou, regardless of the sampling season. The agroforestry management favored the occurrence of "ecosystem engineers". Agroforestry systems provide better soil chemical characteristics and increase soil invertebrate macrofauna abundance and richness.

Eloy N.B.,Vlaams Institute for Biotechnology | Eloy N.B.,Ghent University | De Freitas Lima M.,Institute Bioquimica Medica | De Freitas Lima M.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | And 15 more authors.
Plant Journal | Year: 2011

The largest E3 ubiquitin-ligase complex, known as anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), regulates the proteolysis of cell cycle regulators such as CYCLIN B and SECURIN that are essential for sister-chromatid separation and exit from mitosis. Despite its importance, the role of APC/C in plant cells and the regulation of its activity during cell division remain poorly understood. Here, the Arabidopsis thaliana APC/C subunit APC10 was characterized and shown to functionally complement an apc10 yeast mutant. The APC10 protein was located in specific nuclear bodies, most probably resulting from its association with the proteasome complex. An apc10 Arabidopsis knockout mutant strongly impaired female gametogenesis. Surprisingly, constitutive overexpression of APC10 enhanced leaf size. Through kinematic analysis, the increased leaf size was found to be due to enhanced rates of cell division during the early stages of leaf development and, at the molecular level, by increased APC/C activity as measured by an amplification of the proteolysis rate of the mitotic cyclin, CYCB1;1. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Dantas S.,Federal University of Fluminense | Faria L.,State University of Rio de Janeiro | De Figueiredo C.M.H.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Teixeira R.B.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro
Information Processing Letters | Year: 2016

A graph G=(V,E) is C probe if V can be partitioned into two sets, probes P and non-probes N, where N is independent and new edges may be added between non-probes such that the resulting graph is in the graph class C. We say that (N,P) is a C probe partition for G. The C unpartitioned probe problem consists of an input graph G and the question: Is G a C probe graph? A (k, ℓ)-partition of a graph G is a partition of its vertex set into at most k independent sets and ℓ cliques. A graph is (k, ℓ) if it has a (k,ℓ)-partition. We prove the full complexity dichotomy into NP-complete and polynomial for (k, ℓ) unpartitioned probe problems: they are NP-complete if k + ℓ ≥ 3, and polynomial otherwise. This gives the first examples of graph classes C that can be recognized in polynomial time but whose probe graph classes are NP-complete. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Araujo A.E.D.S.,Federal University of Roraima | Baldani V.L.D.,Embrapa Agrobiologia | Galisa P.D.S.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Pereira J.A.,Embrapa Meio Norte | Baldani J.I.,Embrapa Agrobiologia
Applied Soil Ecology | Year: 2013

The largest numbers of the Brazilian traditional upland rice varieties are found in the Maranhão state, Northeast region of Brazil. However, no information is available on the diazotrophic bacterial population associated as well as the plant growth promoting potential when these traditional genotypes are inoculated with native strains. Here, we evaluated the response of ten traditional rice varieties to inoculation with ten diazotrophic strains, previously isolated from rice soil of this region and screened for their ability to produce indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in vitro. The procedure for selection of the best diazotrophic strain/rice variety interaction involved three steps: gnotobiotic conditions, soil pot and field experiments. The gnotobiotic experiment showed that the Azospirillum amazonense strain AR3122 increased the biomass of the traditional varieties Cana Roxa and Cana Forte (28 and 48%, respectively) while this effect was less evident for the other combination of strains/rice varieties. The soil pot experiment showed that the combination of Burkholderia vietnamiensis strain AR 1122 and traditional variety Arroz 70 was superior to the other strains/varieties and the treatment fertilized with 100kgNha-1. The best performance of the Burkholderia vietnamiensis strain AR1122/variety Arroz 70 was confirmed in the field experiment. There was an increase of up 10 and 29% in the grain yield in comparison to both the N fertilization and Herbaspirillum seropedicae ZAE 94 strain treatments, respectively. In contrast, the response of the commercial variety Bonança to inoculation with strain AR1122 was much lower, suggesting that a biofertilizer inoculation program for traditional rice varieties should consider the genetic interaction between strain and rice variety. The diazotrophic B. vietmaniensis strain AR1122 was a good biofertilizer candidate for inoculation of traditional rice varieties and therefore should be used for further studies to confirm the strain-genotype effect envisaging a sustainable rice crop system mainly in the Northeast region of Brazil. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Donato-Trancoso A.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Goncalves L.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Monte-Alto-Costa A.,State University of Rio de Janeiro | Silva F.D.A.D.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Romana-Souza B.,State University of Rio de Janeiro
Acta Histochemica | Year: 2014

Joannesia princeps (Cotieira) is a well known medicinal plant in Brazil, however, the therapeutic effects of oil obtained from its seeds have still not been demonstrated. The beneficial effects of J. princeps seed oil on cutaneous wound healing on the back of experimental mice were investigated. An excisional lesion in male Swiss mice (n= 20 per group) was topically treated with mineral oil or J. princeps seed oil once a day beginning on the day of lesion until the third day after wounding. Animals were killed and lesions collected after 14 days. Murine skin fibroblast cultures were treated with J. princeps seed oil and fibroblast activity was evaluated. In the in vivo assay, J. princeps seed oil increased wound contraction and migratory tongue length, but reduced neutrophil and macrophage number when compared with the control group. Blood vessel number, collagen deposition, and VEGF levels were increased in treated lesions when compared with control lesions. However, J. princeps seed oil reduced myofibroblast density and carbonyl protein levels when compared with the control group. In the in vitro assay, treatment with J. princeps seed oil increased fibroblast migration and proliferation, but reduced myofibroblastic differentiation in vitro. In conclusion, J. princeps seed oil accelerates wound closure increasing angiogenesis, keratinocyte migration, and fibroblast activity while reducing inflammatory response and oxidative damage. © 2014 Elsevier GmbH.

Sobral M.,Federal University of Säo João del Rei | Da Costa Souza M.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro
Novon | Year: 2015

Two new species of the genus Eugenia L. from the Atlantic coastal forests of the southeastern Brazilian states of Bahia and Espírito Santo are described, illustrated, compared with related species, and evaluated in their IUCN conservation status. Eugenia cataphyllea M. C. Souza & Sobral is related to E. xanthoxyloides Cambess., from which it differs by the longer cataphylls, larger and pilose leaves, bracteoles persisting after anthesis and pilose flowers. Eugenia hispidiflora Sobral & M. C. Souza is apparently related to E. hirta O. Berg, from which it can be distinguished by its longer leaves and densely hispid flowers.

Lourenco E.C.,State University of Rio de Janeiro | Almeida J.C.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Famadas K.M.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro
Parasitology Research | Year: 2016

The family Streblidae consists of obligate hematophagous ectoparasites of bats. The richness of Streblidae may be affected by environmental and host-related variables, collection methods, and sampling effort. The purposes of this study were to list the Streblidae species recorded in Brazil, verify their distribution in the Brazilian biomes and states, and pinpoint the parameters that favored the greatest richness. Through queries in online databases and libraries, 86 publications were found containing records of 83 species in 24 genera. The state with the largest number of publications was São Paulo and Federal District presented the highest richness of Streblidae. The largest number of records of Streblidae species was in Cerrado biome. The meta-analyses utilizing 26 Brazilian inventories showed that the richness of Streblidae was positively correlated with the number of flies and richness and abundance of Phyllostomidae. We hope that the results of this study will contribute to a better understanding of the distribution of research on Streblidae in Brazil and confirming the specificity between Streblidae and Phyllostomidae. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

Klaion T.,State University of Rio de Janeiro | Almeida-Gomes M.,State University of Rio de Janeiro | Tavares L.E.R.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Tavares L.E.R.,Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul | And 2 more authors.
Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciencias | Year: 2011

Proceratophrys boiei is an endemic cycloramphid anuran inhabiting the leaf litter of Atlantic rainforests in Southeastern Brazil. We analyzed the whole digestive tract of 38 individuals of Proceratophrys boiei collected in two Atlantic Rainforest areas in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, to study the diet composition and the helminth fauna associated with this species. The main food items in P. boiei's diet were Coleoptera, Orthoptera and Blattaria. Five nematode species were found: Aplectana delirae, Cosmocerca parva, Oxyascaris oxyascaris, Physaloptera sp. (larval stage only) and an unidentified nematode. Overall prevalence was 71% and mean infection intensity was 7.3 ± 5.8 nematodes per individual.

Montesinos R.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Peloso P.L.V.,American Museum of Natural History | Koski D.A.,Instituto Superior Of Educacao | Valadares A.P.,Centro Universitario Vila Velha | Gasparini J.L.,Federal University of Espirito Santo
Check List | Year: 2012

We conducted a long-term amphibian survey at the biodiversity corridor Pedra Azul-Forno Grande, in the mountain region of the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. Sampling was conducted from April 2004 to October 2009 and we registered 43 species. Two species (Dendropsophus ruschii and Megaelosia apuana) are included in the state list of threatened species and Scinax belloni is included in the IUCN/GAA list. We provide color photographs for most species found in the region. © 2012 Check List and Authors.

Romana-Souza B.,State University of Rio de Janeiro | Romana-Souza B.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Otranto M.,State University of Rio de Janeiro | Almeida T.F.,State University of Rio de Janeiro | And 2 more authors.
Experimental Dermatology | Year: 2011

Stress-induced catecholamine impairs the formation of granulation tissue acting directly in fibroblast activity; however, the mechanism by which high levels of catecholamines alter the granulation tissue formation is still unclear. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate how high levels of epinephrine compromise the activity of murine dermal fibroblasts. Dermal fibroblasts isolated from the skin of neonatal Swiss mice were preincubated with α- or β-adrenoceptor antagonists. Thereafter, cells were exposed to physiologically elevated levels of epinephrine or epinephrine plus α- or β-adrenoceptor antagonists, and fibroblast activity was evaluated. The blockade of β1- and β2-adrenoceptors reversed the increase in fibroblast proliferation, ERK 1/2 phosphorylation, myofibroblastic differentiation and the reduction of collagen deposition induced by epinephrine. In addition, the blockade of β3-adrenoceptors reversed the increase in fibroblast proliferation and nitric oxide synthesis as well as the reduction of fibroblast migration, AKT phosphorylation and active matrix metalloproteinase-2 expression induced by epinephrine. However, the blockade of α1- and α2-adrenoceptors did not alter the effects of epinephrine on the activity of murine dermal fibroblasts. In conclusion, high levels of epinephrine directly compromise the activity of neonatal mouse skin fibroblasts through the activation of β1-, β2- and β3-adrenoceptors, but not through α1- and α2-adrenoceptors. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

Esberard C.E.L.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Bergallo H.G.,State University of Rio de Janeiro
Brazilian Journal of Biology | Year: 2010

Sunset and sunrise regulate the activities of most studied bat species. To verify patterns of foraging activity, 29 bat sampling nights were carried out over a dam in Rio de Janeiro city, which resulted in 363 hours with 730 captures, representing 13 species of insectivorous bats. Molossus molossus constituted the bulk of the captures (79.9%) and was present in 82.8% of the sampling nights. This bat species exhibited crepuscular and nocturnal activity (from -6 minutes to 900 minutes after the time of sunset). A bimodal activity pattern was observed, and two non-overlapping capture peaks. The first peak lasted from 6 minutes before sunset to 420 minutes after sunset. The second peak began at 564 minutes after sunset and ended just after sunrise. The first capture peak was observed in 75.9% of the nights, and the second peak in 62.1% of the nights. The time of the first capture exhibited a positive linear relationship with sunset and the time of the last capture, a positive linear relationship with sunrise. The existence of a relationship between night length and the difference between first and last captures of each night shows that M. molossus has longer activity the longer the night, showing a seasonal variation in the activity period.

Tardin R.H.,State University of Rio de Janeiro | Tardin R.H.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Simao S.M.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Alves M.A.S.,State University of Rio de Janeiro
Natureza a Conservacao | Year: 2013

Distribution modeling is a relatively new tool to study cetaceans distribution and is used to understand their relationships with the habitat, which in turn, can be used for several purposes. This is the first attempt to model Tursiops truncatus distribution in South- Atlantic Ocean. A Generalized Additive Model (GAM) was developed to investigate how the distribution of T. truncatus in Cabo Frio, Brazil, during summer (December to February) is influenced by depth, distance to coast, slope,. Furthermore, we tested the efficiency of a model with number of groups (total occurrence) as response variable compared to a presence-absence data. Our results indicated that total occurrence model was more robust than presence-absence. Dolphins were found regarding to depth most frequently around 30-60 m and decreasing in more profound depths. Dolphins occurrence decreased as distance to coast increased. Our results show that Cabo Frio is an important site for T. truncatus since it may provides feeding resources and a safe place against predators. However the fast development of human activities may threaten this important area and therefore this dolphin species in Brazilian waters. © 2013 ABECO.

Tardin R.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Tardin R.,State University of Rio de Janeiro | Galvao C.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Especie M.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Simao S.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro
Latin American Journal of Aquatic Research | Year: 2013

Cetaceans present a group structure of great complexity and display a wide behavioral plasticity. Many efforts have been made to understand the group structures of the various species, however, this type of information is still lacking for some species. Therefore, our objectives were to 1) characterize the structure of the Sotalia guianensis groups in Ilha Grande Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and 2) investigate how both behavior and season influence the group structure of this population. This species is considered "data deficient" by the IUCN. We conducted 28 boat trips using group focal procedures, and a total of 1,314 groups were observed. Of these groups, 1,268 (94.4%) contained calves, the largest percentage ever reported for the species. Groups with calves were larger than those without them, suggesting a strategy to protect these individuals with underdeveloped physiology. The mean group sizes reached 17.6 ± 18.3 individuals. Within these groups, we observed that both behavior (H = 112.5, d.f. = 2, P < 0.05) and season (number of simulations: 10,000; sample size of fall-winter = 544; sample size of spring-summer = 684; P < 0.05), demonstrated a statistically significant influence. The most common degree of cohesion was mixed, and cohesion also varied with behavior (χ2 = 10.1, P < 0.05) and season (χ2 = 31.0, P < 0.05). This paper contributes towards understanding the highly variable nature of S. guianensis group dynamics. These data may be important in understanding the structure of groups in a site that is being increasingly impacted by different human activities. Moreover, this area contains the largest aggregation ever observed for this species and may therefore represent an important source of genetic diversity for the species as a whole.

Capri M.A.L.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Gomez A.J.,State University of Rio de Janeiro | Guimaraes M.S.,State University of Rio de Janeiro | Lemes V.E.R.,State University of Rio de Janeiro | And 2 more authors.
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2012

A qualitative study of the lightest glueball states in Euclidean SU(2) Yang-Mills theory quantized in the maximal Abelian gauge is presented. The analysis is done by generalizing to the maximal Abelian gauge the so-called replica model, already successfully introduced in the Landau gauge. As it will be shown, the gluon and ghost propagators obtained from the replica model are of the same type of those already introduced in, whose behavior turns out to be in agreement with that available from the lattice data on the maximal Abelian gauge. The model turns out to be renormalizable to all orders, while enabling us to introduce gauge-invariant composite operators for the study of the lightest glueballs JPC=0 ++, 2 ++ and 0 -+. The spectral representation for the correlation functions of these operators are evaluated to the first order, and the corresponding spectral densities are shown to be positive. Under the assumption of Abelian dominance, it turns out that the hierarchy for the masses of the lightest glueballs in the maximal Abelian gauge is in agreement with that already obtained in the Landau gauge, a feature which provides evidence for the gauge independence of the spectrum of the theory. © 2012 American Physical Society.

Abreu E.M.C.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Mendes A.C.R.,Federal University of Juiz de fora | Neves C.,State University of Rio de Janeiro | Oliveira W.,Federal University of Juiz de fora | And 2 more authors.
Physics Letters, Section A: General, Atomic and Solid State Physics | Year: 2010

In this Letter we construct non-Abelian field theories employing the Faddeev-Jackiw symplectic formalism. The original Abelian fields were modified in order to introduce the non-Abelian algebra. We construct the SU(2) and SU(2) - ⊗ U(1) Yang-Mills theories having as starting point the U(1) Maxwell electromagnetic theory. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Salamanca J.,Federal University of Lavras | Pareja M.,University of Campinas | Rodriguez-Saona C.,Rutgers University | Resende A.L.S.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Souza B.,Federal University of Lavras
Biological Control | Year: 2015

Natural enemy behavior is mediated by cues associated with the host-plant complex, such as volatiles emitted by damaged plants and the surrounding vegetation. We conducted studies to investigate whether: (a) adult attraction of green lacewing, Chrysoperla externa Hagen, to and oviposition on rose, Rosa×. hybrida L., infested by the potato aphid, Macrosiphum euphorbiae Thomas, is affected by the presence of coriander, Coriandrum sativum L. (a potential companion plant); (b) the role of volatiles on female C. externa attraction to uninfested and aphid-infested rose, coriander, and from the rose-coriander complex; and, (c) whether M. euphorbiae feeding induces volatile emissions from rose plants. In the greenhouse, numbers of C. externa adults were higher on aphid-infested rose and on roses near coriander plants; however, there was no aphid. ×. coriander interaction, indicating that attraction to aphid-infested rose was not influenced by the presence of coriander. Aphids increased the number of eggs laid by C. externa on rose but this was also not affected by the presence of coriander. In Y-tube studies, C. externa females showed attraction to volatiles from aphid-infested rose, coriander only, and the rose-coriander complex and were not attracted to rose volatiles; however, there was no difference in C. externa attraction between aphid-infested rose versus aphid-infested rose plus coriander. Headspace analysis revealed that aphid-infested rose emits greater quantities of methyl salicylate compared with uninfested rose. In conclusion, although C. externa adults were attracted to coriander, coriander did not increase attraction or oviposition of this predator to aphid-infested rose. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

Abdalla M.C.B.,São Paulo State University | Holender L.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Santos M.A.,Federal University of Espirito Santo | Vancea I.V.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2012

In this paper, we construct for the first time the noncommutative fluid with the deformed Poincaré invariance. To this end, the realization formalism of the noncommutative spaces is employed and the results are particularized to the Snyder space. The noncommutative fluid generalizes the fluid model in the action functional formulation to the noncommutative space. The fluid equations of motion and the conserved energy-momentum tensor are obtained. © 2012 American Physical Society.

Nettesheim F.C.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | de Menezes L.F.T.,Federal University of Espirito Santo | de Carvalho D.C.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Conde M.M.S.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | de Araujo D.S.D.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Acta Botanica Brasilica | Year: 2010

This work assessed data from 32 forest sites in Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo, Brazil, using multivariate analysis to answer the question: Are there floristic patterns of the Atlantic Forest tree-shrub layer related to the Serra do Mar and the width of coastal plains in the states of Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo? Three multivariate analyses were performed to investigate the relationship between the tree-shrub flora and environmental variation in these 32 study areas. Our analyses demonstrated the influence of geo-climatic variation on floristic differentiation of tree and shrub species in Atlantic Forest regions generating groups of areas based on similar biotic and abiotic characteristics. These groups support the existence of floristic patterns within the states of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro and reflect tree-shrub species substitution between the study areas as a consequence of annual rainfall, altitude, and mean annual temperature variation linked to a change in the position of the Serra do Mar and an increase in coastal plain width. Preferential species were cited for each group and should be considered in restoration and conservation programs for the phytoecological regions represented by the groups.

Portilho F.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Castaneda M.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | de Castro I.R.R.,State University of Rio de Janeiro
Ciencia e Saude Coletiva | Year: 2011

The interdisciplinary field of reflections on food as politics goes through a process of expansion and overflow to the private sphere, and routine daily food consumption. This process seems to be a reflection of transformations in the global agrifood markets, the wide publicity and awareness of food hazards and the politicization of consumption. To the extent that individuals are to assume responsibility for the environmental and social consequences of their everyday choices, the specificity of political power in contemporary societies goes beyond the institutional level (food security and nutrition, social inequalities in access to food, agricultural policies and regulations advertising of food) to meet the private sphere. This paper shows, initially, some of the recent debates about the process of politicization of consumption and then explores a theoretical reflection on the ethical, political and ideological habits that relate to food consumption, including the locations and ways of acquiring and food preparation, the values of environmental preservation, solidarity with local producers and reflexive caution against food risks. Finally, points to a research agenda capable of capturing the processes of politicization of food and consumer practices in the field of political power.

Muradian R.,Radboud University Nijmegen | Corbera E.,University of East Anglia | Pascual U.,University of Cambridge | Kosoy N.,Ecosystem Service Economic Unit | May P.H.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro
Ecological Economics | Year: 2010

This article provides an alternative and novel theoretical approach to the conceptualization and analysis of payments for environmental services (PES). We devote special emphasis to institutional and political economy issues, which have been somewhat neglected in the literature on PES. We argue that the Coasean and pure market approach dominating the conceptualization of PES in the literature cannot be easily generalized and implemented in practice. By contrast, taking into account complexities related to uncertainty, distributional issues, social embeddedness, and power relations permits acknowledging the variety of contexts and institutional settings in which PES operate. The alternative approach presented in this introductory article to the special section may be more appealing to PES practitioners, since while avoiding restrictive and prescriptive standpoints, it allows some key sources of complexities they usually deal with on the ground to be more easily understood. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Cogliatti-Carvalho L.,State University of Rio de Janeiro | Rocha-Pessoa T.C.,State University of Rio de Janeiro | Nunes-Freitas A.F.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Rocha C.F.D.,State University of Rio de Janeiro
Acta Botanica Brasilica | Year: 2010

(Water volume stored in bromeliad tanks in Brazilian restinga habitats). Many bromeliad species store rain water in tanks, as a result of the spiraled distribution of their leaves. The aim of this study was to evaluate how much water is stored and what is the maximum volume of water possible to be stored in different tank-bromeliad species in 13 different Brazilian restingas. The species were recorded in 100 plots of 100 m2, in each restinga habitat. For each bromeliad species, the effective and the maximum water stored in the tanks were measured. We found 32 tank-bromeliad species and 59,007 bromeliad rosettes, with a maximum volume estimated in 44,388 liters, and approximately 17,000 liters of effective water stored. We found interspecific difference in effective and maximum volume of water stored. Aechmea aquilega, A. blanchetiana and Hohenbergia castelanosii had the highest effective water volume stored in their tanks. Only A. nudicaulis and Billbergia amoena showed differences among their populations in all analyzed parameters. The restingas of Maricá, Prado, Trancoso and Jurubatiba had the highest volumes.ha-1 of water stored inside bromeliad tanks. The maximum water volume stored in the bromeliad tanks varied among species due to morphological differences in shape and size parameters.

Rosa A.D.S.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Bandeira L.G.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Monte-Alto-Costa A.,State University of Rio de Janeiro | Romana-Souza B.,State University of Rio de Janeiro
Wound Repair and Regeneration | Year: 2014

Supplementation with olive and fish oils reverses the effects of stress on behavioral activities and adrenal activation. However, previous studies have not shown whether supplementation with olive and fish oil could inhibit the effects of stress on cutaneous wound healing. Thus, this study investigated the effects of supplementation with fish or olive oil on cutaneous healing in stressed mice. Mice were subjected to rotational stress and treated with olive or fish oil daily until euthanasia. An excisional lesion was created on each mouse, and 14 days later, the lesions were analyzed. In addition, murine skin fibroblasts were exposed to elevated epinephrine levels plus olive oil, and fibroblast activity was evaluated. In the in vivo studies, administration of olive oil, but not fish oil, inhibited stress-induced reduction in wound contraction, reepithelialization, hydroxyproline levels, and blood vessel density. Stress-induced increases in vascular endothelial growth factor expression and the numbers of macrophages and neutrophils were reversed only by olive oil. Both oils reversed stress-induced increase in catecholamine levels and oxidative damage. In in vitro studies, olive oil treatment reversed the reduction in fibroblast migration and collagen deposition and the increase in lipid peroxidation induced by epinephrine. In conclusion, supplementation with olive oil, but not fish oil, improves cutaneous wound healing in chronically stressed mice. © 2014 by the Wound Healing Society.

Torres J.L.R.,Instituto Federal do Triangulo Mineiro Campus Uberaba | Pereira M.G.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro
Comunicata Scientiae | Year: 2014

The use of cover crops on soil pre-harvest associated with the rotation of annual crops has been one of the alternatives used in the sustainable management of soils of the Savannah biome, because the decomposition of crop residues of these plants favors the process of nutrient cycling and can affect the productivity of crops sown in succession. This study aimed to evaluate the biomass production and decomposition of plant residues of soil covers and evaluate the productivity of corn and soybeans grown on these residues, a Oxisol in Uberaba-MG. With a randomized block design in a split-plot scheme, three cover crops (brachiaria, millet and sunnhemp) and fallow (weed) with four replications. In succession grew up on corn and soybean crop residues decomposing these coverages. The toppings were desiccated at maximum flowering and the rate of decomposition was quantified by means of decomposition bags containing the residues fragmented, with material collected remainder performed at regular intervals. The dry biomass production of cover crops was influenced by the seeding season and the rainfall, millet and braquiaria cultures were greater biomass production when grown in pre-season, the C / N ratio did not influence the decomposition of crop residues, and millet and sunn showed higher values of half-life, the corn yield was higher when grown on crude, while for soybean cover crops grown previously not influence your productivity.

Freitas-Silva L.R.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Ortega F.J.G.,State University of Rio de Janeiro
Physis | Year: 2014

In recent decades, neuroscientific theories began to be adopted as central to the etiology of mental disorders explanation. Aiming to find the foundations of disorders, investigations took prioritized genetic load and brain functioning. From the valuation of biological determination of diseases and the emergence of various technologies of medical research, one has suggested the possibility that the causes of disorders were finally understood. However, several difficulties and challenges mark the neuroscientific project biological foundation of disease etiology. The recent introduction of the notion of epigenetics in the psychiatric field has been considered essential to renew the hope of understanding the etiology of disorders. From the analysis of review articles, this article aims to examine the appropriation of the concept of epigenetics by contemporary psychiatric field, identifying their origins and describing their main characteristics, and reflect on the consequences of their adoption. Besides contributing to the redefinition of etiological theories in the psychiatric field, the notion of epigenetics imposes a reconfiguration of genetic knowledge and, to some extent, the deterministic and reductionist design of biological foundation of mental disorders itself, allowing for more nuanced interpretations of neuroscience and contemporary psychiatry. © 2014, Institute de Medicina Social da UERJ. All rights reserved.

Zotarelli L.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Zotarelli L.,University of Florida | Zatorre N.P.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Boddey R.M.,Embrapa Agrobiologia | And 4 more authors.
Field Crops Research | Year: 2012

The sustainability of crop production systems depends on the adoption of practices that allow the balancing of nutrient output and the preservation of soil organic matter. In Brazil, no-tillage (NT) is widely adopted for soybean-based cropping systems. In the Southern region, soybean alternates with maize in the summer and black-oats or wheat in the winter. Green-manure legumes are occasionally introduced in the crop rotation to break the continuous use of wheat in the winter. The objective of the present study was to evaluate if NT adoption would increase biological nitrogen fixation to soybean and other legumes. The hypothesis that a system richer in N would bring about positive effects on soil C stocks, was also tested. The study was carried out in Londrina, Paraná State, in Southern Brazil on a clayey Ferralsol that was cropped under NT with soybean as the main crop for more than 25 years. In 1997, three different crop rotations under both NT and conventional plough tillage (CT) were introduced. The crop rotations were composed of soybean, maize, wheat, black-oats and white lupins, but differed from each other in the frequency that each crop appeared in the rotation. Crop yields and the biomass of lupins and black-oats were quantified at every harvest during the 12 years of this study. Conversion factors of measured yield and biomass into C and biologically fixed N inputs to the crop system were developed from whole plant measurements performed in four of the twelve years of the study. The contribution of biological N 2 fixation (BNF) to the legumes was determined using the ureide abundance and the 15N natural abundance techniques in 1998, 1999, 2005 and 2007. From these data, the calculation of N balance for each rotation (input N minus output N in harvested grain) was carried out. Soil C and N stocks to 80cm depth were quantified in 1997, 2003 and 2009. Grain yields were higher under NT for soybean and under CT for maize, in the rotation with the lowest frequency of legume crops. Soybean reliance on BNF was higher under NT (76%) than under CT (68%) whilst for lupins the reliance was 68% under NT and 60% under CT. The use of lupins as a green manure represented an extra contribution to soil N of approximately 300kgNha -1 and this was essential to maintain a positive N balance for the system. The comparison of soil C stocks between 1997 and 2009 revealed almost no gain in soil C under NT, but a C loss of 19MgCha -1 after 12 years of CT. Significant soil C and N losses were recorded in the rotation where lupins were planted more frequently and fertilizer N application to maize was suspended, which resulted in a very negative N balance for the system. The results highlight the importance of NT to enhance BNF inputs to the system and the need to recognize the N balance as a key driver of C stock changes in the soil. In addition, it suggests NT in this study had the consequence of avoiding soil C loss rather than increasing soil C stocks. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Abdalla M.C.B.,Paulista University | Holender L.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Santos M.A.,Federal University of Espirito Santo | Vancea I.V.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro
Physics Letters, Section A: General, Atomic and Solid State Physics | Year: 2013

We study the dynamics of the noncommutative fluid in the Snyder space perturbatively at the first order in powers of the noncommutative parameter. The linearized noncommutative fluid dynamics is described by a system of coupled linear partial differential equations in which the variables are the fluid density and the fluid potentials. We show that these equations admit a set of solutions that are monochromatic plane waves for the fluid density and two of the potentials and a linear function for the third potential. The energy-momentum tensor of the plane waves is calculated. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Oliveira J.C.F.,State University of Rio de Janeiro | Pralon E.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Coco L.,State University of Rio de Janeiro | Pagotto R.V.,CTA Servicos em Meio Ambiente | Rocha C.F.D.,State University of Rio de Janeiro
Journal of Natural History | Year: 2013

We studied a leaf-litter frog community from an Atlantic Rainforest area in the state of Espírito Santo, south-eastern Brazil. Frogs were sampled using 4 × 4-m plots. We recorded 348 individuals from 13 species. The estimated overall density of leaf-litter frogs in the study area was 6.6 frogs/100 m2 with an estimated overall frog biomass of 0.04 g/ha. Brachycephalus didactylus was the species with the highest estimated density and highest abundance. Five of the litter frog species recorded are considered endemic to the Atlantic Forest and two species are endemic to the state of Espírito Santo, including Euparkerella robusta, which is considered threatened as the result of habitat loss. The overall abundance of leaf litter was positively related to relative humidity and depth of the leaf litter. The relationship between frog body mass and frog abundance was significant, suggesting that a general biological trend in this relationship occurs in our study area. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Corbera E.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Corbera E.,University of East Anglia | May P.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Navarro G.,EARTH University | Pacheco P.,Center for International Forestry Research
Forests | Year: 2011

Land tenure and carbon rights constitute critical issues to take into account in achieving emission reductions, ensuring transparent benefit sharing and determining non-permanence (or non-compliance) liabilities in the context of REDD+ strategies and projects. This is so because tenure systems influence who becomes involved in efforts to avoid deforestation and improve forest management, and that land tenure, carbon rights and liabilities may be linked or divorced with implications for rural development. This paper explores these issues by looking at tenure regimes and carbon rights issues in Mexico, Brazil and Costa Rica. It is effectively shown that complex bundles of rights over forest resources have distinct implications for REDD+ design and implementation, and that REDD+ strategies in selected countries have to date failed in procedurally addressing land-use conflicts and carbon rights entitlements and liabilities. © 2011 by the authors.

Martins I.V.F.,Federal University of Espirito Santo | de Avelar B.R.,Federal University of Espirito Santo | Pereira M.J.S.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | da Fonseca A.H.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro
Geospatial Health | Year: 2012

A model based on geographical information systems for mapping the risk of fascioliasis was developed for the southern part of Espírito Santo state, Brazil. The determinants investigated were precipitation, temperature, elevation, slope, soil type and land use. Weightings and grades were assigned to determinants and their categories according to their relevance with respect to fascioliasis. Theme maps depicting the spatial distribution of risk areas indicate that over 50% of southern Espírito Santo is either at high or at very high risk for fascioliasis. These areas were found to be characterized by comparatively high temperature but relatively low slope, low precipitation and low elevation corresponding to periodically flooded grasslands or soils that promote water retention.

Tupinamba M.,State University of Rio de Janeiro | Heilbron M.,State University of Rio de Janeiro | Valeriano C.,State University of Rio de Janeiro | Junior R.P.,State University of Rio de Janeiro | And 6 more authors.
Gondwana Research | Year: 2012

The ca. 790-600. Ma Rio Negro Complex (RNC) of the Ribeira belt (Brazil) consists of a plutonic portion of a magmatic arc built by the E-vergent subduction of the ESE border of the São Francisco paleoplate during the amalgamation of Western Gondwana.The plutonic series comprises low- to medium-K granitoids (ca. 790-620Ma) and high-K granitoids and shoshonite rocks (ca. 610-605). The age span of 185m.y. is suggestive of a long history of arc-related magmatism, continuously or not in time. The Nd isotopic signatures of the RNC consist of εNd(t) ratios from -3 to +5 for the medium-K series shoshonite series and from -14 to -3 for the younger high-K group. This time-dependent trend of Nd isotopes is indicative of progressive maturity of the arc over time. The same evolution is indicated by Sr data, as the medium-K rocks have 87Sr/ 86Sr initial ratios<0.705 while the high-K rocks yield values between 0.705 and 0.710. The predominance of intermediate rocks over mafic ones suggests an initial intra-oceanic to transitional stage, possibly developed in a distal portion of a passive margin, such as the Japanese arc, evolving to a more developed, differentiated felsic rock associations.The role of transform fault zones, such as the Luanda shear zone, is emphasized in order to explain the consumption of a wide oceanic plate in the inner portion of Western Gondwana. © 2011 International Association for Gondwana Research.

Nogueira D.M.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Alves M.A.S.,State University of Rio de Janeiro
Zoologia | Year: 2011

Leucism is an inherited disorder, characterized by the lack of pigments in part or all of the body, normal coloration of the eyes and, in birds, in naked parts such as the bill and legs. This kind of disorder is sometimes erroneously designated as albinism or partial albinism. In this study, we present a case of leucism in a wild owl. The studied individual presented completely white plumage, light-yellow coloration of legs and bill and normal coloration of eyes. According to morphological features, this owl is a specimen of burrowing owl, Athene cunicularia (Molina, 1782). To confirm the species identity, we used cytogenetic analyses for karyotypic determination, comparing it to the previously described one in the literature. We also studied a captive female of A. cunicularia to complement the species karyotype, which was described in the literature based only on a single male. The karyotype of the leucistic owl individual was compatible with the previously published one for A. cunicularia, confirming the bird was a male specimen. Cytogenetic analysis of the captive female showed that the W sex chromosome is metacentric and comparable to the seventh pair in size. This is the first description of a case of leucism in A. cunicularia for South America. Long-term studies are needed in the Neotropical region to evaluate survival and breeding success in leucistic birds. © 2011 Sociedade Brasileira de Zoologia.

Dias D.,Instituto Oswaldo Cruz | Esberard C.E.I.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Moratelli R.,Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz
Zootaxa | Year: 2013

We examined Brazilian species of the nectar-feeding bats genus Lonchophylla (Phyllostomidae, Lonchophyllinae) to clar-ify the identity of Lonchophylla bokermanni and to determine the distribution of this and other species of Lonchophylla in eastern Brazil. As a result, we have found sufficient differences between Cerrado populations (including the type local-ity of L. bokermanni) and populations inhabiting the Atlantic Forest of southeastern Brazil,which warrant the treatment of the Atlantic Forest populations as a separate and new species. We describe this new species here as Lonchophylla per-acchii, sp. nov. The new species appears to be restricted to the Atlantic Forest, whereas L. bokermanni is found only in Cerrado habitats. © 2013 Magnolia Press.

Del Castillo L.N.C.,State University of Rio de Janeiro | Leporace G.,State University of Rio de Janeiro | Cardinot T.M.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Levy R.A.,State University of Rio de Janeiro | de Oliveira L.P.,State University of Rio de Janeiro
Sao Paulo Medical Journal | Year: 2013

Context and Objective: The Nonarthritic Hip Score (NAHS) is a clinical evaluation questionnaire that was developed in the English language to evaluate hip function in young and physically active patients. The aims of this study were to translate this questionnaire into the Brazilian Portuguese language, to adapt it to Brazilian culture and to validate it. Design and Setting: Cohort study conducted between 2008 and 2010, at Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ). Methods: Questions about physical activities and household chores were modified to better fit Brazilian culture. Reproducibility, internal consistency and validity (correlations with the Algofunctional Lequesne Index and the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index [WOMAC]) were tested. The NAHS-Brazil, Lequesne and WOMAC questionnaires were applied to 64 young and physically active patients (mean age, 40.9 years; 31 women). Results: The intraclass correlation coefficient (which measures reproducibility) was 0.837 (P < 0.001). Bland-Altman plots revealed a mean error in the difference between the two measurements of 0.42. The internal consistency was confirmed through a Cronbach alpha of 0.944. The validity between NAHS-Brazil and Lequesne and between NAHS-Brazil and WOMAC showed high correlations, r = 0.7340 and r = 0.9073, respectively. NAHS-Brazil showed good validity with no floor or ceiling effects. Conclusion: The NAHS was translated into the Brazilian Portuguese language and was cross-culturally adapted to Brazilian culture. It was shown to be a useful tool in clinical practice for assessing the quality of life of young and physically active patients with hip pain.

Capri M.A.L.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Gomez A.J.,State University of Rio de Janeiro | Guimaraes M.S.,State University of Rio de Janeiro | Lemes V.E.R.,State University of Rio de Janeiro | And 2 more authors.
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2011

In previous work by M.A.L. Capri, A.J. Gomez, M.S. Guimaraes, V.E.R. Lemes, S.P. Sorella, and D.G. Tedesco [Phys. Rev. DPRVDAQ1550-7998 82, 105019 (2010)10.1103/PhysRevD.82.105019], we have shown that the soft breaking of the Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) symmetry arising within the Gribov-Zwanziger framework can be converted into a linear breaking, while preserving the nilpotency of the BRST operator. Because of its compatibility with the quantum action principle, the linearly broken BRST symmetry directly translates into a set of Slavnov-Taylor identities. We show that these identities guarantee the multiplicative renormalizability of both Gribov-Zwanziger and refined Gribov-Zwanziger theories to all orders. The known property that only two renormalization factors are needed is recovered. The nonrenormalization theorem of the gluon-ghost-antighost vertex, as well as the renormalization factor of the Gribov parameter, are derived within the linearly broken formulation. © 2011 American Physical Society.