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Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

The Federal University of Rio de Janeiro or University of Brazil is a public university in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. UFRJ is the largest federal university in the country and is one of the Brazilian centers of excellence in teaching and research. In terms of scientific, artistic and cultural productions it is recognized nationally and internationally due to the great teachers, researchers, reviews and assessments made by international agencies. In 2014 QS World University Rankings ranked UFRJ as the best Brazilian federal university, as well as the third best university in the country occupying the fourth position among institutions of Latin America. In 2013 the Ranking Universitário Folha ranked UFRJ as the 2nd best university in Brazil and the best Federal University of the country.Brazil's first official higher education institution, it has worked uninterruptedly since 1792, when the "Real Academia de Artilharia, Fortificação e Desenho" was founded, and served as basis for the country's college system since its officialization in 1920. Besides its 157 undergraduate and 580 postgraduate courses, the UFRJ is responsible for seven museums, most notably the National Museum, nine hospitals, hundreds of laboratories and research facilities and forty-three libraries. Its history and identity are closely tied to the Brazilian ambitions of forging a modern, competitive and just society.The university is located mainly in Rio de Janeiro, with ramifications spreading to other ten cities. Its main campuses are the historical campus of "Praia Vermelha" and the newer "Cidade Universitária" , which houses the "Parque Tecnológico do Rio" - a science, technology and innovation development cluster. There are also several off-campus units scattered in Rio de Janeiro: the School of Music, the College of Law Studies, the Institute of Philosophy and Social science and the Institute of History, in downtown Rio; the National Museum and the Valongo Observatory in São Cristóvão; and the high-school unit "Colégio de Aplicação" in Lagoa. To the city of Macaé, located in the State's northern region, was dedicated a research and learning center focused on environmental issues and oil-related matters, and the city of Duque de Caxias, in partnership with the National Institute of Metrics, Normalization and Industrial Quality , saw the implementation of "Pólo Avançado de Xerém" , aimed at boosting research in the fields of biotechnology and nanotechnology.UFRJ is one of the main culprits in the formation of the Brazilian intellectual elite, contributing significantly to build not only the history of Rio de Janeiro but also of Brazil. Some of its former students include renowned economists Carlos Lessa and Mario Henrique Simonsen; Minister Marco Aurélio Mello; the architect Oscar Niemeyer; the educator Anísio Teixeira; the engineer Benjamin Constant Botelho; writers Clarice Lispector, Jorge Amado and Vinicius de Moraes; politicians Francisco Pereira Passos, Osvaldo Aranha and Pedro Calmon, besides the great physicians Carlos Chagas, Oswaldo Cruz and Vital Brazil. Wikipedia.

Carvalho-Fernandes S.P.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Zootaxa | Year: 2016

Sciaridae are a widely distributed family with high number of species. They are known as black fungus gnats due to their dark color and feeding activity. This catalogue presents 17 species from Colombia distributed in eight genera, and for each species the geographical distribution is provided. Copyright © 2016 Magnolia Press.

The scope of this paper was to establish the significance of teamwork within the complex interaction in a Neonatal Unit. The techniques used for data collection were document analysis, participant observation and interviews. Twenty- four professionals working in a public and highly complex Neonatal Unit in the city of Rio de Janeiro were interviewed. The data were analyzed using the thematic approach of the content analysis technique, based on the literature on humanization, health work processes, teamwork and ergology. The conclusion drawn is that even in the neonatal environment, the construction of teamwork is established when the care model is geared to the logic responding to the health needs of individuals, taking into consideration the babies and their families, encompassing negotiations, limits of autonomy and notions of belonging and the recognition of others. © 2015, Associacao Brasileira de Pos - Graduacao em Saude Coletiva. All rights reserved.

Rochinha F.A.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Peirce A.,University of British Columbia
Inverse Problems | Year: 2010

There is considerable interest in using remote elastostatic deformations to identify the evolving geometry of underground fractures that are forced to propagate by the injection of high pressure viscous fluids. These so-called hydraulic fractures are used to increase the permeability in oil and gas reservoirs as well as to pre-fracture ore-bodies for enhanced mineral extraction. The undesirable intrusion of these hydraulic fractures into environmentally sensitive areas or into regions in mines which might pose safety hazards has stimulated the search for techniques to enable the evolving hydraulic fracture geometries to be monitored. Previous approaches to this problem have involved the inversion of the elastostatic data at isolated time steps in the time series provided by tiltmeter measurements of the displacement gradient field at selected points in the elastic medium. At each time step, parameters in simple static models of the fracture (e.g. a single displacement discontinuity) are identified. The approach adopted in this paper is not to regard the sequence of sampled elastostatic data as independent, but rather to treat the data as linked by the coupled elastic-lubrication equations that govern the propagation of the evolving hydraulic fracture. We combine the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) with features of a recently developed implicit numerical scheme to solve the coupled free boundary problem in order to form a novel algorithm to identify the evolving fracture geometry. Numerical experiments demonstrate that, despite excluding significant physical processes in the forward numerical model, the EKF-numerical algorithm is able to compensate for the un-modeled dynamics by using the information fed back from tiltmeter data. Indeed the proposed algorithm is able to provide reasonably faithful estimates of the fracture geometry, which are shown to converge to the actual hydraulic fracture geometry as the number of tiltmeters is increased. Since the location of tiltmeters can affect the resolution of the method, the algorithm can also be used to design the deployment of tiltmeters to optimize the resolution in regions of particular interest. © 2010 IOP Publishing Ltd.

Huf G.,Oswaldo Cruz Foundation | Huf G.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Coutinho E.S.F.,Oswaldo Cruz Foundation | Adams C.E.,University of Nottingham
Psychological Medicine | Year: 2012

Background After de-escalation techniques have failed, restraints, seclusion and/or rapid tranquillization may be used for people whose aggression is due to psychosis. Most coercive acts of health care have not been evaluated in trials. Method People admitted to the emergency room of Instituto Philippe Pinel, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, whose aggression/agitation was thought due to psychosis and for whom staff were unsure if best to restrict using physical restraints or a seclusion room, were randomly allocated to one or the other and followed up to 14 days. The primary outcomes were 'no need to change intervention early a-within 1 h' and 'not restricted by 4 h'. Results A total of 105 people were randomized. Two-thirds of the people secluded were able to be fully managed in this way. Even taking into account the move out of seclusion into restraints, this study provides evidence that embarking on the less restrictive care pathway (seclusion) does not increase overall time in restriction of some sort [not restricted by 4 h: relative risk 1.09, 95% confidence interval 0.75a-1.58; mean time to release: restraints 337.6 (s.d.=298.2) min, seclusion room 316.3 (s.d.=264.5) min, p=0.48]. Participants tended to be more satisfied with their care in the seclusion group (17.0% v. 11.1%) but this did not reach conventional levels of statistical significance (p=0.42). Conclusions This study should be replicated, but suggests that opting for the least restrictive option in circumstances where there is clinical doubt does not harm or prolong coercion. © 2012 Cambridge University Press.

Card D.N.,DNV GL | Travassos G.H.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
IEEE Software | Year: 2012

Default causal analysis (DCA) or defect prevention is required by higher-maturity-level software development processes such as the Brazilian Software Process Improvement Reference Model and Capability Maturity Model Integration. The authors ask and answer questions about implementing it in lower-maturity organizations. In the related web extra entitled "Evidence-Based Guidelines on Defect Causal Analysis," authors Marcos Kalinowski, David N. Card, and Guilherme H. Travassos discuss the basics of research protocol. © 2012 IEEE.

Kusaba K.,EBS Business School | Moser R.,Institute of Business Management | Rodrigues A.M.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Journal of Supply Chain Management | Year: 2011

The world has observed an increase in international trade and a substantial strengthening of emerging markets over the last decades. This trend stresses the importance of global sourcing research in general, and low-cost country sourcing (LCCS) research in particular. The objective of this paper is to introduce and test the construct of LCCS competence of employees from purchasing and other participating functions. The conceptual framework is derived through expert interviews, workshops, and an extensive literature review. The LCCS competence construct is tested using data from more than 300 managers and employees from various functions involved in LCCS projects. The results support the construct's validity as well as its association with LCCS performance. The study implications and future research paths are discussed. © 2011 Institute for Supply Management, Inc.™.

Molina M.G.,National University of San Juan | Mercado P.E.,National University of San Juan | Hirokazu Watanabe E.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion | Year: 2011

Superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) systems are getting increasing interest in applications of power flow stabilization and control in the transmission network level. This trend is mainly supported by the rising integration of large-scale renewable energy power plants into the high-power utility system and by major features of SMES units. In a SMES system, the power conditioning system (PCS) is the crucial component for controlling the power exchange between the superconducting coil and the ac system. The dynamics of the PCS directly influences the validity of the SMES in the dynamic control of the power system. This paper describes a novel PCS scheme of SMES to simultaneously perform both active and reactive power flow controls. Moreover, a detailed model of the SMES unit is derived and a three-level control scheme is designed, comprising a full decoupled current control strategy in the dq reference frame with a novel controller to prevent PCS dc bus capacitors voltage drift/imbalance. The dynamic performances of the proposed systems are fully validated by computer simulation. © 2011 IEEE.

Hardoim P.R.,University of Algarve | Hardoim P.R.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Van Overbeek L.S.,Plant Research International | Berg G.,University of Graz | And 5 more authors.
Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews | Year: 2015

All plants are inhabited internally by diverse microbial communities comprising bacterial, archaeal, fungal, and protistic taxa. These microorganisms showing endophytic lifestyles play crucial roles in plant development, growth, fitness, and diversification. The increasing awareness of and information on endophytes provide insight into the complexity of the plant microbiome. The nature of plant-endophyte interactions ranges from mutualism to pathogenicity. This depends on a set of abiotic and biotic factors, including the genotypes of plants and microbes, environmental conditions, and the dynamic network of interactions within the plant biome. In this review, we address the concept of endophytism, considering the latest insights into evolution, plant ecosystem functioning, and multipartite interactions. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

Maron-Gutierrez T.,Oswaldo Cruz Institute | Laffey J.G.,University of Toronto | Pelosi P.,University of Genoa | Rocco P.R.M.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Current Opinion in Critical Care | Year: 2014

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a multifaceted lung disease with no current effective therapy. Many clinical trials using conventional pharmacologic therapies have failed, suggesting the need to examine alternative approaches. Thus, attention has focused on the therapeutic potential of cell-based therapies for ARDS, with promising results demonstrated in relevant preclinical disease models. We review data concerning the therapeutic promise of cell-based therapies for ARDS. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent experimental studies provide further evidence for the potential of cell-based therapies in ARDS. A number of cell types, particularly mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs), bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells, endothelial progenitor cells, and embryonic stem cells have been demonstrated to reduce mortality and modulate the inflammatory and remodeling processes in relevant preclinical ARDS models. Multiple insights have emerged in regard to the mechanisms by which cell therapies - particularly MSCs - exert their effects, with evidence supporting direct cell-mediated and paracrine-mediated mechanisms of action. Diverse paracrine mechanisms exist, including the release of cytokines, growth factors (such as keratinocyte growth factor), and antimicrobial peptides, and transfer of cellular contents such as peptides, nucleic acids, and mitochondria via either microvesicular or direct cell-cell contact-mediated transfer. SUMMARY: Cell-based therapies offer considerable promise for the treatment of ARDS. While MSC-based therapies are being rapidly advanced toward clinical testing, clear therapeutic potential exists for other cell types for ARDS. A greater understanding of current knowledge gaps should further enhance the therapeutic potential of cell-based therapies for ARDS. © 2014 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Pomin V.H.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Carbohydrate Research | Year: 2015

Abstract Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are sulfated polysaccharides of complex structure endowed with numerous biomedical functions. Although ubiquitously distributed in vertebrates, GAGs can also occur in certain terrestrial or marine invertebrates. Solution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has been the analytical technique mostly employed in structural characterization of GAGs from any source. This review aims at illustrating the application of NMR in structural determination of few representative invertebrate GAG examples of unique structures and endowed with therapeutic actions. They are the holothurian fucosylated chondroitin sulfate, the acharan sulfate isolated from the snail Achatina fulica, the dermatan sulfates with distinct sulfation patterns extracted from ascidian species, the sulfated glucuronic acid-containing heparan sulfate isolated from the gastropode Nodipecten nodosum, and the hybrid heparin/heparan sulfate molecule obtained from the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. These invertebrate GAGs exhibit distinct structures when compared to those extracted from mammalian GAGs. The distinct structures of the invertebrate GAGs lead also to different mechanisms of actions as compared to the mammalian GAG standards. Invertebrate GAGs comprise promising therapeutic candidates in fights against diseases. Solution NMR has been playing a pivotal role in this carbohydrate-based drug research, discovery and development. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Pomin V.H.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology | Year: 2014

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has been giving a pivotal contribution to the progress of glycomics, mostly by elucidating the structural, dynamical, conformational and intermolecular binding aspects of carbohydrates. Particularly in the field of conformation, NOE resonances, scalar couplings, residual dipolar couplings, and chemical shift anisotropy offsets have been the principal NMR parameters utilized. Molecular dynamics calculations restrained by NMR-data input are usually employed in conjunction to generate glycosidic bond dihedral angles. Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are a special class of sulfated polysaccharides extensively studied worldwide. Besides regulating innumerous physiological processes, these glycans are also widely explored in the global market as either clinical or nutraceutical agents. The conformational aspects of GAGs are key regulators to the quality of interactions with the functional proteins involved in biological events. This report discusses the solution conformation of each GAG type analyzed by one or more of the above-mentioned methods. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Schrago C.G.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Journal of Theoretical Biology | Year: 2014

The effective population size is a fundamental parameter for the understanding of microevolutionary process. Indeed, the consideration of population-level phenomena within phylogenies provides insight into the influence of the past evolutionary demography on the genetic diversity of living species. Although the effective population size of the last common ancestor of humans and chimpanzees has been extensively investigated by molecular evolutionists, variance in the estimates of this parameter among studies is large. However, with the availability of genome sequences, the estimation of evolutionary parameters may be conducted with minimum stochastic error, and the limiting distribution of the estimates may be obtained. This statistical property was utilized in the present study and coupled with analytical derivations from the coalescent theory to examine the limiting distribution of the ancestral effective population size of Homo-Pan. The mean ancestral effective population size of Homo-Pan was inferred at approximately 47,500, and the results showed that the uncertainty of the estimates was large, even under the limiting distribution. Further reductions of the estimates are feasible only if additional calibration information from the fossil record is provided and if a probabilistic model of ancestral generation time is envisioned. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

The recent development of methods that apply coalescent theory to phylogenetic problems has enabled the study of the population-level phenomena that drove the diversification of anthropoid primates. Effective population size, Ne, is one of the main parameters that constitute the theoretical underpinning of these new analytical approaches. For this reason, the ancestral Ne of selected primate lineages has been thoroughly investigated. However, for some of these lineages, the estimates of ancestral Ne reported in several studies present significant variation. This is the case for the common ancestor of humans and chimpanzees. Moreover, several ancestral anthropoid lineages have been ignored in the studies conducted so far. Because Ne is fundamental to understand historic species demography, it is a crucial component of a complete description of the historical scenario of primate evolution. It also provides information that is helpful for differentiating between competing biogeographical hypotheses. In this study, the effective population sizes of the anthropoid ancestors of the human-chimp lineage are inferred using data sets of coding and noncoding sequences. A general pattern of a serial decline of population sizes is found between the ancestral lineage of Anthropoidea and that of Homo and Pan. When the theoretical distribution of gene trees was derived from the parametric estimates obtained, it closely corresponded to the empirical frequency of inferred gene trees along the genome. The most abrupt decrease of Ne was found between the ancestors of all great apes and those of the African great apes alone. This suggests the occurrence of a genetic bottleneck during the evolution of Homininae, which corroborates the origin of African apes from a Eurasian ancestor. © 2013 The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

Galina A.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
International Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology | Year: 2014

Enhanced glycolysis, the classic bioenergetic phenotype of cancer cells was described by Otto Warburg approximately 90 years ago. However, the Warburg hypothesis does not necessarily imply mitochondrial dysfunction. The alkyl-halogen, 3-bromopyruvate (3BP), would not be expected to have selective targets for cancer therapy due to its high potential reactivity toward many {single bond}SH side groups. Contrary to predictions, 3BP interferes with glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation in cancer cells without side effects in normal tissues. The mitochondrial hexokinase II has been claimed as the main target. This "Organelle in focus" article presents a historical view of the use of 3BP in biochemistry and its effects on ATP-producing pathways of cancer cells. I will discuss how the alkylated enzymes contribute to the cooperative collapse of mitochondria and apoptosis. Perspectives for targeting 3BP to bioenergetics enzymes for cancer treatment will be considered. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Gomes P.R.,Federal University of Fluminense | Canto L.F.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Lubian J.,Federal University of Fluminense | Hussein M.S.,University of Sao Paulo
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2011

The tunneling of composite systems, where breakup may occur during the barrier penetration process, is considered in connection with the fusion of halo-like radioactive, neutron- and proton-rich nuclei, on heavy targets. The large amount of recent and new data clearly indicates that breakup hinders the fusion at energies near and below the Coulomb barrier. However, clear evidence for enhancement due to halo properties seems to over ride the breakup hindrance at lower energies, owing, to a large extent, to the extended matter density distribution. In particular we report here that at sub-barrier energies the fusion cross section of the Borromean two-neutron halo nucleus 6He with the actinide nucleus 238U is significantly enhanced as compared to the fusion of a similar projectile with no halo. This conclusion differs from that of the original work, where it was claimed that no such enhancement ensues. This sub-barrier fusion enhancement is also observed in the 6He+ 209Bi system. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Dias W.B.,Johns Hopkins University | Dias W.B.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Cheung W.D.,Johns Hopkins University | Hart G.W.,Johns Hopkins University
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications | Year: 2012

Recent evidence indicates that site-specific crosstalk between O-GlcNAcylation and phosphorylation and the O-GlcNAcylation of kinases play an important role in regulating cell signaling. However, relatively few kinases have been analyzed for O-GlcNAcylation. Here, we identify additional kinases that are substrates for O-GlcNAcylation using an in vitro OGT assay on a functional kinase array. Forty-two kinases were O-GlcNAcylated in vitro, representing 39% of the kinases on the array. In addition, we confirmed the in vivo O-GlcNAcylation of three identified kinases. Our results suggest that O-GlcNAcylation may directly regulate a substantial number of kinases and illustrates the increasingly complex relationship between O-GlcNAcylation and phosphorylation in cellular signaling. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

Pomin V.H.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology | Year: 2014

Glycomics is an international initiative aimed to understand the structure and function of the glycans from a given type of cell, tissue, organism, kingdom or even environment, as found under certain conditions. Glycomics is one of the latest areas of intense biological research. Glycans of marine sources are unique in terms of structure and function. They differ considerably from those of terrestrial origin. This review discusses the most known marine glycans of potential therapeutic properties. They are chitin, chitosan, and sulfated polysaccharides named glycosaminoglycans, sulfated fucans, and sulfated galactans. Their medical actions are very broad. When certain structural requirements are found, these glycans can exhibit beneficial effects in inflammation, coagulation, thrombosis, cancer growth/metastasis, and vascular biology. Both structure and therapeutic mechanisms of action of these marine glycans are discussed here in straight context with the current glycomic age through a project suggestively named marine medicinal glycomics.

Regenerative medicine involves a paradigm change due to organism regeneration at cellular and tissue level – a controversial contemporary issue and difficult to regulate. This article presents a summary of the main scientific, economic, social and regulatory global trends, analyzed according to relevant theoretical dilemmas in medical anthropology and in the sociology of science and health. This is especially true of the construction of a ‘collective frame of reference’ on the new biological and ontological entities, the shaping of biological citizenship, and governance through uncertainty. Empirical evidence is also presented on a key aspect in regulation and governance, namely the emergence of a new transnational demand in health research through the establishment of parallel markets for ova and experimental cellular therapies. Qualitative data collected for a broader research paper is analyzed, as well as journal reviews and information gathered during interviews with international leaders. The paper concludes with a discussion on the importance on international governance of clinical trials and on further exploration, towards a multilevel harmonization of a diversity of normative practices. © 2015, Associacao Brasileira de Pos - Graduacao em Saude Coletiva. All rights reserved.

Moreira De Oliveira M.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Eon J.-G.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Acta Crystallographica Section A: Foundations of Crystallography | Year: 2013

Periodic nets are commonly used to represent the topology of crystal structures. Non-crystallographic (NC) nets are p-periodic nets whose automorphism groups are not isomorphic to any isometry group in the Euclidean space. This work deals with the special class of NC nets possessing non-trivial finite blocks of imprimitivity for bounded automorphisms. It is shown that periodic, barycentric representations of NC nets with this property display vertex collisions, every block being represented as a single point. As a consequence, the labelled quotient graph of these nets shows an equitable partition that also respects the voltages over the edges, introduced as an equivoltage partition. Possible motions within linked blocks of imprimitivity are characterized as correlation groups. Some non-trivial examples of NC nets that have bounded automorphism groups with and without fixed points are explored from the viewpoint of equivoltage partitions and correlation groups, and a general algorithm is proposed to this end. It is shown that the group of bounded automorphisms of these nets can be described using wreath products of finite permutation groups by translation groups. © 2013 International Union of Crystallography Printed in Singapore-all rights reserved.

Diene O.,Federal University of ABC | Bhaya A.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Signal Processing | Year: 2010

Multi-user mobile communication systems use adaptive and linearly constrained adaptive filters for blind and non-blind adaptive interference cancelation, multipath reduction, equalization, and adaptive beamforming. A conjugate gradient and a steepest descent method for real-time processing are proposed and applied to blind adaptive array processor. Simulations show that the proposed algorithms have performance comparable to those of algorithms proposed earlier. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Pomin V.H.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - General Subjects | Year: 2012

Background: With the recent advent of glycomics, many medically relevant glycans have been discovered. Sulfated fucans (SFs) and sulfated galactans (SGs) are one of these classes of glycans with increasing interest to both glycomics and medicine. Besides having very unique structures, some of these molecules exhibit a broad range of pharmacological actions. In certain cases, high levels of effectiveness may be reached when the proper structural requirements are found. Scope of review: Here, we cover the fundamental biochemical mechanisms of some of these medicinal properties. We particularly focus on the beneficial activities of SFs and SGs in inflammation, hemostasis, vascular biology, and cancer. Major conclusions: In these clinical systems, intermolecular complexes directly driven by electrostatic interactions of SFs and SGs with P- and L-selectins, chemokines, antithrombin, heparin cofactor II, thrombin, factor Xa, bFGF, and VEGF, overall govern the resultant therapeutic effects. In spite of that, the structural features of SFs and SGs have shown to be essential determinants for formation and stability of those molecular complexes, which consequently account to the differential levels of the biomedical responses. General significance: Accurate structure-function relationships have mostly been achieved when SFs and SGs of well-defined structures are used for study. Therefore, these types of glycans have become of great usefulness to identify the chemical requirements needed to achieve satisfactory clinical responses. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Marra V.,University of Heidelberg | Quartin M.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Amendola L.,University of Heidelberg
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2013

With the availability of thousands of type Ia supernovae in the near future the magnitude scatter induced by lensing will become a major issue as it affects parameter estimation. Current N-body simulations are too time consuming to be integrated in the likelihood analyses used for estimating the cosmological parameters. In this paper we show that in the weak-lensing regime a statistical numerical approximation produces accurate results orders of magnitude faster. We write down simple fits to the second, third and fourth central moments of the lensing magnification probability distribution as a function of redshift, of the power spectrum normalization and of the present-day matter density. We also improve upon existing models of lensing variance and show that a shifted log-normal distribution fits well the numerical one. These fits can be easily employed in cosmological likelihood analyses. Moreover, our theoretical predictions make it possible to invert the problem and begin using supernovae lensing to constrain the cosmological parameters. © 2013 American Physical Society.

Dias-Neto A.C.,Federal University of Amazonas | Travassos G.H.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering | Year: 2014

The technical literature on model-based testing (MBT) offers us several techniques with different characteristics and goals. Contemporary software projects usually need to make use of different software testing techniques. However, a lack of empirical information regarding their scalability and effectiveness is observed. It makes their application difficult in real projects, increasing the technical difficulties to combine two or more MBT techniques for the same software project. In addition, current software testing selection approaches offer limited support for the combined selection of techniques. Therefore, this paper describes the conception and evaluation of an approach aimed at supporting the combined selection of MBT techniques for software projects. It consists of an evidence-based body of knowledge with 219 MBT techniques and their corresponding characteristics and a selection process that provides indicators on the level of adequacy (impact indicator) amongst MBT techniques and software projects characteristics. Results from the data analysis indicate it contributes to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of the selection process when compared to another selection approach available in the technical literature. Aiming at facilitating its use, a computerized infrastructure, evaluated into an industrial context and evolved to implement all the facilities needed to support such selection approach, is presented. © 2014 IEEE.

On the basis of an ethnographic narrative on sexual interactions observed in urban parks in large Brazilian cities, the article discusses the adoption of new strategies and methods for AIDS prevention in vulnerable populations, especially in men who have sex with men (MSM). By following some guiding questions, the text debates when, why, with whom, and in which context the new prevention methods should be adopted. It emphasizes, in agreement to the initial narrative, the importance of taking into account the prevention strategies created by the population itself to manage HIV risk infection. It also addresses how prevention practices and messages are adapted and recreated by individuals and groups in an attempt to suit them to their sexual desires, practices, and choices. In this perspective, the article recommends the inclusion of the experiences and voices of individuals and groups considered vulnerable in the new AIDS prevention methods and programs targeted to them. © 2015, Assocaicao Brasileira de Pos, Gradacao em Saude Coletiva. All rights reserved.

Rodrigues H.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Duarte S.B.,Brazilian Center for Research in Physics (CBPF) | De Oliveira J.C.T.,Federal University of Roraima
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2011

High-mass compact stars have been reported recently in the literature, providing strong constraints on the properties of the ultra dense matter beyond the saturation nuclear density. In view of these results, the calculations of quark star or hybrid star equilibrium structure must be compatible with the provided observational data. But since the equations of state used in describing quark matter are in general too soft in comparison with the equation of states used to describe the hadronic or nuclear matter, the calculated quark star models presented in the literature are in general not suitable to explain the stability of highly-compact massive objects. In this work, we present the calculations of a spherically symmetric quark star structure by using an equation of state that takes into account the superconducting color-flavor locked phase of the strange quark matter. In addition, some fundamental aspects of QCD (asymptotic freedom and confinement) are considered by means of a phenomenological description of the deconfined quark phase, the density-dependent quark mass model. The quark matter behavior introduced by this model stiffens the corresponding equation of state. We thus investigate the influence of this model on the mass-radius diagram of quark stars. We obtain massive quark stars due to the stiffness of the equation of state, when a reasonable parameterization of the color superconducting gap is used. Models of quark stars enveloped by a nucleonic crust composed of a nuclear lattice embedded in an electron gas, with nuclei close to neutron drip line, are also discussed. © 2011. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

Rangel M.S.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
International Journal of Modern Physics A | Year: 2015

We present a summary of results from studies of diffraction at the Fermilab Tevatron collider by the D0 experiment. These include the elastic scattering measurement and studies of dijet exclusive production using Run II data. A brief description of Run I results is also given. © 2015 World Scientific Publishing Company.

Six new species of the seasonal killifish genus Cynolebias are described. They are endemic to the Caatinga of the middle São Francisco river basin, a semi-arid savannah region of north-eastern Brazil undergoing intensive habitat loss. Cynolebias ochraceus, new species, is closely related to C. gilbertoi, differing from it by having more vertebrae, fewer vomerine teeth, more caudal-fin rays and a different colouration in males. Cynolebias obsciirus, new species, and C. roseus, new species, are members of the C. porosus group, the former being distinguished from congeners of that group by having a narrow basihyal, the ventral process of autopalatine absent, and a distinct colour pattern in males; and C. roseus differing by having contact organs over the internal surface of all the pectoral-fin rays in males. Cynolebias recliventer, new species, C. parietalis, new species, and C. oticus, new species, are members of the C. perforatus group; C. recliventer differs from all congeners of its group by having contact organs only on the seven upper-most rays of the pectoral fin in males, a small ventral process on the autopalatine and gill rakers slightly curved with denticles restricted to margin, and absence of scales on the dorsal-fin base; C. parietalis, by having supraorbital and parietal series of neuromasts united and a broad basihyal; and, C. oticus, by having the otic and post-otic series of neuromasts often united or in close proximity and the dorsal profile of the head concave in all ontogenetic stages. Cynolebias albipunctatus is considered as a synonym of C. porosus, which is assumed to be endemic to the São Francisco river basin. Preliminary conservation status assessments indicate that at least two new species, C. obscurns and C. ochraceus, are endangered. © 2014 by Verlag Dr. Friedrich Pfeil, München, Germany.

Costa W.J.E.M.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Vertebrate Zoology | Year: 2014

A phylogenetic analysis combining available mitochondrial DNA sequences (total of 3,339 bp) and 161 morphological characters for 22 species of rachovine genera (Aphyolebias, Austrofimdulns, Gnalholebias, Llanolebias, Micromoema, Moema, Neofunduius, Plerolebias, Rachovia, Renova, Terranatos, and Trigonectes), and 16 outgroups, supports monophyly of the group containing genera endemic to the Orinoco river basin and adjacent coastal drainages. Results of the present analysis are compared to previous studies. The tree topology indicates that the genera Moema and Rachovia as presently delimited are paraphyletic; consequently, Aphyolebias and Austrofitndulus are respectively placed in the synonymy of Moema and Rachovia. This study also indicates that rachovines were in the past geographically restricted to the Amazonas-Paraguay area where diversification in niche exploitation was constrained by competition with sympatric members of older seasonal fish lineages. Rachovines later reached the Orinoco basin and adjacent coastal drainages by dispersal through the Paleo-Amazonas river basin, when major evolutionary radiation taken place. © Senckenberg Gesellschaft für Naturforschung, 2014.

Weksler M.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Percequillo A.R.,University of Sao Paulo
Mastozoologia Neotropical | Year: 2011

Due to recent phylogenetic and revisionary taxonomic work, the systematics of the Tribe Oryzomyini, the largest group of sigmodontine rodents, underwent profound changes. We present here an artificial key for the genera of this group of rodents, enabling researchers to identify oryzomyines using external, cranial and dental characteristics. We also present the most up-to-date diversity assessment of the tribe, in which we recognize 33 extant and extinct genera (plus three undescribed genus-group taxa) and 130 valid species. © SAREM, 2011.

Arnez M.A.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Revista brasileira de reumatologia | Year: 2012

The macrophagic syndrome or reactive haemophagocytic syndrome (RHS) is a complication resulting from systemic inflammatory diseases and may also be related to malign neoplasias, immunodeficiencies and to a variety of infections caused by virus, bacteria, and fungus. It is characterized by an excessive activation of macrophages and histiocytes along with intense hemophagocytosis in bone marrow and reticulum-endothelial system, causing the phagocytosis of erythrocytes, leukocytes, platelets, and their precursors. The clinical manifestations are fever, hepatosplenomegaly, lymphadenomegalies, neurological involvement, variable degrees of cytopenias, hyperferritinemia, liver disorders, intravascular coagulation, and multiple organs failure. We report a rare case of recurrent RHS complication in a systemic lupus erythematosus male patient after two years. Although extremely rare it has evolved with an improvement after a pulse methilprednisolone and cyclophosphamide therapy.

Gounot Y.J.R.,Federal University of Fluminense | Musafir R.E.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Journal of Sound and Vibration | Year: 2011

Three different approaches of the equivalent source method for simulating scattered fields are compared: two of them deal with monopole sets, the other with multipole expansions. In the first monopole approach, the sources have fixed positions given by specific rules, while in the second one (ESGA), the optimal positions are determined via a genetic algorithm. The 'pros and cons' of each of these approaches are discussed with the aim of providing practical guidelines for the user. It is shown that while both monopole techniques furnish quite good pressure field reconstructions with simple source arrangements, ESGA requires a number of monopoles significantly smaller and, with equal number of sources, yields a better precision. As for the multipole technique, the main advantage is that in principle any precision can be reached, provided the source order is sufficiently high. On the other hand, the results point out that the lack of rules for determining the proper multipole order necessary for a desired precision may constitute a handicap for the user. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Lopes T.S.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2016

Background/objectives:The accuracy of dietary assessment methods has rarely been validated using precise techniques. The objective of this work was to evaluate the validity of energy intake (EI) estimated with food records (FRs) and 24-h recalls (24hRs) against total energy expenditure (EE) estimated by the doubly labeled water (DLW) method. In addition, the magnitude of EI under-reporting was assessed along with its associated characteristics.Subjects/methods:The studied group included 83 adults between 20 and 60 years of age who were recruited from a population-based sample. Within-person variation-adjusted means of EI estimated from two FRs and three 24hRs were compared with EE estimated using the DLW method multiple-point protocol. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to assess the differences between EI and EE, whereas Bland–Altman and survival-agreement plots assessed the agreement between the estimates.Results:The mean EE (2540 kcal) was greater than the mean reported EI for both dietary assessment methods (FR: 1774 kcal; 24hR: 1658 kcal, P<0.01). The frequency of under-reporting was lower (20%) for EI estimated with the 24hR than that estimated with the FR (32%). Men presented lower magnitude of under-reported EI than women did. For women, differences between EI and EE were lower with FR than with 24hR. Overall, FR and 24hR showed similar performance. The mean under-reported EI was ~30% for both methods.Conclusions:Irregular meal habits, smoking and low education were associated with the under-report of EI. Both FR and 24hR are subjected to bias suggesting the need of refining the procedures applied in dietary assessment methods.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 8 June 2016; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2016.85. © 2016 Macmillan Publishers Limited

Pomin V.H.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Analyst | Year: 2014

Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) comprise a special class of complex carbohydrates endowed with numerous biological functions. Most of these functions are regulated by conformational arrangements or dynamical properties of GAGs in solution. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a powerful technique used for dynamic analyses. Spin relaxation, scalar couplings, chemical shifts and nuclear Overhauser effect resonances are the commonest NMR parameters utilized in such analyses. Computational molecular dynamics are also very often employed in conjunction with, or restrained by, the NMR dataset. This report aims at describing the major NMR-based information available so far concerning the dynamical properties of free GAGs in solution. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014.

The scope of this article is to assess the main characteristics of the traditions and experiences of empowerment of users and family members in mental health treatment and services in Anglo-Saxon countries and in Brazil and the repercussions and strategies thereof in the field of evaluative and interventional research in mental health. Based on a brief bibliographical review of the literature, the aim is to compare how the empowerment tradition has developed in the two realities, based on the characteristics of the economic, political, social - and especially cultural - context. The review revealed how these contexts induce different perspectives on how to foster the autonomy and empowerment of users and family members in social policies and mental health, as well as their appropriation in the field of evaluative and interventional research. In Anglo-Saxon countries, this tradition has been vigorously promoted over the past four decades, and in Brazil the participative strategies emphasize mixed mechanisms - professionals, users and family members together - with the dominant presence of the professionals. The strategies in Brazil more directly designed for users and family members are recent and have been implemented from 2005 onwards.

Kellner A.W.A.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciencias | Year: 2015

Eudimorphodon ranzii was the first Triassic pterosaur to be described and several specimens have been referred to this taxon mainly based on the presence of multicuspid teeth. Since this dental feature has been observed in several other pterosaurs, the revision of some specimens assigned to Eudimorphodon shows that they represent new taxa as follows: Arcticodactylus cromptonellus (comb. nov.), Austriadraco dallavecchiai (gen. et sp. nov.) and Bergamodactylus wildi (gen. et sp. nov.). A preliminary analysis of pterosaur ontogeny resulted in the recognition of six distinct ontogenetic stages (OS1-6). According to this classification, the holotype of Arcticodactylus cromptonellus has reached OS2, and although being ontogenetically much younger than others, the conspicuous anatomical differences lead to its exclusion from Eudimorphodon. The holotypes of Austriadraco dallavecchiai, Bergamodactylus wildi and Carniadactylus rosenfeldi have reached at least OS5, which demonstrates that the anatomical differences among them cannot be explained by ontogeny. Moreover, Bergamodactylus wildi reaches about 60% of the maximized wingspan of Carniadactylus rosenfeldi and further concurs that these specimens collected in distinct Triassic Islands of Europe are not conspecific. The present study increases the diversity of Triassic flying reptiles and further pushes the origins of this clade back to at least the Middle Triassic. © 2015, Academia Brasileira de Ciencias. All rights reserved.

Neves J.S.,Harvard University | Neves J.S.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Radke A.L.,Harvard University | Weller P.F.,Harvard University
Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology | Year: 2010

Background: Cysteinyl leukotrienes (cysLTs) are recognized to act via receptors (cysLTRs) expressed on cell surface plasma membranes. Agents that block cysLT1 receptor (cysLT1R) are therapeutics for allergic disorders. Eosinophils contain multiple preformed proteins stored within their intracellular granules. Cell-free eosinophil granules are present extracellularly as intact membrane-bound organelles in sites associated with eosinophil infiltration, including asthma, rhinitis, and urticaria, but have unknown functional capabilities. Objective: We evaluated the expression of cysLTRs on eosinophil granule membranes and their functional roles in eliciting protein secretion from within eosinophil granules. Methods: We studied secretory responses of human eosinophil granules isolated by subcellular fractionation. Granules were stimulated with cysLTs, and eosinophil cationic protein and cytokines were measured in the supernatants. Receptor expression on granule membranes and eosinophils was evaluated by flow cytometry and Western blot. Results: We report that receptors for cysLTs, cysLT1R, cysLT2 receptor, and the purinergic P2Y12 receptor, are expressed on eosinophil granule membranes. Leukotriene (LT) C4 and extracellularly generated LTD4 and LTE4 stimulated isolated eosinophil granules to secrete eosinophil cationic protein. MRS 2395, a P2Y12 receptor antagonist, inhibited cysLT-induced eosinophil cationic protein release. Montelukast, likely not solely as an inhibitor of cysLT1R, inhibited eosinophil cationic protein release elicited by LTC4 and LTD4 as well as by LTE4. Conclusion: These studies identify previously unrecognized sites of localization, the membranes of intracellular eosinophil granule organelles, and function for cysLT-responsive receptors that mediate cysteinyl leukotriene-stimulated secretion from within eosinophil granules, including those present extracellularly. © 2010 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology.

Brandao A.L.R.B.S.,Escola Nacional de Saude Publica | Giovanella L.,Escola Nacional de Saude Publica | Campos C.E.A.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Ciencia e Saude Coletiva | Year: 2013

Satisfaction with health care is a multidimensional concept that considers aspects such as access, organization and professional-user interaction. The aim of this study was to adapt and apply an instrument in the Family Health Strategy (FHS) to assess user satisfaction with Primary Health Care (PHC) based on the European Task Force on Patient Evaluation of General Practice Care (EUROPEP), which refers to user satisfaction wth general and family medicine services. The instrument consists of five dimensions of satisfaction: relationship and communication, medical care, information and support, continuity and cooperation, and organization of services. The study was divided into phases: review and adjustment of the instrument and application to a representative sample of users of the FHS in Rio de Janeiro. The averages of the proportions of answers for each indicator were calculated to analyze the results. Relationship and communication between professionals and users received the best evaluation and Organization of Services eceived the worst appraisal. Regarding education level, good self-perceived health and more elderly were more satisfied. The instrument proved to be easy to apply, can be routinely used for monitoring of the FHS, and is a tool for the institutionalization of evaluation.

Orlande H.R.B.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Heat Transfer Engineering | Year: 2011

Work conducted in the field of inverse heat transform problems that deal with the estimation of unknown quantities appearing in the mathematical formulation of physical processes in thermal sciences is discussed. The solution of a these problem must satisfy the conditions of existence, uniqueness, and stability with respect to the input data. The methodology for the verification and validation (V&V) of computational codes in fluid dynamics and heat transfer has been established in a standard published by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME). Validation requires experimental data, which are quantitatively compared to the results of the computational simulation. The solution of inverse problems relies on the computational solution of the direct problem, which is used, together with the available experimental data, for the estimation of parameters and functions appearing in the mathematical formulation of the physical problem.

Veliz F.F.C.,CEPEL - Center of Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica | Borges C.L.T.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Rei A.M.,CEPEL - Center of Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica
IEEE Transactions on Power Systems | Year: 2010

This paper presents a comparison of Markov load models for composite reliability evaluation by nonsequential Monte Carlo simulation. The proposed models represent the whole system load curve. The first model (M1) is an aggregated Markov model that represents all different states present in the load curve, without using any clustering technique. The second model (M2) consists of a hybrid Markov model, where all different levels of the load curve are also represented but it tries to preserve some chronology of the load curve. The third model (M3) consists of a non-aggregated Markov model. The frequency and duration (FD) indices are calculated by the conditional probability method for all models. The indices calculated using these models are compared with the indices obtained when the usual clustered aggregated Markov model (M0) is used. The indices obtained by sequential Monte Carlo simulation with a chronological system load curve are used as comparison reference in order to validate the presented models. © 2010 IEEE.

Pomin V.H.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Glycoconjugate Journal | Year: 2015

Fertilization is a controlled cell-cell interaction event that ultimately leads to the union of the gametes involved in reproduction. Fertilization is characterized by three major steps: (i) sperm binding to the extracellular matrix that coats the egg, inducing thereby the acrosome reaction; (ii) penetration of the acrosome-reacted sperm through the egg coat until its contact with the egg plasma membrane; and (iii) adhesion and fusion of the cell membranes of both gametes and the interchange of genetic materials. The acrosome reaction in the first step is important because it ensures that fertilization occurs only between gametes of homologous species. This specificity is primarily driven by the structure of egg jelly coat glycans recognized by a lectin-like binding protein (receptor) in the sperm membrane. Sea urchin fertilization is the best model utilized for understanding carbohydrate-mediated acrosome reactions. This report aims at describing the biochemical basis of regulatory mechanisms exerted by sea urchin sulfated fucans and galactans of well-defined chemical structures on the egg-sperm recognition process during fertilization of this invertebrate. Flagellasialin, a sulfated polysialic acid-containing glycoprotein found in sea urchin sperm flagella, is another sulfated glycan example also involved in fertilization of the echinoderm. © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Gomes R.R.,Brazilian Center for Research in Physics (CBPF) | De Oliveira I.G.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Doria M.M.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2012

We investigate the Little-Parks oscillations caused by a persistent current loop set on the top edge of a mesoscopic superconducting thin-walled cylinder with a finite height. For a short cylinder the Little-Parks oscillations are approximately the same ones as the standard effect, as there is only one magnetic flux piercing the cylinder. For a tall cylinder the inhomogeneity of the magnetic field makes different magnetic fluxes pierce the cylinder at distinct heights and we show here that this produces two distinct Little-Parks oscillatory regimes according to the persistent current loop. We show that these two regimes, and also the transition between them, are observable in current measurements done in the superconducting cylinder. The two regimes stem from different behavior along the height, as seen in the order parameter, numerically obtained from the Ginzburg-Landau theory through the finite element method. © 2012 American Physical Society.

Costa W.J.E.M.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society | Year: 2015

A phylogenetic analysis combining 63 morphological characters and DNA sequences (3296bp), comprising segments of the mitochondrial genes 16S and ND2, and the nuclear gene 28S, for 19 taxa of the West African killifish tribe Callopanchacini and 11 out-group taxa, highly supported the monophyly of the tribe, and made it possible to provide the first unambiguous diagnoses for the included genera (Archiaphyosemion, Callopanchax, Nimbapanchax, and Scriptaphyosemion). The monophyly of the Callopanchacini is supported by six morphological synapomorphies: posterior portion of the mandibular channel consisting of a single open groove; basihyal pentagonal, as a result of a nearly rectangular basihyal cartilage and a triangular bony support; dorsal process of the urohyal usually absent, sometimes rudimentary; presence of a wide bony flap adjacent to the proximal portion of the fourth ceratobranchial; a broad bony flap adjacent to the proximal portion of the fifth ceratobranchial; and haemal prezygapophysis of the pre-ural vertebra2 ventrally directed. The analysis indicates that the medially continuous rostral neuromast channel, commonly used to diagnose the tribe, is plesiomorphic. This study also indicates that, among African aplocheiloids, the annual life cycle style developed once in Callopanchax, and then again independently in the clade containing Fundulopanchax and Nothobranchius. © 2015 The Linnean Society of London.

Canaguier-Durand A.,Kastler-Brossel Laboratory | Neto P.A.M.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Lambrecht A.,Kastler-Brossel Laboratory | Reynaud S.,Kastler-Brossel Laboratory
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2010

The thermal Casimir force between two metallic plates is known to depend on the description of material properties. For large separations the dissipative Drude model leads to a force a factor of 2 smaller than the lossless plasma model. Here we show that the plane-sphere geometry, in which current experiments are performed, decreases this ratio to a factor of 3/2, as revealed by exact numerical and large-distance analytical calculations. For perfect reflectors, we find a repulsive contribution of thermal photons to the force and negative entropy values at intermediate distances. © 2010 The American Physical Society.

Paiva T.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Scalettar R.,University of California at Davis | Randeria M.,Ohio State University | Trivedi N.,Ohio State University
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2010

One of the major challenges in realizing antiferromagnetic and superfluid phases in optical lattices is the ability to cool fermions. We determine constraints on the entropy for observing these phases in two-dimensional Hubbard models using determinantal quantum Monte Carlo simulations. We find that an entropy per particle □ln □ 2 is sufficient to observe the insulating gap in the repulsive Hubbard model at half-filling, or the pairing pseudogap in the attractive case. Observing antiferromagnetic correlations or superfluidity in 2D systems requires a further reduction in entropy by a factor of 3 or more. In contrast with higher dimensions, we find that adiabatic cooling is not useful to achieve the required low temperatures. We also show that double-occupancy measurements are useful for thermometry for temperatures greater than the nearest-neighbor hopping energy. © 2010 The American Physical Society.

Kury A.B.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society | Year: 2015

For the first time a hypothesis of homology is proposed for the macrosetae which compose the armature of the distal truncus penis of the Gonyleptoidea. Previous attempts to name them in the literature have not been continued because they started by referring to macrosetae based on their position, which may change widely, and all of them were very narrow in scope. The present project instead names groups of macrosetae that do not mandatorily refer to their position, thus compensating for their hypothesized secondary position shifts. Using criteria of topology, shape and exclusion, six groups of setae are recognized, A-E, and their topological and phylogenetic distribution is studied and described in all families of Gonyleptoidea and two other related families of Grassatores. A cladistic analysis is performed, providing the following results: (1) the Microsetata are recovered including Metasarcidae/Cosmetidae sister to an expanded Gonyleptidae; (2) the genera Quindina (Cranaidae) and Zygopachylus (Manaosbiidae) are transferred to Nomoclastidae rank nov., hitherto regarded as a subfamily of Stygnidae, now a sister group of the Microsetata; (3) Zamorinae, currently placed in Cranaidae, is the sister group to Nomoclastidae, and it is therefore transferred to this family; (4) an expanded Gonyleptidae is recovered, including Manaosbiidae and Cranaidae, but the independence of these families is also recovered because the Gonyleptidae stricto sensu form a clade; (5) the Ampycinae, in spite of many particularities, are recovered inside Gonyleptidae; (6) the zamorine-less Cranaidae are recovered as a monophyletic sister group to Gonyleptidae, but not nested inside it. Jabbastygnus gen. nov. is described in Stygnidae along with its type species J.huttorum, from Colombia. © 2015 The Linnean Society of London.

Borges C.L.T.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2012

This paper presents a review of reliability models and methods for estimating renewable energy resources influence on electrical generation availability. These models and methods may be used to evaluate the impacts on the distribution systems reliability of distributed generation integration, especially when they are based on renewable energy sources. For such, the paper presents the main characteristics of renewable resources models that have been developed for wind, small hydro, solar and biomass, and presents the main methods for reliability evaluation of distribution systems with such resources integrated. These evaluation methods may be based on analytical techniques, Monte Carlo simulation or hybrid approaches. The impact of distributed generation on the reliability of electric distribution systems depends mainly on the operational mode and the energy source in which it is based. The most uncertain case is related to generation based on renewable energy of intermittent nature where the generation availability depends on the availability of the energy source and the availability of the generating unit. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All right reserved.

Vale M.M.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Jenkins C.N.,North Carolina State University
Journal of Biogeography | Year: 2012

If biological collections tend to be taken near accessible areas, and the number of such areas is limited, then we should expect a similar spatial distribution of collecting effort across taxa. Alternatively, if researchers working on a given taxon pick collection localities based on idiosyncratic criteria, then there should be no spatial similarity in collecting effort. This study compares the spatial distribution of collecting effort for plants and birds in Amazonia. Collection localities were transformed into a Thiessen network where polygon size works as a surrogate for collecting effort. A correlation between botanical and ornithological datasets, with an adjustment for spatial autocorrelation, showed little congruence in the spatial distribution of collecting effort between the two taxa. This incongruence of the distribution of collection effort among taxa suggests that the identification of priority areas for research, and correction for Wallacean and Linnean shortfalls based on taxon-specific studies, should not be generalized. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Joras S.E.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
International Journal of Modern Physics A | Year: 2011

In this paper, I make a brief review of f(R) theories and their shortcomings - with some emphasis on the latter. I constrain myself to f(R) theories, the current acceleration of the (homegeneous) universe and the metric formalism (except at the very end). © 2011 World Scientific Publishing Company.

This is a historical and social study, which aimed to describe the main characteristics of the Vargas and Franco dictatorships, and to analyze the implications of these to the institutionalization of nursing in Brazil and Spain. As fonts, it was used written documents located in the historical Brazilian and Spanish archives, in addition to the literature on the subject. Data analysis, supported by concepts of Pierre Bourdieu's World Social Theory, showed that, in Brazil and Spain, in referring to the social division of labor, the meeting point between Church and the State was the seclusion of women in private space. It is concluded that the feminine qualities were capitalized by the nurses to legitimize their actions in public space, even to reproduce in that space, consented to by the State and Church, occupations appropriate to femininity.

Nunes T.,TU Munich | De Souza H.S.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Mediators of Inflammation | Year: 2013

The activation of specific cytosolic pathogen recognition receptors, the nucleotide-binding-oligomerization-domain- (NOD-) like receptors (NLRs), leads to the assembly of the inflammasome, a multimeric complex platform that activates caspase-1. The caspase-1 pathway leads to the upregulation of important cytokines from the interleukin (IL)-1 family, IL-1β, and IL-18, with subsequent activation of the innate immune response. In this review, we discuss the molecular structure, the mechanisms behind the inflammasome activation, and its possible role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases and intestinal cancer. Here, we show that the available data points towards the importance of the inflammasome in the innate intestinal immune response, being the complex involved in the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis, correct intestinal barrier function and efficient elimination of invading pathogens. © 2013 Tiago Nunes and Heitor S. de Souza.

Pomin V.H.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry | Year: 2013

Recent developments to enhance sensitivity in solution NMR spectroscopy such as the advent and spread of the use of high magnetic fields, cryoprobe technology, isotopic labeling techniques, and new combinations of 2D experiments have pushed the limits in structural NMR analysis of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). This review is dedicated to the less sensitive 15N isotope of hexosamines rather than the commonly used anomeric and ring 1H and 13C resonances of uronic acids and hexosamines. Given that GAG types are basically classified on the basis of their composing hexosamine types together with variations of their sulfation patterns, and epimerized forms of the adjacent uronic acids, 15N-related NMR studies on native GAGs, oligosaccharides, or the various composing amino sugars have proved to be quite useful in the retrieval of both structural and dynamic information, despite the low number of resultant peaks. This in turn reduces significantly chemical shift degeneracy and at the same time facilitates spin and structural assignments. This review covers the principal contributions made so far by solution 15N-NMR spectroscopy to progress in the structural biology of GAGs in the current glycomics age. [Figure not available: see fulltext.] © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Silva J.L.,Institute Bioquimica Medica Leopoldo Of Meis | Oliveira A.C.,Institute Bioquimica Medica Leopoldo Of Meis | Vieira T.C.R.G.,Institute Bioquimica Medica Leopoldo Of Meis | De Oliveira G.A.P.,Institute Bioquimica Medica Leopoldo Of Meis | And 2 more authors.
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2014

The application of pressure has opened important frontiers for understanding how polypeptides fold into highly structured conformations, how they interact with ligands and other proteins, and how they assemble into supramolecular structures such as viruses and amyloids. In proteins, pressure induces changes that range from small conformational effects, compressibility effects, and changes in populations of intermediate states to complete loss of native folding. Applying high pressure is also an excellent approach for studying situations in which protein folding occurs incorrectly, such as in the so-called protein folding disorders, which include Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, tumoral, and prion diseases. Because partially folded intermediates, leading in some cases to misfolding and the occurrence of protein aggregates, are stabilized by pressure, the application of high pressure permits the characterization of these aggregation reactions.

Santos G.,University of Beira Interior | Hoyle E.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Pattern Recognition Letters | Year: 2012

As biometrics has evolved, the iris has remained a preferred trait because its uniqueness, lifetime stability and regular shape contribute to good segmentation and recognition performance. However, commercially deployed systems are characterized by strong acquisition constraints based on active subject cooperation, which is not always achievable or even reasonable for extensive deployment in everyday scenarios. Research on new techniques has been focused on lowering these constraints without significantly impacting performance while increasing system usability, and new approaches have rapidly emerged. Here we propose a novel fusion of different recognition approaches and describe how it can contribute to more reliable noncooperative iris recognition by compensating for degraded images captured in less constrained acquisition setups and protocols under visible wavelengths and varying lighting conditions. The proposed method was tested at the NICE.II (Noisy Iris Challenge Evaluation - Part 2) contest, and its performance was corroborated by a third-place finish. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Rivas da Silva A.C.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Molecules (Basel, Switzerland) | Year: 2012

The antimicrobial activities of the isomers and enantiomers of pinene were evaluated against bacterial and fungal cells. The agar diffusion test showed that only the positive enantiomers of the α- and β-isomers of pinene were active. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal microbicidal concentration (MMC) of these monoterpenes were also determined, confirming that the positive enantiomers exhibited microbicidal activity against all fungi and bacteria tested with MICs ranging from 117 to 4,150 μg/mL. However, no antimicrobial activity was detected with the negative enantiomers up to 20 mg/mL. Time-kill curves showed that (+)-α-pinene and (+)-β-pinene were highly toxic to Candida albicans, killing 100% of inoculum within 60 min. By contrast, the bactericidal effect occurred after 6 h in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). In combination with commercial antimicrobials, ciprofloxacin plus (+)-α-pinene or (+)-β-pinene presented synergistic activity against MRSA whereas an indifferent effect against all fungi was detected when amphotericin B was combined with the positive enantiomers of pinene. The potential of (+)-α-pinene and (+)-β-pinene to inhibit phospholipase and esterase activities was also evaluated, and the best inhibition results were obtained with Cryptococcus neoformans. C. albicans biofilm formation was prevented with the MIC concentration of (+)-α-pinene and twice the MIC value of (+)-β-pinene. Finally, the cytotoxicity of the positive enantiomers of pinene to murine macrophages was evaluated, and 250 μg/mL of (+)-α-pinene and (+)-β-pinene reduced the cell viability to 66.8% and 57.7%, respectively.

Costa W.J.E.M.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Vertebrate Zoology | Year: 2013

Melanorivulus leali, new species, from the Grande river drainage, south-eastern Brazil, is described. It differs from all other congeners by possessing a unique colour pattern, comprising red dots on body side arranged in chevron shaped rows, a broad dark grey stripe along the whole flank, flank light blue in males, dorsal and ventral portions of the caudal fin light orangish red in males, conspicuous orangish red bars on the middle of the caudal fin in males, and dorsal portion of the caudal-fin base with a small vertically elongated black spot. The presence of a black bar on the anterior and another on the posterior portion of the iris almost in contact with the pupil and the shape of the chevron-like rows of red spots on the flank, in which the angle is placed on the midline of the flank indicate that M. leali is more closely related to congeners endemic to the Paraná-Paraguay river system than to congeners endemic to the Amazonas river basin. This first record of the genus Melanorivulus from the Grande river drainage suggests that it may have formerly occupied a larger region of this basin, presently under severe process of deforestation and aquatic habitat decline. © Senckenberg Gesellschaft für Naturforschung, 2013.

Braga N.R.F.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Vega A.,Federico Santa Maria Technical University
European Physical Journal C | Year: 2012

We calculate the structure functions for unpolarized deep inelastic scattering of baryons using an AdS/QCD soft wall model that considers a dressed mass for the bulk fermionic fields. Considering the regime of large Bjorken parameter x, we compare the results for the proton structure function F2 with experimental results. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg and Società Italiana di Fisica.

De Ferreira M.L.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Synlett | Year: 2011

(A) Mohamed and co-workers reported a highly efficient oxidation of imines to the corresponding amides using sodium chlorite under buffered conditions. This method was applicable to linear as well as to cyclic imines in good to high yields. The good group tolerance, the mild buffered conditions and the use of cheap reagents are the main advantages of this protocol.4 (B) Aromatic and heterocyclic compounds were efficiently iodinated using NaClO 2/NaI system in presence of HCl. This protocol was applied for the iodination of phenols, aromatic amines and heterocyclic substrates, including nitrated derivatives, in good yields and with satisfactory purity by a simple extraction procedure and reductive washings with Na2S 2O3.10 (C) Silvestre and Salvador reported the use of sodium chlorite either in combination with tert-butyl hydroperoxide, in stoichiometric conditions, or with N-hydroxyphthalimide as catalyst for mild, transition-metal-free and allylic or benzilic oxidations.5 (D) A new valuable protocol for the racemic epoxidation of olefins that employs NaClO 2 as oxidant without the aid of catalyst in MeCN-H2O at 55-65 °C was reported for the first time by Geng and co-workers. The mechanistic studies show that chlorine dioxide is the key epoxidizing agent in this reaction.6 (E) An efficient and environmentally benign method for oxidizing primary alcohols to carboxylic acids using stoichiometric NaClO2, catalytic TEMPO and NaOCl was developed. In comparison with the TEMPO/NaOCl/CH2Cl2 protocol,11 this new methodology gives significantly improved yields and purity of the desired product by reducing the chlorination of the aromatic groups.3 (F) Clive and co-workers reported that 3,4-disubstituted furans are converted into γ-hydroxy butenolides using NaClO2 in aqueous EtOH containing NaH2PO4. The presence of two ester groups attached directly to furan ring prevents the oxidation.7 (G) Sodium chlorite can be used as the stoichiometric reoxidant in Sharpless asymmetric dihydroxilation. One sodium chlorite provides the reaction with the stoichiometric number of electrons and hydroxide ions needed to dihydroxylate two olefins without the consumption of any additional base. The consumption of styrene in a NaClO2 reaction is extremely fast compared with the corresponding unmodified and NaOH-modified K3[Fe(CN)6] processes.9 (H) A new facile and mild alternative for the deprotection of the 1,3- dithiane group was described by Ichige and co-workers. This protocol was developed using sodium chlorite, sodium dihydrogenphosphate, and 2-methyl-2-butene in MeOH-H2O (3:1) at room temperature in good yields.8 © Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart - New York.

Hruschka E.R.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Hruschka E.R.,Catholic University of Santos | Ebecken N.F.F.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence (Subseries of Lecture Notes in Computer Science) | Year: 2014

This work both describes and evaluates a Bayesian feature selection approach for classification problems. Basically, a Bayesian network is generated from a dataset, and then the Markov Blanket of the class variable is used to the feature subset selection task. The proposed methodology is illustrated by means of simulations in three datasets that are benchmarks for data mining methods: Wisconsin Breast Cancer, Mushroom and Congressional Voting Records. Three classifiers were employed to show the efficacy of the proposed method. The average classification rates obtained in the datasets formed by all features are compared to those achieved in the datasets formed by the features that belong to the Markov Blanket. The performed simulations lead to interesting results. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2004.

Chaves J.Q.,Instituto Oswaldo Cruz | Pires E.S.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Vivoni A.M.,Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
International Journal of Food Microbiology | Year: 2011

Bacillus cereus is an ever-present problem. It is widely distributed in several environments such as soil and plants and is commonly isolated from food and additives. In this study we analyzed 97 foodborne B. cereus sensu stricto strains isolated in Brazil in the 1980's, 1990's and 2000's in order to investigate the genetic diversity (assessed by Rep-PCR), antimicrobial resistance and toxigenic profiles (presence of hblA, hblC and hblD; nheA, nheB and nheC as well as cytK, ces and entFM genes) of such strains. The majority of the strains (79, 81.4%) were β-hemolytic. The NHE complex was found in 82 strains (84.5%) and HBL complex was found in 61 (62.9%) strains. All strains were negative to ces. The cytK-2 gene was found in 44 (45.4%) strains. The predominant toxigenic pattern was type I (32, 33%) which included strains positive for all toxin genes but ces. Computer assisted cluster analysis of Rep-PCR profiles showed a high genetic diversity. Seven major clusters comprising two or more strains were found and cluster 1 was predominant (ten strains, nine of them showing 100% similarity). This cluster included strains isolated in the 1980's and the 1990's. Cluster analysis of Rep-PCR profiles based on decade of isolation, source, hemolytic pattern, toxigenic and antibiotic resistance patterns revealed a similar clustering pattern as found in the analysis including all strains. The inability to observe a predominant band pattern when Rep-PCR cluster analysis was based on decade of isolation suggests that this diversity has been maintained over time. All strains were susceptible to gentamicin. We detected resistance to tetracycline (11 strains showing intermediate resistance and nine completely resistant strains), clindamycin (ten intermediate strains) and vancomycin (one strain). Clindamycin resistance showed statistical association with strains isolated in 2000's. The predominant resistance pattern was type A (72, 72.2%) which included strains susceptible to all drugs tested. Our results suggest that the majority of the strains present in several types of food in Brazil pose a potential risk to cause food poisoning due to the high prevalence of toxin genes found in these strains. However, additional studies involving cytotoxicity tests and affiliation of these strains to phylogenetic groups based on molecular data would be useful to better evaluate this potential and could provide a more accurate indication of the risk. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Carneiro S.,State University of Rio de Janeiro | Carneiro S.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Sampaio-Barros P.D.,University of Sao Paulo
Rheumatic Disease Clinics of North America | Year: 2013

SAPHO syndrome is a disorder characterized by Synovitis, Acne, Pustulosis, Hyperostosis, and Osteitis. As the osteoarticular and skin manifestations often do not occur simultaneously and there are no validated diagnostic criteria, the diagnosis can be difficult. Clinical and imaging investigation is necessary to establish the many differential diagnoses of SAPHO syndrome. The etiopathogenesis involves infectious (probably Propionibacterium acnes), immunologic, and genetic factors. Treatment is based on information gathered from case reports and small series, and is related to specific skin or articular symptoms. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

Araujo R.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Technoetic Arts | Year: 2015

A virtually infinite array of new discoveries are bringing increasingly evident transformations to all that we do, how we live, how all of us relate to each other, ourselves and the world. To think about this new time, it is necessary to experience the vertigo of placing our mind at risk. We are immersed in a comparatively new context of existence. A new humanity is being built, and it will thus represent a new society and a unique conception of what a person is. We have established ourselves as the cities we pass through daily, as sets of flows, relations of power and strengths. Like a city, we are also information networks; power fields constantly brought into play, as we connect with spaces in an imbricated and interdependent way. We are a kind of species that, in face of its desire, is capable of putting this very existence at risk; of suicidal artists, kamikazes, who risk themselves and the planet. What is the specificity of this species? What is the possible (psycho)analysis? The aim of this article is to present and articulate the current changes and the absolute artificialism of our species in the transformation of its corporeity that devours and appropriates whatever presents itself, and which produces means and prostheses for the compulsive realization of our fantasies; new realities that increasingly appear on the horizon and affect our daily lives. The mind at risk is the state that enables the craziness of any act of creation. © 2015 Intellect Ltd.

Costa W.J.E.M.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Vertebrate Zoology | Year: 2015

On the basis of fish collections made between 1991 and 2014, four species of the seasonal killifish genus Neofundulus are reported to occur in the Brazilian Pantanal, Paraguay river basin: N. parvipinnis, endemic to the Cuiabá and São Lourenço river drainages, in the northern portion of the Pantanal; N. rubrofasciatus, new species, from the Miranda river drainage, N. aureomaculatus, new species, from the Aquidauana river drainage, both in the south-eastern portion of the Pantanal; and N. paraguayensis, occurring in the Paraguay and Nabileque river floodplains, in the southern part of the Pantanal. The new species are diagnosed by unique colour patterns, and a combination of morphological characters states indicating that they are more closely related to N. parvipinnis and N. splendidus than to N. paraguayensis. © Senckenberg Gesellschaft für Naturforschung, 2015.

Pupe C.G.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
International journal of nanomedicine | Year: 2011

Diseases that affect the buccal cavity are a public health concern nowadays. Chlorhexidine and nystatin are the most commonly used drugs for the control of buccal affections. In the search for more effective antimicrobials, nanotechnology can be successfully used to improve the physical chemical properties of drugs whilst avoiding the undesirable side effects associated with its use. Herein described are studies using nystatin and chlorhexidine with sodium montmorillonite (MMTNa), and chlorhexidine with β-cyclodextrin and two derivatives methyl-β-cyclodextrin and hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin in the development of antimicrobial nanosystems. The nanosystems were prepared by kneading and solubilization followed by freeze-drying technique. The nanosystems were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Nanosystem antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans strains was evaluated with inhibition halo analysis. The nanocarriers MMTNa and cyclodextrins showed good yields. XRPD, FTIR, and DSC analysis confirmed the proposed nanosystems formation and the suitability of the production methods. The nanosystems that showed best antimicrobial effect were chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX) and cyclodextrin inclusion complexes and CHX:MMTNa 60% cation exchange capacity - 24 hours. The nanosystem formulations present higher stability for all chlorhexidine inclusion complexes compared with pure chlorhexidine. The nystatin nanosystems have the potential to mask the bitter taste, justifying subsequent in-vivo studies. For these reasons, further studies are being carried out to evaluate their application in professional formulations.

De Almeida A.S.,State University of Rio de Janeiro | Medronho R.D.A.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Werneck G.L.,State University of Rio de Janeiro
American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Year: 2011

This study used spatial analysis to identify areas at greatest risk of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the urban area of Teresina, Brazil during 2001-2006. The results from kernel ratios showed that peripheral census tracts were the most heavily affected. Local spatial analysis showed that in the beginning of the study period local clusters of high incidence of VL were mostly located in the southern and northeastern parts of the city, but in subsequent years those clusters also appeared in the northern region of the city, suggesting that the pattern of VL is not static, and the disease may occasionally spread to other areas of the municipality. We also observed a spatial correlation between VL rates and all socioeconomic and demographic indicators evaluated (P < 0.01). The concentration of interventions in high-risk areas could be an effective strategy to control the disease in the urban setting. Copyright © 2011 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

Costa W.J.E.M.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters | Year: 2012

Melanorivulus ubirajarai, new species, and Melanoriviilus kunzei, new species, are described from the upper Araguaia river basin, central Brazil; both are considered as closely related to other species endemic from the same area. Melanorivulus ubirajarai shares with M. litteratus a unique colour pattern of caudal fin in females (short grey stripe between caudal spot and bar on the middle of the fin). Melanorivulus kunzei shares with M. kayapo a unique colour pattern of flank in males (irregular horizontal rows of red dots forming reticulate pattern). Melanorivulus ubirajarai is mainly distinguished from M. litteratus by having a distinct colour pattern of flank and dorsal fin in males, consisting of not overlapping chevron-like red oblique bars on the flank and rows of light grey spots on the dorsal fin in males, dorsal fin at vertical through the base of the 9th anal-fin ray, and 33-35 scales on the longitudinal series. Melanorivulus kunzei mainly differs from M. kayapo by having 29-30 caudal-fin rays and the presence of dark grey dots on the sub-distal portion of the dorsal fin and middle of caudal fin in males. The discovery of the two new species supports the recent report of a unique high species diversity of Melanorivulus in the area drained by rivers originating in the Caiapós hill. The combination of high species diversity with quick habitat loss makes rivulid species endemic to the Caiapós hill area highly threatened with extinction, deserving special concern. © 2012 by Verlag Dr. Friedrich Pfeil, München, Germany.

Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) is a label-free technique that allows the direct determination of the heat absorbed or released in a reaction. Frequently used to determining binding parameters in biomolecular interactions, it is very useful to address enzyme-catalyzed reactions as both kinetic and thermodynamic parameters can be obtained. Since calorimetry measures the total heat effects of a reaction, it is important to consider the contribution of the heat of protonation/deprotonation that is possibly taking place. Here, we show a case study of the reaction catalyzed by the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) from Leuconostoc mesenteroides. This enzyme is able to use either NAD+ or NADP+ as a cofactor. The reactions were done in five buffers of different enthalpy of protonation. Depending on the buffer used, the observed calorimetric enthalpy (ΔHcal) of the reaction varied from - 22.93 kJ/mol (Tris) to 19.37 kJ/mol (phosphate) for the NADP+-linked reaction, and - 11.67 kJ/mol (Tris) to 7.32 kcal/mol or 30.63 kJ/mol (phosphate) for the NAD+ reaction. We will use this system as an example of how to extract proton-independent reaction enthalpies from kinetic data to ensure that the reported accurately represent the intrinsic heat of reaction. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Dias R.B.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology | Year: 2015

The aim of this study was to characterize the profile of the proteins involved in the Hedgehog signaling pathway to aid in the understanding of the pathogenesis of oral epithelial dysplasia (OED). The proteins SHH, PTCH1, HHIP, SUFU, GLI1, and cyclin D1 were evaluated by immunohistochemistry in 25 cases of OED, 4 of non-neoplasic oral mucosa, 8 of inflammatory fibrous hyperplasia and 5 of hyperkeratosis. SHH proteins were predominant in OED cases. Although PTCH1 protein was observed in all cases, this molecule was more highly expressed in OED. The inhibitor protein SUFU was present in OED and HHIP protein was overexpressed in OED. GLI1 proteins were predominantly found in the nuclei of epithelial cells in OED. Basal and suprabasal cells in the epithelial lining were positive for cyclin D1 only in OED. In conclusion, comparative analysis of the proteins involved in the Hedgehog pathway suggests that enhanced expression of these proteins can play an important role in the biological behavior of OED. Copyright 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

Santiago L.M.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Mattos I.E.,Escola Nacional de Saude Publica
Revista de Saude Publica | Year: 2014

Objective: To estimate the prevalence of depressive symptoms among institutionalized elderly individuals and to analyze factors associated with this condition. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving 462 individuals aged 60 or older, residents in long stay institutions in four Brazilian municipalities. The dependent variable was assessed using the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale. Poisson's regression was used to evaluate associations with co-variables. We investigated which variables were most relevant in terms of presence of depressive symptoms within the studied context through factor analysis. Results: Prevalence of depressive symptoms was 48.7%. The variables associated with depressive symptoms were: regular/bad/very bad self-rated health; comorbidities; hospitalizations; and lack of friends in the institution. Five components accounted for 49.2% of total variance of the sample: functioning, social support, sensory deficiency, institutionalization and health conditions. In the factor analysis, functionality and social support were the components which explained a large part of observed variance. Conclusions: A high prevalence of depressive symptoms, with significant variation in distribution, was observed. Such results emphasize the importance of health conditions and functioning for institutionalized older individuals developing depression. They also point to the importance of providing opportunities for interaction among institutionalized individuals.

Lopes H.F.,University of Chicago | Gamerman D.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Salazar E.,Duke University
Computational Statistics and Data Analysis | Year: 2011

This paper introduces a new class of spatio-temporal models for measurements belonging to the exponential family of distributions. In this new class, the spatial and temporal components are conditionally independently modeled via a latent factor analysis structure for the (canonical) transformation of the measurements mean function. The factor loadings matrix is responsible for modeling spatial variation, while the common factors are responsible for modeling the temporal variation. One of the main advantages of our model with spatially structured loadings is the possibility of detecting similar regions associated to distinct dynamic factors. We also show that the new class outperforms a large class of spatial-temporal models that are commonly used in the literature. Posterior inference for fixed parameters and dynamic latent factors is performed via a custom tailored Markov chain Monte Carlo scheme for multivariate dynamic systems that combines extended Kalman filter-based MetropolisHastings proposal densities with block-sampling schemes. Factor model uncertainty is also fully addressed by a reversible jump Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm designed to learn about the number of common factors. Three applications, two based on synthetic Gamma and Bernoulli data and one based on real Bernoulli data, are presented in order to illustrate the flexibility and generality of the new class of models, as well as to discuss features of the proposed MCMC algorithm. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Almudevar A.,University of Rochester | De Arruda E.F.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control | Year: 2012

Many iterative algorithms employ operators which are difficult to evaluate exactly, but for which a graduated range of approximations exist. In such cases, coarse-to-fine algorithms are often used, in which a crude initial operator approximation is gradually refined with new iterations. In such algorithms, because the computational complexity increases over iterations, the algorithm's convergence rate is properly calculated with respect to cumulative computation time. This suggests the problem of determining an optimal rate of refinement for the operator approximation. This paper shows that, for linearly convergent algorithm, the optimal rate of refinement approaches the rate of convergence of the exact algorithm itself, regardless of the tolerance-complexity relationship. We illustrate this result with an analysis of coarse-to-fine grid algorithms for Markov decision processes with continuous state spaces. Using the methods proposed here we deduce an algorithm that presents optimal complexity results and consists solely of a non-adaptive schedule for the gradual decrease of grid size. © 1963-2012 IEEE.

Camara L.D.T.,State University of Rio de Janeiro | Aranda D.A.G.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research | Year: 2011

The kinetic of fatty acids esterification with ethanol utilizing niobium oxide catalyst (79.8% of N bO 5 and 19.6% of water) for the production of biodiesel was analyzed through a reversible kinetic modeling for the determination of the kinetic and thermodynamic data of the reactions. The reactions were carried out with three kinds of fatty acids (stearic, palmitic, and lauric) with anhydrous and hydrated ethanol. From the kinetic study it was possible to calculate the theoretical equilibrium data which were compared to experimental data of each reaction. From the comparison between the experimental and calculated conversions it was possible to analyze the accuracy of the estimations, providing a good way to apply statistical treatments in the improvement of the kinetic and thermodynamic properties calculated. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

Tar Removal From Biomass Gasification Streams: Processes And Catalysts. Biomass gasification is a technology that has attracted great interest in synthesis of biofuels and oxo alcohols. However, this gas contains several contaminants, including tar, which need to be removed. Removal of tar is particularly critical because it can lead to operational problems. This review discusses the major pathways to remove tar, with a particular focus on the catalytic steam reforming of tar. Few catalysts have shown promising results; however, long-term studies in the context of real biomass gasification streams are required to realize their potential.

Pimenta A.D.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Zoologia | Year: 2012

Four new species of the pyramidellid Odostomiinae from Brazil are described: Chrysallida conifera sp. nov., characterized by a small and regularly conical shell with prominent nodules; Parthenina biumbilicata sp. nov., characterized by a deep and wide umbilicus and a regularly increasing aperture diameter at the protoconch, which bears a small circular umbilicus; Eulimastoma franklini sp. nov., which is very similar to Eulimastoma dydima (Verrill & Bush, 1900) but has a prominent helicoid protoconch; Eulimastoma exiguum sp. nov., similar to Eulimastoma weberi (Morrison, 1965) but without spiral ridges. Fargoa diantophila (Wells & Wells, 1961) and Chrysallida nioba (Dall & Bartsch, 1911) are reported from the southwestern Atlantic for the first time. © 2012 Sociedade Brasileira de Zoologia.

Cellulases have been intensively studied in the past few years, due to the interests in biofuels production from lignocellulosic materials, since they permit maintaining mild conditions during the conversion process. These enzymes can be produced by a broad variety of naturally occurring microorganisms, such as from genera Aspergillus, Trichoderma, Penicillium and Humicola. Targeting the increasing of expression levels, molecular biology tools have been used for heterologous genes insertion in host cells, e. g., Pichia pastoris and Escherichia coli. Enzymes from fungal cellulolytic complex usually act best at pH between 4 and 5 under temperatures from 40 to 60 °C and can be used for either sequential (SHF) or simultaneous (SSF) hydrolysis together alcoholic fermentation. In this review, the main raw materials for production of cellulases are identified, as well as the state of art of enzymes' properties, production and main applications.

Cardoso I.A.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Cahiers de Biologie Marine | Year: 2013

The family Crangonidae comprises 22 genera and 219 species. Only three species are recorded in the Southwestern Atlantic: Aegaeon boschii (Christoffersen, 1988), Parapontophilus longirostris (Komai, 2008) and Philocheras gorei (Dardeau, 1980). The samples analysed herein were collected during two projects: the REVIZEE Central (Fishery) (from 11 to 22°S) and the project of Evaluation of Environmental Heterogeneity in the Campos Basin (21°38'22°48'S). Two Crangonidae species are recorded for the first time in the Southwestern Atlantic: Parapontocaris caribbaea (Boone, 1927) and Parapontophilus gracilis (Smith, 1882). Besides, the second record of A. boschii is done 23 years after its original description, and P. longirostris is also presented.

Wanke P.F.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Journal of Air Transport Management | Year: 2012

This paper reports on the use of different approaches for measuring efficiency in 65 major Brazilian airports. Several programming based estimates were generated to allow testing for significant differences in returns-to-scale and input-decreasing/output-increasing potentials. The findings corroborate anecdotal and empirical evidences regarding a capacity shortfall within Brazilian airports, where the short-term potential for passenger/cargo consolidation per landing/takeoff is virtually nonexistent. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Oliveira A.R.E.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
History of Mechanism and Machine Science | Year: 2015

In this paper, we are mainly concerned with the development of the first theory applied to machines made by Lazare Carnot (1753-1823). The two Carnot's essays on machines previously published before Fundamental Principles have in common the use of the concept of work as a fundamental step to build that theory of mechanics within the framework of Rational Mechanics. Carnot accomplished this task by starting to develop his new theory applying d'Alembert's (1717-1783) principle and crowning his project with Principes Fondamentaux de l'Equilibre et du Mouvement published in 1803. © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Objective: To explore differences in disease awareness in participants of a psychoeducational group designed for Latin American caregivers of people with dementia. Method: We assessed participants of a group developed at an outpatient unit for Alzheimer's disease. Interpretative phenomenological analysis was used to analyze differences in the caregivers' reports. Results and Discussion: The participants, mostly spouses and daughters, presented moderate caregiver burden and different levels of awareness (aware, partially aware, or unaware). Disease awareness and the development of coping strategies were infuenced by familism, religiosity, and duty. Becoming a caregiver was considered positive in some cases, due to religious convictions and beliefs related to the importance of caregiving. Caregiver unawareness may refect an attempt to maintain integrity of the patient's identity. Conclusions: Our data allow some comparisons across cultures, which may be valuable in assessing the infuence of different psychosocial environments on the knowledge about dementia. © APRS.

Pereira R.A.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Duffey K.J.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | Sichieri R.,State University of Rio de Janeiro | Popkin B.M.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Public health nutrition | Year: 2014

OBJECTIVE: To examine the patterns of consumption of foods high in solid fats and added sugars (SoFAS) in Brazil.DESIGN: Cross-sectional study; individual dietary intake survey. Food intake was assessed by means of two non-consecutive food records. Foods providing >9·1% of energy from saturated fat, or >1·3% of energy from trans fat, or >13% of energy from added sugars per 100 g were classified as high in SoFAS.SETTING: Brazilian nationwide survey, 2008-2009.SUBJECTS: Individuals aged ≥10 years old.RESULTS: Mean daily energy intake was 8037 kJ (1921 kcal), 52% of energy came from SoFAS foods. Contribution of SoFAS foods to total energy intake was higher among women (52%) and adolescents (54%). Participants in rural areas (43%) and in the lowest quartile of per capita family income (43%) reported the smallest contribution of SoFAS foods to total energy intake. SoFAS foods were large contributors to total saturated fat (87%), trans fat (89%), added sugar (98%) and total sugar (96%) consumption. The SoFAS food groups that contributed most to total energy intake were meats and beverages. Top SoFAS foods contributing to saturated fat and trans fat intakes were meats and fats and oils. Most of the added and total sugar in the diet was supplied by SoFAS beverages and sweets and desserts.CONCLUSIONS: SoFAS foods play an important role in the Brazilian diet. The study identifies options for improving the Brazilian diet and reducing nutrition-related non-communicable chronic diseases, but also points out some limitations of the nutrient-based criteria.

Vilela R.C.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Benchimol M.,University of Saint Ursula
Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz | Year: 2012

Trichomonas vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus are parasitic, flagellated protists that inhabit the urogenital tract of humans and bovines, respectively. T. vaginalis causes the most prevalent non-viral sexually transmitted disease worldwide and has been associated with an increased risk for human immunodeficiency virus-1 infection in humans. Infections by T. foetus cause significant losses to the beef industry worldwide due to infertility and spontaneous abortion in cows. Several studies have shown a close association between trichomonads and the epithelium of the urogenital tract. However, little is known concerning the interaction of trichomonads with cells from deeper tissues, such as fibroblasts and muscle cells. Published parasite-host cell interaction studies have reported contradictory results regarding the ability of T. foetus and T. vaginalis to interact with and damage cells of different tissues. In this study, parasite-host cell interactions were examined by culturing primary human fibroblasts obtained from abdominal biopsies performed during plastic surgeries with trichomonads. In addition, mouse 3T3 fibroblasts, primary chick embryo myogenic cells and L6 muscle cells were also used as models of target cells. The parasite-host cell cultures were processed for scanning and transmission electron microscopy and were tested for cell viability and cell death. JC-1 staining, which measures mitochondrial membrane potential, was used to determine whether the parasites induced target cell damage. Terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP nick end labelling staining was used as an indicator of chromatin damage. The colorimetric crystal violet assay was performed to analyse the cytotoxicity induced by the parasite. The results showed that T. foetus and T. vaginalis adhered to and were cytotoxic to both fibroblasts and muscle cells, indicating that trichomonas infection of the connective and muscle tissues is likely to occur; such infections could cause serious risks to the infected host.

Dos Santos T.N.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Diniz A.L.,State University of Rio de Janeiro
IEEE Transactions on Power Systems | Year: 2011

This paper proposes a dynamic piecewise linear model to represent dc transmission losses in optimal scheduling problems. An iterative procedure is proposed, where the linear cuts to approximate quadratic losses in each transmission line are adjusted iteratively as the optimization problem is solved. Applications of this approach to the network constrained short-term hydrothermal scheduling problem and to static dc optimal power flow problems yield a higher accuracy in representing line transmission losses as compared to other approaches, such as a priori iterative estimation, static piecewise liner model and successive linear programming. Study cases for a large-scale system also show reasonable results regarding CPU times. © 2010 IEEE.

Da Costa Marques I.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Science and Public Policy | Year: 2012

This paper calls attention to the 'new directions' proposed for the sociology and history of science and technology, based on anthropological studies since the 1970s. A series of examples is then presented, on different scales and in very diverse fields, of lines of flight and ways out from the so-called universal and neutral frames of reference that establish themselves as overarching views of the modern world. A way forward is then proposed for the practice of ontological politics. It is suggested that Latin Americans can translate and modify those 'new directions' in order to better prepare themselves-in the sense of being more successful in their inclusion processes-to deal with issues that involve science and public policy. © The author 2012. All rights reserved.

Sperandei S.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Biochemia Medica | Year: 2014

Logistic regression is used to obtain odds ratio in the presence of more than one explanatory variable. The procedure is quite similar to multiple linear regression, with the exception that the response variable is binomial. The result is the impact of each variable on the odds ratio of the observed event of interest. The main advantage is to avoid confounding effects by analyzing the association of all variables together. In this article, we explain the logistic regression procedure using examples to make it as simple as possible. After definition of the technique, the basic interpretation of the results is highlighted and then some special issues are discussed. © by Croatian Society of Medical Biochemistry and Laboratory Medicine.

De Souza H.S.P.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Fiocchi C.,Cleveland Clinic
Nature Reviews Gastroenterology and Hepatology | Year: 2015

IBD is a chronic inflammatory condition of the gastrointestinal tract encompassing two main clinical entities: Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Although Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis have historically been studied together because they share common features (such as symptoms, structural damage and therapy), it is now clear that they represent two distinct pathophysiological entities. Both Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are associated with multiple pathogenic factors including environmental changes, an array of susceptibility gene variants, a qualitatively and quantitatively abnormal gut microbiota and a broadly dysregulated immune response. In spite of this realization and the identification of seemingly pertinent environmental, genetic, microbial and immune factors, a full understanding of IBD pathogenesis is still out of reach and, consequently, treatment is far from optimal. An important reason for this unsatisfactory situation is the currently limited comprehension of what are the truly relevant components of IBD immunopathogenesis. This article will comprehensively review current knowledge of the classic immune components and will expand the concept of IBD immunopathogenesis to include various cells, mediators and pathways that have not been traditionally associated with disease mechanisms, but that profoundly affect the overall intestinal inflammatory process. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Amorim P.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Journal of Theoretical Biology | Year: 2015

We consider a continuous mathematical description of a population of ants and simulate numerically their foraging behavior using a system of partial differential equations of chemotaxis type. We show that this system accurately reproduces observed foraging behavior, especially spontaneous trail formation and efficient removal of food sources. We show through numerical experiments that trail formation is correlated with efficient food removal. Our results illustrate the emergence of trail formation from simple modeling principles. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Notari A.,University of Barcelona | Quartin M.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics | Year: 2015

It has been pointed out recently that the quadrupole-octupole alignment in the CMB data is significantly affected by the so-called kinetic Doppler quadrupole (DQ), which is the temperature quadrupole induced by our proper motion. Assuming our velocity is the dominant contribution to the CMB dipole we have v/c=β=(1.231 ± 0.003) × 10-3, which leads to a non-negligible DQ of (β2). Here we stress that one should properly take into account that CMB data are usually not presented in true thermodynamic temperature, which induces a frequency dependent boost correction. The DQ must therefore be multiplied by a frequency-averaged factor, which we explicitly compute for several Planck CMB maps finding that it varies between 1.67 and 2.47. This is often neglected in the literature and turns out to cause a small but non-negligible difference in the significance levels of some quadrupole-related statistics. For instance the alignment significance in the SMICA 2013 map goes from 2.3σ to 3.3σ with the frequency dependent DQ, instead of 2.9σ ignoring the frequency dependence in the DQ. Moreover as a result of a proper DQ removal, the agreement across different map-making techniques is improved. © 2015 IOP Publishing Ltd and Sissa Medialab srl .

The first cladistic analysis of the Tricommatinae is presented here based on a matrix with 88 terminals and 117 characters. The subfamily, hitherto with 28 genera and 53 species, is not recovered as a clade, instead it is composed of two nonsister clades, corresponding to the two main physiognomies of Tricommatinae sensu lato: (1) most of the diversity of the Tricommatinae, including the emblematic genera CryptogeobiusMello-Leitão, 1935, and PseudopachylusRoewer, 1912, and (2) the less familiar species, including the type genus TricommatusRoewer, 1912, plus a few relatives, totalling three genera with five species. The Tricommatinae sensu stricto are here reduced to their bare core, nested within Gonyleptidae, whereas Cryptogeobiidae fam. nov. is more basally placed within the Gonyleptoidea. The holotype and sole available material of Tricommatus brasiliensisRoewer, 1912, type species of Tricommatus, is restudied and is here redescribed and illustrated. PheraniaStrand, 1942, is herein considered a junior subjective synonym of Tricommatus and a key is given to the species of Tricommatus. Voriax gen. nov. of Tricommatinae is described along with the type species Voriax popeye sp. nov., an unusual species from Bahia, showing strange sexual dimorphism. Some changes have been introduced in the taxonomy of Cryptogeobiidae: (1) 13 genera are synonymized (two of them, BerlesecaptusMello-Leitão, 1940, and Simonoleptes, originally in Phalangodidae); (2) 18 new combinations are made; (3) a neotype is designated for the type species Berlesecaptus convexusMello-Leitão, 1940; (4) a new miniature species, Paratricommatus lockei sp. nov., is described from an area of conservation, Reserva Ecológica de Guapi-Açu, in Rio de Janeiro state, south-eastern Brazil. © 2014 The Linnean Society of London.

Koide T.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Physics Letters, Section A: General, Atomic and Solid State Physics | Year: 2015

Abstract The extraction of classical degrees of freedom in quantum mechanics is studied in the stochastic variational method. By using this classicalization, a hybrid model constructed from quantum and classical variables (quantum-classical hybrids) is derived. In this procedure, conservation laws such as energy are maintained, and Ehrenfest's theorem is still satisfied with modification. The criterion for the applicability of quantum-classical hybrids is also discussed. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Campos R.A.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Genetics and molecular research : GMR | Year: 2012

Heat shock protein (HSP) 104 is a highly conserved molecular chaperone that catalyzes protein unfolding, disaggregation and degradation under stress conditions. We characterized HSP104 gene structure and expression in Trypanosoma cruzi, a protozoan parasite that causes Chagas' disease. The T. cruzi HSP104 is an 869 amino-acid protein encoded by a single-copy gene that has the highest sequence similarity (76%) with that of T. brucei and the lowest (23%) with that of the human protein. HSP104 transcripts were detected at room temperature, and levels increased after incubation at 37° or 40°C. The HSP104 protein was found at low levels in non-heat-shocked cells, and accumulated continuously up to 24 h at elevated temperatures. We developed a predicted structural model of hexameric T. cruzi HSP104, which showed some conserved features.

DosReis G.A.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | DosReis G.A.,Instituto Nacional Of Saude E Ambiente Na Regiao Amazonica
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research | Year: 2011

Infection with the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi leads to Chagas disease, which affects millions of people in Latin America. Infection with T. cruzi cannot be eliminated by the immune system. A better understanding of immune evasion mechanisms is required in order to develop more effective vaccines. During the acute phase, parasites replicate extensively and release immunomodulatory molecules that delay parasite-specific responses mediated by T cells. This immune evasion allows the parasite to spread in the host. In the chronic phase, parasite evasion relies on its replication strategy of hijacking the TGF-β signaling pathway involved in inflammation and tissue regeneration. In this article, the mechanisms of immune evasion described for T. cruzi are reviewed.

Eloy L.,Montpellier University | Lasmar C.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
International Journal of Sustainable Society | Year: 2012

Indigenous resource management is transforming in the face of urbanisation in Amazonia. We wonder how land tenure arrangements feature a new kind of resource management in peri-urban areas. Data were obtained from ethnographic and agro-economic interviews combined with a geographic information system analysis of population and land tenure distribution nearby São Gabriel da Cachoeira, Northwest Amazonia. The territories of each indigenous village are composed by many kinds of land use rights, ranging from exclusive ownership to common property. In the peri-urban area, private property has become the main land use right. But most of indigenous families resort to a multi-sited land use in rural-urban areas. The multi-sited pattern is associated with diversification of land use rights in the same households and extended families. These innovations reveal the adaptation of indigenous resource management. Copyright © 2012 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

Rosman P.C.C.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Oecologia Australis | Year: 2012

The article presents a discussion concerning the need of a permanent hydraulic connection between Rodrigo de Freitas Lagoon and the sea. It also justifies the convenience of sediment relocation within the lagoon, reclaiming aquatic spaces lost to near shore shoaling and filling anoxic potholes caused by badly planned dredging operations. It presents a quantitative assessment on the effects of a permanent lagoon-sea connection through drowned ducts. One sees that such a connection would provide the necessary conditions for good water quality in the lagoon, with proper renewal ratios of water and nutrients, in addition to ample biological exchanges with the sea. The system would have the capacity to discharge the outflow of torrential rains without overspills of marginal areas, stop the continuing shoaling processes within Jardim de Alah Canal and restore estuarine conditions to the lagoon, with horizontal and vertical saline gradients, favoring an ample biodiversity, typical of healthy estuarine systems.

This paper discusses the difficulties that can arise when health promotion projects are developed within marginalized groups. This could be documented using the example of aids prevention among prostitutes. We applied questionnaires and focus group interviews were performed with prostitutes in Mangue, Rio de Janeiro in 1989. Later, during the decade of 1990, we accomplished open interviews with prostitutes who frequented São João Square in Niterói and with the leaders of the prostitutes' movement of Rio de Janeiro. During the analysis of the interviews we observed that although, from a public health point of view, prostitutes are considered as a group, they seldom represent themselves in this way. In other words, while the goal of health promotion agencies and the prostitute' movement is to build a prostituteś grassroots movement able to organize and fight for prostituteś rights and citizenship, most of the subjects studied believed that prostitution was an evil activity and consequently created narratives which denied their belonging to the prostituteś community.

MacHado T.S.,Brazilian Center for Research in Physics (CBPF) | Rappoport T.G.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Sampaio L.C.,Brazilian Center for Research in Physics (CBPF)
Applied Physics Letters | Year: 2012

We investigate the effect of temperature on the dynamic properties of magnetic vortices in small disks. Our calculations use a stochastic version of the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation valid for finite temperatures well below the Curie critical temperature. We show that a finite temperature induces a vortex precession around the center of the disk, even in the absence of other excitation sources. We discuss the origin and implications of the appearance of such dynamics. We also show that a temperature gradient plays a role similar to that of a small constant magnetic field. © 2012 American Institute of Physics.

Froes M.M.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Technoetic Arts | Year: 2015

I see art as the most efficient technological field for triggering human imagination. I am not alone in my conviction that human imagination has the potential to feed back to arts and science in creative and transforming ways, as does to every humanconceived technology. More than progress, breakthroughs depend on it. A virtually unlimited conceptual hybridization from dramatically distinct knowledge fields is markedly attainable in the present day through use of an art we experience as growingly immaterial and distributed. As claimed by Roy Ascott (2006), the deep significance of this experience is only achieved when a sort of technological intermingling dissolves artwork and observer into a moistmedia that takes the form of a hybrid conscious body. Would the same be true for science? In addressing this question, a first step is to recognize that there is more to the scientific process of thinking and creative conception than mere cognition (as defined by neuroscience); it also parallels artistic processes. Importantly, both artists and scientists operate at levels of subjacent realities. What would be the implications to scientific practice if, instead of romantic, essentially subjective, speculative guesses, we prove scientifically that subjective processes potentiate science? The present article proclaims the centrality of this question as a transforming demand to contemporary neuroscience. Moreover, it reverberates Roy Ascott's proposition of the brain as an access system - a 'moistmedia informer'. In this article, hybrid artsci labs are proposed as systems that favour aesthetic rapture at different stages of scientific practices. A conceptualization of scientific objects - either material or immaterial - in contemporary art is central in this model. Artsci labs are essentially conceived as providing for interdigitating scientific, artistic and brain technological paradigms, and the effects on cognitive handling through directly controlled technical evaluation is presented. Results from my lab give support to Ascott's proposition of an art development informed by the brain. Moreover, the hybrid multimodal character of the artwork returns to science as a gain in abstraction, favouring the idea of contemporary art as a speculum of knowledge resonances, while potentiating intuitive conceptual reframing and associative thinking usually detected as insights. © 2015 Intellect Ltd.

Motta M.C.M.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Open Parasitology Journal | Year: 2010

Some trypanosomatids harbor a symbiotic bacterium, which maintains a close association with the host, constituting an excellent model to study organelle origin and cellular evolution. Molecular data show that all endosymbiontharboring trypanosomatids are grouped together in a single phylogenetic branch. According to rRNA sequences, symbionts of different species are similar, being classified in the ß division of Proteobacteria, thus suggesting that a single evolutionary event gave rise to the symbiosis in the Trypanosomatidae family. The bacterium is enclosed by two unit membranes and presents a reduced peptidoglycan layer, which is essential for cell division and morphological maintenance. Regarding the protein composition, the number of intramembrane particles in the endosymbiont envelope is similar to that described for Gram-negative bacteria. Lipid analyses of purified endosymbionts show absence of sterols and indicate phosphatidylcholine as a major component of the envelope, as described in other intracellular bacteria. The presence of the endosymbiont is associated with distinct ultrastructural and physico-chemical alterations in the trypanosomatid and influences the protozoan interaction with the insect host and mammalian cells. Symbiont-containing trypanosomatids are able to infect and to replicate inside fibroblasts and macrophages, whose microbicidal activity was deactivated by HIV-1 infection. The symbiosis in trypanosomatids is characterized by intensive metabolic exchanges; the bacterium expresses enzymes and metabolic precursors that complete essential biosynthetic pathways of the protozoan. Conversely, the symbiont is capable of obtaining part of the required energetic molecules from the host glycosomes. Taken together data suggest that endosymbiosis in trypanosomatids represents an interesting model to study cell evolution. © Maria Cristina M. Motta.

Li W.,University of Sydney | Delicato F.C.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Zomaya A.Y.,University of Sydney
ACM Transactions on Sensor Networks | Year: 2013

Most Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) applications require distributed signal and collaborative data processing. One of the critical issues for enabling collaborative processing in WSNs is how to schedule tasks in a systematic way, including assigning tasks to sensor nodes, and determining their execution and communication sequence. Since WSN nodes are very resource constrained, mainly regarding their energy supply, one major concern when scheduling tasks in such environments is to minimize and balance the energy consumption, so that the system operational lifetime is maximized. We propose a heuristic-based three-phase algorithm (TPTS) for allocating tasks to multiple clusters in hierarchical WSNs that aims at finding a scheduling scheme that minimizes the overall energy consumption and balances the workload of the system while meeting the application's deadline. The performance of the proposed algorithm and the effect of several parameters on its behavior were evaluated by simulations, with promising results. The experimental results show that the time and energy performance of TPTS are close to the time and energy of benchmarks in most cases, while load balance is always provided. © 2013 ACM.

Rossa A.L.,Engineering Simulation and Scientific Software | Coutinho A.L.G.A.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Computers and Fluids | Year: 2013

A good representation of the displacement front and the interface between different density fluids are essential in gravity currents simulations. Adaptive meshes play a key issue to ensure the solution quality performing the automatic refinement locally in regions where it is necessary, leaving most of the domain coarsely discretized. In this work, a stabilized FEM is applied to modelling three-dimensional gravity currents phenomena. Parallel AMR/C, provided by the libMesh FEM open source library, is performed, and the results obtained by different adaptivity configurations are compared with those from fixed meshes. An a posteriori error estimator for the mesh AMR/C procedure based on scalar flux jumps between adjacent elements is adopted. Mesh adaptivity proves to be a very effective approach in reducing the total number of elements and at the same time to be able to successfully capture the main characteristics of the flow dynamics, as the development of Kelvin-Helmholtz billows and the formation of lobes and clefts. © 2013.

Rodrigues H.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society | Year: 2014

Determining the velocity field of structures such as galaxies, stars, and fluid planets is a relevant topic in astrophysics and astronomy. Depending on the shape of the astrophysical object, the internal velocity field may be obtained by means of analytical methods. Specifically, ellipsoidal configurations are the most simple and natural generalization of spherically symmetric mass distributions,when rotation is present. In thiswork one obtains closed analytical expressions of the velocity field and of the kinetic energy of uniform ellipsoidal configurations composed of compressible fluids. With this aim, the equation of continuity is solved allowing a description of the irrotational velocity fieldwithin the system. This permits obtaining analytical expressions of the kinetic energy for each specific mass distribution. © 2014 The Authors Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society.

Vincent M.B.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Current Pain and Headache Reports | Year: 2010

Cervicogenic headache (CEH) is a wellrecognized syndrome. Proposed diagnostic criteria differentiate CEH from migraine and tension-type headache (TTH) in most of the cases. The best differentiating factors include side-locked unilateral pain irradiating from the back and evidence of neck involvement-attacks may be precipitated by digital pressure over trigger spots in the cervical/nuchal areas or sustained awkward neck positions. Migrainous traits may be present in some cases. Cervical lesions are not necessarily seen, and most common cervical lesions do not produce CEH. Whiplash may occasionally induce headaches. This is suspected when the pain onset and the whiplash trauma are close in time. Whiplash-related headaches tend to be short-lasting, admitting mostly a TTH or a CEH-like phenotype. Neuroimaging abnormalities are not necessarily expected in CEH. Whiplash patients must undergo cervical imaging mostly in connection with the trauma, as no abnormalities are pathognomonic in chronic cases. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010.

Forero J.S.B.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Synlett | Year: 2011

(A) A one-pot conversion of 4,5-diamino-6-chloropyrimidines into 6-mercaptopurines was presented by Tandel et al. The reaction is easy to perform by simply heating of a mixture of pyrimidine, aldehydes and an equimolar amount of elemental sulfur in DMF. All reactions were carried out in 17 hours with good to high yields (18-93%) and the method uses an in situ generated H 2S for the conversion of the chloro into the mercapto group. (B) McLaughlin and Barnes reported an efficient method for the transformation of functionalized nitroarenes to the corresponding anilines with elemental sulfur and base in good yields.6 The process takes advantage of the capacity of sulfur to be an inexpensive 2-electron reductant. The reaction conditions are also notable for their compatibility with a range of functional groups and use of a mild base. (C) Recent efforts have been directed to study the use of germanium( II) hydrides in hydrogenation reactions.8 The rapid simultaneous insertion of elemental sulfur into the germylene hydrogen bond and oxidative addition of sulfur to the germylene atom has been reported. The product is the first representative example of a dithiocarboxylic acid analogue with a heavier group 14 element and a terminal S-H bond, and constitute a new precursor for many metal complexes. (D) Elemental sulfur has proved to be an efficient component in the one-pot synthesis of 2,3-dihydropyrimidinthiones via multicomponent coupling with terminal alkynes and carbodiimides. (E) The solvent-free reaction between elemental sulfur and limonene in the presence of g-terpinene afforded the isothiocineole in 36% yield, useful in the asymmetric epoxidation and aziridination reactions. Moreover, the sulfide product was used in the synthesis of the cinchona alkaloids, quinine and quinidine, interesting molecules with a relevant history in medicine, synthesis, and catalysis. (F) Elemental sulfur catalyzed the oxidative condensation-cyclization of aromatic aldehydes and aryl-2-pyridilmethyl amines afforded an elegant access to appropriate 1,3-diarylated imidazo[1,5- a]pyridines. The products show a wide variety of fluorescent emissions at 454-524 nm. (G) The reaction of tri(1-propenyl)-amine with elemental sulfur can be realized to the synthesis of thiazoles in good yield. (H) An interesting strategy to mono-sulfuration of alkenes has been reported by Sugihara and co-workers. The reaction of syn-bibenzonorbornenylidene with elemental sulfur furnished the episulfide exclusively in 83% yield with retention of the original stereochemistry. (I) A series of 2-oxazolidinones were synthesized by thiocarboxylation of 2-amonoethanols with carbon monoxide using elemental sulfur, followed by the oxidative cyclization by molecular oxygen. (J) The most convergent and well-established classical approach for the synthesis of 2-aminothiophenes is Gewalds' protocol, which involves the multicomponent reaction of a ketone with an activated nitrile and elemental sulfur in the presence of an organic base. Recently, Zhang et al. reported that the PEG-bound cyanoacetic ester also undergoes the Gewald reaction under microwave irradiation. © Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart · New York.

dos Santos A.L.S.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Current Enzyme Inhibition | Year: 2011

Fungi can cause life-threatening diseases, particularly in patients with weakened immunological systems. Although treatment options are available for these individuals, dose-limiting toxicity and the appearance of drug-resistant microorganisms are growing problems. Detailed structural and functional characterization of fungal proteases has led to novel insights into the workings of these fascinating catalytic machines. Identification and characterization of proteasemediated processes in human pathogenic fungi is progressing at a rapid rate. In these microorganisms, aspartic-type proteases carry out "housekeeping" tasks common to many eukaryotes as well as functions highly specific to the fungal life cycles. Consequently, the possibility of developing selective inhibitors of key aspartic proteases of pathogenic fungi into novel chemotherapeutic strategies is being vigorously explored. The present review describes the knowledge in the area of aspartic proteases produced by human fungal pathogens. As well, the effects of aspartic proteolytic inhibitors on multiple vital processes of fungal cells, with special emphasis on their roles to arrest fungal development and virulence, will be presented and discussed. © 2011 Bentham Science Publishers.

Schechter L.M.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Theoretical Computer Science | Year: 2015

In this work, we combine features from Justification Logics and Logics of Plausibility-Based Beliefs to build a logic for Multi-Agent Systems where each agent can explicitly state his justification for believing in a given sentence. Our logic is a normal modal logic based on the standard Kripke semantics, where we provide a semantic definition for the evidence terms and define the notion of plausible evidence for an agent, based on plausibility relations in the model. As we deal with beliefs, justifications can be faulty and unreliable. In our logic, agents can disagree not only over whether a sentence is true or false, but also on whether some evidence is a valid justification for a sentence or not. After defining our logic and its semantics, we provide a strongly complete axiomatic system for it, show that it has the finite model property, analyze the complexity of its Model-Checking Problem and show that its Satisfiability Problem has the same complexity as the one from basic modal logics. Thus, this logic seems to be a good first step for the development of a dynamic logic that can model the processes of argumentation and debate in Multi-Agent Systems. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Ribas J.R.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Water Resources Management | Year: 2014

This study describes the combination of qualitative methods and a MCDA technique, to rank a set of alternatives for the water use of Corumba IV reservoir, a multipurpose water resource located in the center-east of Brazil. The model specification presented in this paper was set up with six relevant benefits to the ecosystem and five water uses, identified through an in-depth interview with stakeholders. The relative importance of the benefits and the performance of water uses were measured by the Saaty nine-point scale. The imprecision of subjective judgment was partially compensated by using a fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (FAHP). These groups include the Corumba IV power plant staff, in charge of an environmental mitigation program, federal government officials in charge of formulating and enforcing policies, community leaders and municipal authorities. The hierarchies of the set of benefits for these groups show evidence of convergence; however, statistical tests suggest the existence of conflicts among them regarding their preference for water use. This study clarifies the extent of such perceptions, making it possible to adopt better public policies practices for water management. © Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014.

Silva Neto M.B.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Journal of Physics Condensed Matter | Year: 2011

We investigate the role of short wavelength antiferromagnetic correlations in the spatial structure of acceptor states doped into a two-dimensional MottHubbard antiferromagnetic insulator. We extend the traditional effective mass approximation, by using the Greens function formalism and its spectral representation, and we show that when the electronic scattering at the ordering wavevector Q=(π,π) is strong enough to produce a momentum dependent scattering rate, Fk, the corresponding acceptor state envelope wavefunction becomes spatially anisotropic. Finally, we discuss the connection between our results and photoemission spectra in lightly doped La 2-xSrxCuO4. © 2011 IOP Publishing Ltd.

Blay S.L.,Federal University of Sao Paulo | Marinho V.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Current Opinion in Psychiatry | Year: 2012

Purpose of Review: This review highlights the key recent issues and novel findings on anxiety disorders in older adults. Studies of the epidemiology, medical and psychiatric comorbidity, neurobiology, and treatment of anxiety in the elderly are discussed. Recent Findings: Overall prevalence studies of anxiety symptoms or disorders in older adults indicate that, although less common than in younger adults, they are relatively common in late life. We examine the prevalence of specific anxiety disorders in the elderly, as mechanisms, outcomes, and treatment response may vary by type of anxiety disorder. Physical and psychiatric comorbidity are common. Certain anxiety disorders, such as generalized anxiety disorder, have demonstrated a positive impact following acute coronary syndrome. Regarding treatment, small effect sizes and incomplete response are typical, posing a challenge when treating this age group. Summary: The epidemiology, neurobiology, and treatment of anxiety conditions in late life have recently received more attention in the medical literature. Areas in need of further investigation include neurobiology, clinical presentation, management, and treatment, as we do not know whether procedures indicated for younger cohorts hold for older adults. © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Mercury (Hg) is an exogenous and harmful metal that accumulates in the tissues of organisms along food chain. Bioaccumulation by plankton is therefore of great significance for understanding marine processes concerning Hg accumulation and biomagnification throughout the food chain. Plankton has a short life cycle and plankton species composition respond quickly to environmental changes in the water column, making it a water quality indicator. There is a consensus that Hg enters the food chain via phytoplankton, and then is accumulated by the other links in the chain, via trophic transfer. While Hg is bioconcentrated from water by phytoplankton, comparatively little is known about the concentrations, dynamics, and controls on Hg bioavailability in marine ecosystems. Plankton is one of the last matrixes studied by Hg researchers in a systematic manner. As the base of food chain, these organisms have been the subject of several studies on the biological effects of Hg contamination in coastal ecosystems worldwide, such as in Australia, coast of California (USA) and Baltic Sea. However, few studies in the literature have focused on tropical marine ecosystems. In this review, mercury data on tropical marine plankton is presented based on previous studies on the Tropical Pacific, in Arabian Sea, Gulf of Thailand and the South Atlantic. These studies have contributed to our understanding of mercury behavior, fate, and transport of this element in tropical marine ecosystems. The lack of results in the scientific literature about Hg in marine plankton could be attributed to difficulty in collection, preparation and analysis of this type of samples. Collection is dependent of parameters like luminosity, moon phase, tidal cycle, depth of the water column and physical and chemical parameters of water that influence in the quantitative and qualitative taxonomic groups of plankton present.

da Silva M.M.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Cancer Nursing | Year: 2016

BACKGROUND:: Palliative care is a recent development in health worldwide. In Brazil, a growing number of people with cancer require palliative care, emphasizing the need for investment in this aspect of health to increase the quality of life of patients during the dying process. As a developing country, Brazil lacks knowledge regarding the themes, material and financial resources, and policies of palliative care. OBJECTIVE:: The aim of this study was to provide insights into the Brazilian palliative care system from the perspectives of nurses and physicians. METHODS:: This was a descriptive and qualitative study, conducted at the palliative care unit of the Instituto Nacional de Câncer in Brazil. Twelve professionals, among them 8 nurses and 4 physicians, were interviewed in November 2013. The data were analyzed using the thematic analysis method. Ethical aspects were respected. RESULTS:: The perspectives of the participants were characterized by 3 themes regarding the initial phase of development of palliative cancer care in Brazil: (1) controversies about when palliative cancer care should be initiated, (2) the World Health Organization recommendations and current practices, and (3) the need to invest in palliative cancer care education in Brazil. CONCLUSIONS:: The development of palliative care is in the initial stages, and there is a possibility for growth due to recent advances. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE:: Knowledge about these challenges to palliative care could contribute to the development of strategies, such as the establishment of service organizations and networks, as well as educational and political investments for the advancement of palliative care. Copyright © 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved

Mothe D.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Avilla L.S.,Rio de Janeiro State Federal University | Cozzuol M.A.,Federal University of Minas Gerais
Journal of Mammalian Evolution | Year: 2013

The taxonomic history of South American Gomphotheriidae is very complex and controversial. Three species are currently recognized: Amahuacatherium peruvium, Cuvieronius hyodon, and Notiomastodon platensis. The former is a late Miocene gomphothere whose validity has been questioned by several authors. The other two, C. hyodon and N. platensis, are Quaternary taxa in South America, and they have distinct biogeographic patterns: Andean and lowland distributions, respectively. South American gomphotheres became extinct at the end of the Pleistocene. We conducted a phylogenetic analysis of Proboscidea including the South American Quaternary gomphotheres, which resulted in two most parsimonious trees. Our results support a paraphyletic Gomphotheriidae and a monophyletic South American gomphothere lineage: C. hyodon and N. platensis. The late Miocene gomphothere record in Peru, Amahuacatherium peruvium, seems to be a crucial part of the biogeography and evolution of the South American gomphotheres. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Pavao M.S.G.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology | Year: 2014

In this review, several glycosaminoglycan analogs obtained from different marine invertebrate are reported. The structure, biological activity and mechanism of action of these unique molecules are detailed reviewed and exemplified by experiments in vitro and in vivo. Among the glycans studied are low-sulfated heparin-like polymers from ascidians, containing significant anticoagulant activity and no bleeding effect; dermatan sulfates with significant neurite outgrowth promoting activity and anti-P-selectin from ascidians, and a unique fucosylated chondroitin sulfate from sea cucumbers, possessing anticoagulant activity after oral administration and high anti P- and L-selectin activities. The therapeutic value and safety of these invertebrate glycans have been extensively proved by several experimental animal models of diseases, including thrombosis, inflammation and metastasis. These invertebrate glycans can be obtained in high concentrations from marine organisms that have been used as a food source for decades, and usually obtained from marine farms in sufficient quantities to be used as starting material for new therapeutics. © 2014 Pavão.

Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is the most common genetic cause of ischemic strokes and a most important model for the study of subcortical vascular dementia. This unrelentlessly progressive disease affects many hundreds of families all over the world but is not well studied in Brazil. This manuscript reviews pathogenetic, clinical, radiological and therapeutic features of CADASIL. The causal mutations are now very well known, but the same can not be said about its intimate pathogenetic mechanisms. The variable clinical presentation should lead physicians to actively pursue the diagnosis in many settings and to more thouroughly investigate family history in first degree relatives. A rational approach to genetic testing is however needed. Treatment of CADASIL is still largely empiric. High-quality therapeutic studies involving medications and cognitive interventions are strongly needed in CADASIL.

da Fonseca A.C.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Clinical & developmental immunology | Year: 2013

Malignant gliomas are the most common primary brain tumors. Their deadliest manifestation, glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), accounts for 15% of all primary brain tumors and is associated with a median survival of only 15 months even after multimodal therapy. There is substantial presence of microglia and macrophages within and surrounding brain tumors. These immune cells acquire an alternatively activated phenotype with potent tumor-tropic functions that contribute to glioma growth and invasion. In this review, we briefly summarize recent data that has been reported on the interaction of microglia/macrophages with brain tumors and discuss potential application of these findings to the development of future antiglioma therapies.

Keim C.N.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Geomicrobiology Journal | Year: 2011

High arsenic levels have been found in some water samples from the Iron Quadrangle, a main gold, manganese and iron mining region in Brazil. In this work, we used transmission electron microscopy coupled to energy-dispersive X-ray analysis to show arsenic in bacteriogenic iron minerals (BIOS) collected in this region. Two types of iron bacteria stalks and severalmorphologically different filamentous sheaths of bacteria were found, most containing arsenic. Bacterial stalks were partially coated by spherical precipitates probably deposited after stalk secretion. Arsenic/iron ratios were the same independently of the amount of spherical precipitates, suggesting that arsenic incorporation is independent of bacterial metabolism. Additionally, arsenic seems to be saturated in these minerals, since the arsenic/iron ratio was the same under different arsenic concentrations. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Taddei R.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Ethics, Policy and Environment | Year: 2012

Using ethnographic data from rural Northeast Brazil, this article explores, firstly, how climate uncertainties are interconnected to processes of accountability and blame, and, secondly, how this connection affects the activity of climate forecasting. By framing climate events in ways that downplay the inherent uncertainties of the atmosphere, political discourses on various scales, as well as religious narratives, create a propitious context for the enactment of what I call accountability rituals. Forecasters seem to attract to themselves a great deal of the collective anxieties related to climate, and are very often blamed for the negative impact of climate events. This blaming may take place in a variety of ways, and has a range of practical results: from real physical violence to attacks on the authority and legitimacy of forecasters, by way of ridicule and jokes. I conclude by suggesting that, on the one hand, the study of the social uses of climate-related uncertainties offers special opportunities for understanding how human societies deal with uncertainty and blame; and that, on the other hand, a better understanding of these issues is necessary to improve relations between climate forecasting and the societies where it takes place - the latter being a key issue in the processes of understanding and adapting to climate change. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Alves-Ferreira M.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
BMC genomics | Year: 2014

BACKGROUND: Cotton is a major fibre crop grown worldwide that suffers extensive damage from chewing insects, including the cotton boll weevil larvae (Anthonomus grandis). Transcriptome analysis was performed to understand the molecular interactions between Gossypium hirsutum L. and cotton boll weevil larvae. The Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform was used to sequence the transcriptome of cotton flower buds infested with boll weevil larvae.RESULTS: The analysis generated a total of 327,489,418 sequence reads that were aligned to the G. hirsutum reference transcriptome. The total number of expressed genes was over 21,697 per sample with an average length of 1,063 bp. The DEGseq analysis identified 443 differentially expressed genes (DEG) in cotton flower buds infected with boll weevil larvae. Among them, 402 (90.7%) were up-regulated, 41 (9.3%) were down-regulated and 432 (97.5%) were identified as orthologues of A. thaliana genes using Blastx. Mapman analysis of DEG indicated that many genes were involved in the biotic stress response spanning a range of functions, from a gene encoding a receptor-like kinase to genes involved in triggering defensive responses such as MAPK, transcription factors (WRKY and ERF) and signalling by ethylene (ET) and jasmonic acid (JA) hormones. Furthermore, the spatial expression pattern of 32 of the genes responsive to boll weevil larvae feeding was determined by "in situ" qPCR analysis from RNA isolated from two flower structures, the stamen and the carpel, by laser microdissection (LMD).CONCLUSION: A large number of cotton transcripts were significantly altered upon infestation by larvae. Among the changes in gene expression, we highlighted the transcription of receptors/sensors that recognise chitin or insect oral secretions; the altered regulation of transcripts encoding enzymes related to kinase cascades, transcription factors, Ca2+ influxes, and reactive oxygen species; and the modulation of transcripts encoding enzymes from phytohormone signalling pathways. These data will aid in the selection of target genes to genetically engineer cotton to control the cotton boll weevil.

This study examines relevant aspects about the way anthropological research data restitution has been applied in the area of health, based on data obtained from ethnographic field research conducted in Brazil and France. These experiences show that data restitution has been part of the area of research, in different forms and time frames, making it possible to extend periods spent in the field and to interact with individual respondents. This also made it possible to interact with research interlocutors and compare different points of view, adding new information and thereby enriching the research. These aspects raise important questions that require reflection, from an ethical and epistemological standpoint. One is related to the demands made on health anthropologists when they begin their field research and how they deal with these questions: how will researchers use the data they collect without worrying that this may be wrongly interpreted or used in some way to reinforce normative patterns? So, how should an anthropological debate be “translated”? Conscientious researchers will seek to validate their analysis, to discover new points of view and provoke new lines of questioning. Thus, such data should provoke reflexivity about new avenues of research and interpretations. © 2015, Associacao Brasileira de Pos - Graduacao em Saude Coletiva. All rights reserved.

Bittencourt L.K.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Matos C.,Free University of Colombia | Coutinho A.C.,Centro Medico
Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America | Year: 2011

Recent technological achievements have enabled the transposition of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) with good diagnostic quality into other body regions, especially the abdomen and pelvis. Many emerging and established applications are now being evaluated on the upper abdomen, the liver being the most studied organ. This article discusses imaging strategies for DWI on the upper abdomen, describes the clinical protocol, and reviews the most common clinical applications of DWI on solid abdominal organs. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

de Camargo Jr. K.R.,State University of Rio de Janeiro | Coeli C.M.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Revista de Saude Publica | Year: 2012

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the increase in number of authors per article in Brazilian scientific journals on public health. METHODS: Articles published between 1999 and 2010 in six journals on public health and one medical journal (for comparison) from SciELO with Qualis (Capes) classification equal or superior to B-1, were searched on the LILACS database. The evolution of the median number of authors/article and the proportion of articles with more than four authors were evaluated. The association between the the triennium of publication and the presence of four or more authors per paper was estimated through the Mantel-Haenzel odds ratio, adjusted for the type of journal. RESULTS: An increase of the median number of authors and the proportion of articles with more than four authors was observed in all journals, especially in the last triennium. The odds ratio for articles with four or more authors, adjusted for the type of journal, were: second triennium 1.3 (95%CI 1.1;1.4); third triennium 1.5 (95%CI 1.3;1.8), fourth triennium 2.39 (95%CI 2.1;2.8). CONCLUSIONS: Scientific journals on public health have shown an increase in the number of authors per article over the years, regardless of editorial orientation.

Mortera P.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Herculano-Houzel S.,Instituto Nacional Of Neurociencia Translacional
Frontiers in Neuroanatomy | Year: 2012

Aging-related changes in the brain have been mostly studied through the comparison of young adult and very old animals. However, aging must be considered a lifelong process of cumulative changes that ultimately become evident at old age. To determine when this process of decline begins, we studied how the cellular composition of the rat brain changes from infancy to adolescence, early adulthood, and old age. Using the isotropic fractionator to determine total numbers of neuronal and non-neuronal cells in different brain areas, we find that a major increase in number of neurons occurs during adolescence, between 1 and 2-3 months of age, followed by a significant trend of widespread and progressive neuronal loss that begins as early as 3 months of age, when neuronal numbers are maximal in all structures, until decreases in numbers of neurons become evident at 12 or 22 months of age. Our findings indicate that age-related decline in the brain begins as soon as the end of adolescence, a novel finding has important clinical and social implications for public health and welfare. © 2012 Morterá and Herculano-houzel.

Moraes Coelho H.S.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Annals of hepatology : official journal of the Mexican Association of Hepatology | Year: 2010

Nowadays the standard of care for hepatitis C therapy is based on pegylated interferon alpha and ribavirin (Peg IFN/RBV). This combination has led to a sustained virological response rate (SVR) of 50 to 80% depending on genotype. This is still low, considering the side effects, overall costs and duration of therapy. So far, strategies to foresee SVR have been described such as genotype, fibrosis stage, viral load and gammaglutamyltransferase.In addition, new data has recently been provided on predictive factors of SVR like genetic polymorphism related to race, insulin resistance and viral kinetics. This review aims to discuss these predictive factors of therapy that might help the decision about starting or discontinuing therapy in chronic HCV infected patients.

Rocha A.B.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Journal of Chemical Physics | Year: 2011

A general strategy to calculate potential curves at multiconfigurational self-consistent field (MCSCF) level for inner-shell states is reported in this paper. Convergence is commonly very tough for innershell states, especially at this level of calculation, due to the problem of variational collapse of the inner-shell wave function to the ground or to a low-lying excited state. The present method allows to avoid this drawback by a sequence of constrained optimization in the orbital mixing step. The specific states studied are that resulting from transitions X 1∑ +→(C 1s -1 π*) 1,3Π of CO. Accurate values are achieved for transition energies and vibrational splittings. A comparison is made with other approach, i.e., inner-shell CI based on a MCSCF wave function optimized for ground or lowlying excited states. This last approach is shown to fail in describing the whole potential curve. © 2011 American Institute of Physics.

Lacativa P.G.S.,State University of Rio de Janeiro | de Farias M.L.F.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Arquivos Brasileiros de Endocrinologia e Metabologia | Year: 2010

Several inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease, cystic fibrosis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease have been associated to bone resorption. The link between osteoclast, macrophage colony stimulating factor and pro-inflammatory cytokines, especially tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1 explain the association between inflammation and osteoporosis. These diseases are related to osteoporosis and high fracture risk independent of other risk factors common to inflammatory diseases such as reduced physical activity, poor nutritional status, hypovitaminosis D, decrease in calcium intake and glucocorticoid treatment. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein should always be performed, but the indication about when to perform the densitometry test should be analyzed for each disease. Bisphosphonates are nowadays the best choice of therapy but new medications such as denosumab, IL-1 receptor antagonist, and TNF antibody have risen as new potential treatments for osteoporosis secondary to inflammation. © ABE&M todos os direitos reservados.

Goldenberg M.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Psicologia Clinica | Year: 2011

In this text I discuss the role of the body as an important form of (physical, symbolic, and social) capital in Brazilian culture. I try to lay out the distinguishing traits of a culture in which the body is a crucial element in the construction of a national identity. It can be said that in Brazil the body is a capital, maybe the most desired one by the urban middle class and also lower strata, which perceive the body as a fundamental vehicle for social ascension, and also an important form of capital in the job, spousal, and erotic markets.

This report is a reflection that marks a change of perspective in the care relation between nurse and client, in the implementation context of the educative process. It emerged a Shared Care Plan as an educational-caring proposal, in the convergence among theorists Paulo Freire and Leininger, regarding the dialogical pedagogy and nursing cultural care. With regard to the elements considered essential to the care, learning together allows the unveiling of a peculiar reality of possibilities for integration and transformation of the reality revealed, by choice of the person. Autonomy planned becomes real, so that customers no longer carry fragmented practices, stemming from traditional pedagogy. The stand-alone client reaches, then, the fullness of the action.

The purpose is the communication process in nursing team. The research is qualitative and descriptive, whose aim is identify the elements that make up the communication process of the nursing team, to analyze the communication strategies used by the team and discuss their influence on nursing care. The theoretical model is applied to the communication process proposed by Berlo. Production techniques of data were semi-structured interviews with 25 nurses, and participant observation. The thematic content analysis was applied to the data. For nursing team, communication is a form of interaction, a means to understanding between people and a tool to convey information verbally.

Cardoso K.V.,Federal University of Goais | De Rezende J.F.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Wireless Networks | Year: 2012

Rate control algorithms for commercial 802.11 devices strongly rely on packet losses for their adaptation. As a result, they give poor performance in dense networks because they are not able to distinguish packet losses related to channel error from packet losses due to collision. In this paper, we evaluate automatic rate adaptation algorithms in IEEE 802.11 dense networks. A certain number of works in the literature address this problem, but they demand modifications of the IEEE standard, or depend on some special feature not available in off-the-shelf devices. In this context, we propose a new automatic rate control algorithm which is simple, easy to implement, standards-compliant, and well-suited for crowded 802.11 networks. Our approach consists of measuring the contention level, inferring the collision probability, and choosing transmission rates which maximize throughput. Results from simulation and real experiments show throughput improvement of up to 100% from our mechanism. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Costa L.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Mana: Estudos de Antropologia Social | Year: 2013

This article analyzes the impact of asymmetrical relations of "mastery" or "ownership" on the creation and perpetuation of kinship. Its ethnographic focus is the Kanamari, a Katukina speaking people of western Amazonia, who distinguish between two modalities of distributing and consuming food: "feeding", designating an asymmetrical relation of dependency; and "commensality", implying mutual relations of sharing food. The second category of relations is derived from the first, which is the baseline from which Kanamari kinship is constituted. Mastery is hence logically and ontogentically anterior to mutuality. The article explores this anteriority through an analysis of pet keeping practices, and the bonds between mother and child and chiefs and follower. It also explores the relationship between "feeding", "commensality" and "predation", arguing that, for the Kanamari, feeding is the means for transforming predation into commensality.

Chamon C.,Boston University | Mucciolo E.R.,University of Central Florida | Arrachea L.,University of Buenos Aires | Capaz R.B.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2011

We propose using a phonon pumping mechanism to transfer heat from a cold to a hot body using a propagating modulation of the medium connecting the two bodies. This phonon pump can cool nanomechanical systems without the need for active feedback. We compute the lowest temperature that this refrigerator can achieve. © 2011 American Physical Society.

Ottoni F.P.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Vertebrate Zoology | Year: 2011

Cichlasoma zarskei sp.n. is herein described from the rio Maranhão basin, northern Brazil. The new species differs from all its congeners, except C. orientale, by having a conspicuous posterior band of the longitudinal stripe and dorsal, anal and caudal fins faintly dotted. It is also distinguished from its congeners by the precense of the following character states: Trisserial predorsal squamation, four anal-fin spines, reduction of the squamation between dorsal and anal-fins rays, forâmen between infraorbital plate 3+4 and plate 5 smaller, deeper entopterygoid, premaxilla with teeth on its entire dentigerous surface, caudal-fin base spot not ocellated, fewer pleural ribs, more scales on E1 series, shorter last dorsal-fin spine, shorter last anal-fin spine, longer snout, wider head and shorter lower jaw. A new diagnosis for C. orientale, without overlapping character states, is herein presented.

Souza-Filho J.F.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Journal of Natural History | Year: 2011

Two new genera of the family Cheidae, previously monotypic, are herein described from Brazilian waters; these represent the first record of this family to Brazil. The first genus, Ruffosius gen. nov., is described based on the new species, R. fluminensis sp. nov., from Rio de Janeiro, and is mainly characterized by the uniramous uropod 2. The second genus, Microcheus gen. nov., also corresponds to a new species, M. nortoni sp. nov., and is distinguished from the other genera by the 2-articulate palp of maxilla 1. The latter is described based on material collected from Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina States. This study provides full descriptions of these two new genera and species and an identification key for species of the family Cheidae. © 2011 Taylor & Francis.

De Lamare R.C.,University of York | Diniz P.S.R.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing | Year: 2013

This work presents blind constrained constant modulus (CCM) adaptive algorithms based on the set-membership filtering (SMF) concept and incorporates dynamic bounds for interference suppression applications. We develop stochastic gradient and recursive least squares type algorithms based on the CCM design criterion in accordance with the specifications of the SMF concept. We also propose a blind framework that includes channel and amplitude estimators that take into account parameter estimation dependency, multiple access interference (MAI) and inter-symbol interference (ISI) to address the important issue of bound specification in multiuser communications. A convergence and tracking analysis of the proposed algorithms is carried out along with the development of analytical expressions to predict their performance. Simulations for a number of scenarios of interest with a DS-CDMA system show that the proposed algorithms outperform previously reported techniques with a smaller number of parameter updates and a reduced risk of overbounding or underbounding. © 1991-2012 IEEE.

Ferrao-Filho A.D.S.,Instituto Oswaldo Cruz | Kozlowsky-Suzuki B.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Marine Drugs | Year: 2011

Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic prokaryotes with wide geographic distribution that can produce secondary metabolites named cyanotoxins. These toxins can be classified into three main types according to their mechanism of action in vertebrates: hepatotoxins, dermatotoxins and neurotoxins. Many studies on the effects of cyanobacteria and their toxins over a wide range of aquatic organisms, including invertebrates and vertebrates, have reported acute effects (e.g., reduction in survivorship, feeding inhibition, paralysis), chronic effects (e.g., reduction in growth and fecundity), biochemical alterations (e.g., activity of phosphatases, GST, AChE, proteases), and behavioral alterations. Research has also focused on the potential for bioaccumulation and transferring of these toxins through the food chain. Although the herbivorous zooplankton is hypothesized as the main target of cyanotoxins, there is not unquestionable evidence of the deleterious effects of cyanobacteria and their toxins on these organisms. Also, the low toxin burden in secondary consumers points towards biodilution of microcystins in the food web as the predominant process. In this broad review we discuss important issues on bioaccumulation and the effects of cyanotoxins, with emphasis on microcystins, as well as drawbacks and future needs in this field of research. © 2011 by the authors; licensee MDPI.

Wanke P.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Barros C.,University of Lisbon
Expert Systems with Applications | Year: 2014

Although banking has been widely studied using standard DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis) models and its variations, these models do not in fact account for the internal structure relative to measures characterizing banking operations performance. In this paper, efficiency in Brazilian banking is measured using a two-stage process. In the first stage, called cost efficiency, number of branches and employees are used to attain a certain level of administrative and personnel expenses per year. In the second stage, called productive efficiency, these expenses allow the consecution of two important net outputs: equity and permanent assets. The network-DEA centralized efficiency model is adopted here to optimize both stages simultaneously. Results indicate that Brazilian banks are heterogeneous, with some focusing on cost efficiency and others on productive efficiency. Furthermore, cost efficiency is explained by M&A and size, while productive efficiency is explained by M&A and public status. Policy implications for the Brazilian banking sector are also derived. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

de Lorenzo A.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Current Diabetes Reviews | Year: 2015

The association between diabetes mellitus and coronary artery disease (CAD) is wellknown. Being the leading cause of death in diabetics, CAD is a target for prevention, diagnosis and treatment. In that sense, silent CAD in diabetics has long been a matter of concern, leading both to continued attempts at its diagnosis as well as to the persisting challenge of defining if screening for CAD in the diabetic population is useful and/or warranted. The most frequent and stronger point in favor of screening rests on the assumption that early diagnosis of CAD may lead to early treatment and therefore improved outcomes. Nonetheless, screening for CAD in diabetics is a controversial issue, since studies have not yielded evidence supporting better outcomes in diabetics screened for CAD compared to nonscreened diabetics. For several reasons, current tests that detect inducible ischemia or assess atherosclerotic burden may not be able to identify those patients at increased risk. Therefore a cautious look should be taken (once more) at that question. © 2015 Bentham Science Publishers.

Saporta M.A.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Shy M.E.,University of Iowa
Neurologic Clinics | Year: 2013

Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease is a heterogeneous group of inherited peripheral neuropathies in which the neuropathy is the sole or primary component of the disorder, as opposed to diseases in which the neuropathy is part of a more generalized neurologic or multisystem syndrome. Because of the great genetic heterogeneity of this condition, it can be challenging for the general neurologist to diagnose patients with specific types of CMT. This article reviews the biology of the inherited peripheral neuropathies, delineates major phenotypic features of the CMT subtypes, and suggest strategies for focusing genetic testing. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

Allen D.M.,University of Sao Paulo | Porto De Mello G.F.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Astronomy and Astrophysics | Year: 2010

Barium stars are optimal sites for studying the correlations between the neutron-capture elements and other species that may be depleted or enhanced, because they act as neutron seeds or poisons during the operation of the s-process. These data are necessary to help constrain the modeling of the neutron-capture paths and explain the s-process abundance curve of the solar system. Chemical abundances for a large number of barium stars with different degrees of s-process excesses, masses, metallicities, and evolutionary states are a crucial step towards this goal. We present abundances of Mn, Cu, Zn, and various light and heavy elements for a sample of barium and normal giant stars, and present correlations between abundances contributed to different degrees by the weak-s, mains, and r-processes of neutron capture, between Fe-peak elements and heavy elements. Data from the literature are also considered in order to better study the abundance pattern of peculiar stars. The stellar spectra were observed with FEROS/ESO. The stellar atmospheric parameters of the eight barium giant stars and six normal giants that we analyzed lie in the range 4300 < T eff/K < 5300, -0.7 < [Fe/H] ≤ 0.12 and 1.5 = logg < 2.9. Carbon and nitrogen abundances were derived by spectral synthesis of the molecular bands of C2, CH, and CN. For all other elements we used the atomic lines to perform the spectral synthesis. A very large scatter was found mainly for the Mn abundances when data from the literature were considered. We found that [Zn/Fe] correlates well with the heavy element excesses, its abundance clearly increasing as the heavy element excesses increase, a trend not shown by the [Cu/Fe] and [Mn/Fe] ratios. Also, the ratios involving Mn, Cu, and Zn and heavy elements usually show an increasing trend toward higher metallicities. Our results suggest that a larger fraction of the Zn synthesis than of Cu is owed to massive stars, and that the contribution of the main-s process to the synthesis of both elements is small. We also conclude that Mn is mostly synthesized by SN Ia, and that a non-negligible fraction of the synthesis of Mn, Cu, and Zn is owed to the weak s-process. © 2010 ESO.

Musafir R.E.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Journal of Sound and Vibration | Year: 2013

Following the analysis by P.E. Doak on the radiating (active) and non-radiating (reactive) parts of a source distribution and their effect on the identification of sources, this paper discusses the possible structure of non-radiating sources, i.e., of sources which produce a null field outside the source region. It is shown that these sources can be of three types, two of them only with arbitrary time dependence. In this case, the non-radiating sources are forcibly formed by the difference of two source distributions which generate, outside the region limited by the sources in question, the same field. In the type discussed by Doak, one source distribution encircles the other and cancelation is attained as a global effect. In the other, emphasized by Ffowcs Williams, the two source distributions are superimposed and cancelation is produced locally. The latter type of non-radiating source is discussed in detail, it being shown that, while they do not represent physical sources, they provide valuable information on non-radiating effects. The third type refers to single frequency sources and involves a particular match of wavelength, geometry and source strength distribution so that the acoustic energy gets trapped inside the source region. Of these three types of non-radiating sources, only the first one - that focused by Doak - can influence the identification of the active part of a source distribution from measurements made outside the source region. Evanescent waves, associated with a purely reactive field, are also discussed. It is pointed out that evanescent waves obtained in the decomposition of the field of a vibrating body of finite extent, although useful for representing certain aspects of the field, do not exist physically. Aspects affecting the identification of sources are also briefly tackled. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Merched R.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
ICASSP, IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing - Proceedings | Year: 2011

Recent formulations of radar imaging considering arbitrary distribution apertures tackles the problem as a continuous mapping from waveform to measurements, which can be inverted or estimated via a general least-squares operators. We approach the radar imaging problem as a tensorial estimation in case of focused beams. As a result, refinement to the free-space scenario subject to sampling leads to a 4-level block Toeplitz convolution model that is separable into a 3-D and a 1-D model. This allows the implementation of a superfast matrix receiver in three dimensions for the entire image reconstruction in one shot. These powerful connections have significant impact in all radar-based applications requiring sub-millimeter resolution, which further call for efficient receivers in order to cope with the often massive amount of data involved. © 2011 IEEE.

Xavier A.E.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Pattern Recognition | Year: 2010

The minimum sum-of-squares clustering problem is considered. The mathematical modeling of this problem leads to a min-sum-min formulation which, in addition to its intrinsic bi-level nature, has the significant characteristic of being strongly nondifferentiable. To overcome these difficulties, the resolution, method proposed adopts a smoothing strategy using a special C∞ differentiable class function. The final solution is obtained by solving a sequence of low dimension differentiable unconstrained optimization subproblems which gradually approach the original problem. The use of this technique, called hyperbolic smoothing, allows the main difficulties presented by the original problem to be overcome. A simplified algorithm containing only the essentials of the method is presented. For the purpose of illustrating both the reliability and the efficiency of the method, a set of computational experiments was performed, making use of traditional test problems described in the literature. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Huang X.-G.,Goethe University Frankfurt | Koide T.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Nuclear Physics A | Year: 2012

The microscopic formulas for the shear viscosity Η, the bulk viscosity ζ, and the corresponding relaxation times τ π and τ Π of causal dissipative relativistic fluid-dynamics are obtained at finite temperature and chemical potential by using the projection operator method. The non-triviality of the finite chemical potential calculation is attributed to the arbitrariness of the operator definition for the bulk viscous pressure. We show that, when the operator definition for the bulk viscous pressure Π is appropriately chosen, the leading-order result of the ratio, ζ over τ Π, coincides with the same ratio obtained at vanishing chemical potential. We further discuss the physical meaning of the time-convolutionless (TCL) approximation to the memory function, which is adopted to derive the main formulas. We show that the TCL approximation violates the time reversal symmetry appropriately and leads results consistent with the quantum master equation obtained by van Hove. Furthermore, this approximation can reproduce an exact relation for transport coefficients obtained by using the f-sum rule derived by Kadanoff and Martin. Our approach can reproduce also the result in Baier et al. (2008) [8] by taking into account the next-order correction to the TCL approximation, although this correction causes several problems. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Muricy G.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom | Year: 2011

A collection of 32 specimens of the genus Plakortis (Demospongiae: Plakinidae) from Australia and the Indo-Pacific is here examined. Six species are described, four of which are new to science. Plakortis lita has microrhabds, an irregular tangential ectosomal reticulation, a confused choanosomal skeleton and irregular diods and triods. Plakortis quasiamphiaster has quasiamphiasters (spined diods and triods), spheres and a skeleton with a distinct subectosomal region. Plakortis communis sp. nov. has diods and a tangential ectosomal reticulation with circular meshes; triods and spheres may be present or absent. Plakortis bergquistae sp. nov. has diods in two size-classes, the larger one up to 330-356 μm long, and large triods (actines up to 75-121 μm long). Plakortis fromontae sp. nov. has large diods (up to 220 μm long), rare triods and a double ectosomal reticulation. Plakortis hooperi sp. nov. has diods, triods, microrhabds and spheres, with a confused ectosomal skeleton, a thinly encrusting shape and cream colour. Detailed descriptions of external morphology, skeletal arrangement of the ectosome and spicules in SEM are essential for the taxonomy of Plakortis. The number of valid species in the genus is raised from 15 to 19. A key to Indo-Australian species of Plakortis is given. © Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 2010.

Barros J.C.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Australian Journal of Chemistry | Year: 2010

The applications of Pd EnCat™ palladium catalysts microencapsulated in cross-linked polyurea matrix, prepared by in situ interfacial polymerization, are presented. Using a column filled with the catalyst as a stationary phase, 4-phenyltoluene is prepared in 81% yield as the first metal catalyzed C-C bond formation process in scCO2. Pd0 EnCat in presence of formic acid and triethylamine is an effective reducing system for the conversion of nitro to amino-groups and subsequent cyclization in the Leimgruber-Batcho reaction. Exposure of the catalyst to molecular hydrogen results in cracking and fracturing of the polymeric matrix, and consequent loss of activity. The PdAlqEn is a new member of the family prepared using tricaprylmethyl ammonium chloride (Aliquat 336) as an emulsifier and the new catalyst mediate the hydrogenation of 4-phenyl-3-buten-2-one to 4-phenyl-2-butanone and the reduction of nitrobenzene and 4-bromoanisole in quantitative conversions.

In 1961, the World Health Organization (WHO) recognized that strains of Plasmodium are resistant to chloroquine, which consequently stimulated R&D programs aimed at finding new synthetic drugs to replace this substance in the fight against malaria. The article analyzes the process of scientific research into the production of antimalarial drugs from the 1960s to the 1980s in both the Brazilian and international contexts, especially the USA and China. The dynamics specific to each country and the interests tied to questions of international relations engendered points of agreement and of disagreement, with WHO playing a key role.

Vieira T.C.R.G.,Brazilian National Institute of Technology | Cordeiro Y.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Caughey B.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Silva J.L.,Brazilian National Institute of Technology
FASEB Journal | Year: 2014

The conversion of the prion protein (PrP) into scrapie PrP (PrP Sc) is a central event in prion diseases. Several molecules work as cofactors in the conversion process, including glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). GAGs exhibit a paradoxical effect, as they convert PrP into protease-resistant PrP (PrP-res) but also exert protective activity. We compared the stability and aggregation propensity of PrP and the heparin-PrP complex through the application of different in vitro aggregation approaches, including real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC). Transmissible spongiform encephalopathy-associated forms from mouse and hamster brain homogenates were used to seed RT-QuIC-induced fibrillization. In our study, interaction between heparin and cellular PrP (PrPC) increased thermal PrP stability, leading to an 8-fold decrease in temperature-induced aggregation. The interaction of low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWHep) with the PrP N- or C-terminal domain affected not only the extent of PrP fibrillization but also its kinetics, lowering the reaction rate constant from 1.04 to 0.29 s -1 and increasing the lag phase from 12 to 19 h in RT-QuIC experiments. Our findings explain the protective effect of heparin in different models of prion and prion-like neurodegenerative diseases and establish the groundwork for the development of therapeutic strategies based on GAGs. © FASEB.

Denicol G.S.,Goethe University Frankfurt | Kodama T.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Koide T.,Goethe University Frankfurt
Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics | Year: 2010

In this work, we examine the effect of shear and bulk viscosities on elliptic flow by taking a realistic parameterization of the shear and bulk viscous coefficients, η and ζ, and their respective relaxation times, τπ and τΠ. the non-trivial temperature dependence of these transport coefficients. © 2010 IOP Publishing Ltd.

Sagrilo L.V.S.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Naess A.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Doria A.S.,Federal University of Alagoas
Applied Ocean Research | Year: 2011

This paper addresses some important issues related to the estimation of long-term extreme responses of marine structures. Several convolution models to establish the long-term distribution of a marine structure response parameter are available in the literature. These methods are typically based either on all short-term peaks, all extreme short-term peaks or all short-term upcrossing rates. The main assumptions and simplifications of the five models most usually found in the literature are discussed in this paper. A linear single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) system along with a bi-lognormal probability model for significant wave heights and zero-crossing wave periods have been used for numerical tests. An improved approach to efficiently evaluate the long-term convolution integrals is also proposed in this paper. It is shown that a combination of the Inverse First Order Reliability Method (IFORM) and an Importance Sampling Monte Carlo Simulation (ISMCS) approach can be used to obtain a very good result for the exact solution of long-term integrals. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

de Oliveira A.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Journal of Urban Planning and Development | Year: 2011

The growth of megaevents is related to changes within urban management paradigms and the corresponding economic analysis. As such, urban management and macroeconomic policy must be investigated together. This paper focuses on the relationships between the hosting of the 2007 Pan American (Pan Am) games, the budget management of Rio de Janeiro city, and Brazil's macroeconomic policy, considering both the economic impacts and exploring possible alternative uses of the public resources. The games required a newly built infrastructure, demonstrating that hosting megaevents in developing countries requires more sacrifices than for cities in industrialized countries. These expenditures did not change the control policy of public debt, because the city's management followed the principles of government policy. Therefore, the adjustment of the municipal budget occurred in other expenditures, especially health and education. Finally, Rio de Janeiro municipality did not have enough resources to host the Pan Am games, and the federal government had to promise financial support. Planning megaevents has a new dimension not usually discussed in the economic impact literature: the consequences of megaevents on the federalist equilibrium. © 2011 American Society of Civil Engineers.

Fraga E.S.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Noronha J.,University of Sao Paulo | Palhares L.F.,State University of Rio de Janeiro
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2013

We investigate the effect of a homogeneous magnetic field on the thermal deconfinement transition of QCD in the large Nc limit. First we discuss how the critical temperature decreases due to the inclusion of N fNc flavors of massless quarks in comparison to the pure glue case. Then we study the equivalent correction in the presence of an external Abelian magnetic field. To leading order in Nf/N c, the deconfinement critical temperature decreases with the magnetic field if the flavor contribution to the pressure behaves paramagnetically, with a sufficiently large magnetization as to overcome any possible magnetic effects in the string tension. Finally, we discuss the effects from a finite quark mass and its competition with magnetic effects. © 2013 American Physical Society.

Paiva T.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Loh Y.L.,Ohio State University | Randeria M.,Ohio State University | Scalettar R.T.,University of California at Davis | Trivedi N.,Ohio State University
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2011

A major challenge in realizing antiferromagnetic and superfluid phases in optical lattices is the ability to cool fermions. We determine the equation of state for the 3D repulsive Fermi-Hubbard model as a function of the chemical potential, temperature, and repulsion using unbiased determinantal quantum Monte Carlo methods, and we then use the local density approximation to model a harmonic trap. We show that increasing repulsion leads to cooling but only in a trap, due to the redistribution of entropy from the center to the metallic wings. Thus, even when the average entropy per particle is larger than that required for antiferromagnetism in the homogeneous system, the trap enables the formation of an antiferromagnetic Mott phase. © 2011 American Physical Society.

Merched R.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing | Year: 2013

This paper extends the existing fast RLS recursions originally intended to exponentially windowed problems for general models, to a generalized sliding window formulation (GSWRLS). From a matrix algebra perspective, we show explicitly how the displacement rank of the underlying inverse covariance matrix associated to any operator is defined as a function of the number of window breakpoints and how the fast GSWRLS calculates these rank factors in a fast manner. The recursions hold regardless of the (first order) data structure induced and show that fast fixed order and order recursive RLS algorithms can still be obtained for unwindowed data matrices exhibiting a fixed arbitrary relation between successive regressors. Our approach highlights the existence of a certain degree of freedom inherent to structured data matrices induced by general models, showing that efficient representations of their inverse covariances are not limited to factor circulants, but rather constructed from any arbitrary operator. These Bezoutians, usually expressed via reproducing kernel relations, can be represented exactly in matrix form, along with a precise correspondence to variables of a GSWRLS. As a fallout, we obtain a vector relation stating the so-called minimality property, for extended models and windows, as opposed to analogous generating function arguments normally seen in original approaches. These results pave the way to a more general framework of polynomial Vandermonde covariance decompositions which arise naturally via a proper choice of recurrence related polynomials. This has further impact on several signal processing applications, including superfast realization of equalizers in communications scenarios. © 2013 IEEE.

Rodrigues M.L.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Djordjevic J.T.,University of Sydney
Mycopathologia | Year: 2012

Secretion pathways in fungi are essential for the maintenance of cell wall architecture and for the export of a number of virulence factors. In the fungal pathogen, Cryptococcus neoformans, much evidence supports the existence of more than one route taken by secreted molecules to reach the cell periphery and extracellular space, and a significant degree of crosstalk between conventional and non-conventional secretion routes. The need for such complexity may be due to differences in the nature of the exported cargo, the spatial and temporal requirements for constitutive and non-constitutive protein secretion, and/or as a means of compensating for the extra burden on the secretion machinery imposed by the elaboration of the polysaccharide capsule. This review focuses on the role of specific components of the C. neoformans secretion machinery in protein and/or polysaccharide export, including Sec4, Sec6, Sec14, Golgi reassembly and stacking protein and extracellular exosome-like vesicles. We also address what is known about traffic of the lipid, glucosylceramide, a target of therapeutic antibodies and an important regulator of C. neoformans pathogenicity, and the role of signalling pathways in the regulation of secretion. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Costa W.J.E.M.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Biodiversity and Conservation | Year: 2012

The coastal plains of the Rio de Janeiro State, south-eastern Brazil, have been considered an important hotspot of aplocheiloid killifish diversity. A conservation status assessment based on 17 years of field studies directed to record habitat decline indicates that five species of seasonal killifish, Leptolebias marmoratus, Nematolebias papilliferus, Notholebias cruzi, Notholebias fractifasciatus and Ophthalmolebias constanciae, distributed among three areas of endemism, are on the edge of survival. Conservation priority, focusing on five remnant isolated locations where those species occur, was evaluated on the basis of the phylogenetic diversity content of each location established through a phylogenetic base containing data on relationships of 118 cynolebiasine species, including all species endemic to Rio. Data on species diversity for each area and data on morphological uniqueness were subsequently compared and discussed. The Barra de São João pool, in the São João-Cabo Frio area, habitat of Nematolebias whitei, No. cruzi, O. constanciae, concentrates the highest value for conservation proposal, followed by the Inoã pool, in the Maricá area, habitat of Ne. papilliferus and No. fractifasciatus. However, in case of the Barra de São João pool being effectively preserved, it is recommended to concentrate efforts to preserve the Cava swamp as a second priority, since although the latter location showing the lowest individual value, Cava swamp and Barra de São João pool together sum a higher phylogenetic diversity index by preserving more distinct cynolebiasine lineages. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Duffey K.J.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | Pereira R.A.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Popkin B.M.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2013

Background/Objectives:Snacking has increased globally. We examine snacking patterns and common snack foods in Brazil.Subjects/Methods:Data from the first of two non-consecutive food diaries from 34 003 individuals (aged ≥10 years) in the first Brazillian nationally representative dietary survey (2008-2009) were used. Meals were defined as the largest (kcal) eating event reported during select times of the day (Breakfast, 0600-1000 hours; Lunch, 1200-1500 hours; Dinner, 1800-2100 hours); all other eating occasions were considered snacks. We estimate daily energy intake, percentage of persons consuming snacks, number of daily snacks and per capita and per consumer energy from snacks (kcal/day, kcal/snack and % of daily energy from snacks).Results:In all, 74% of Brazilians (≥10 years) snacked, reporting an average 1.6 snacks/day. Also, 23% of the sample were heavy snackers (≥3 snacks/day). Snacking accounted for 21% of daily energy intake in the full sample but 35.5% among heavy snackers. Compared with non-snackers (1548 kcal/day), light (1-2 snacks/day) and heavy snackers consumed more daily energy (1929 and 2334 kcal/day, respectively). Taking into account time of day, the largest percentage of persons reported afternoon/early evening snacking (1501-1759 hours, 47.7%). Sweetened coffee and tea, sweets and desserts, fruit, sugar-sweetened beverages, and high-calorie salgados (fried/baked dough with meat/cheese/vegetable) were the top five most commonly consumed snacks. Differences were observed by age groups. Trends in commercial sales were observed, especially for sugar-sweetened beverages.Conclusions:Many commonly consumed snack foods in Brazil are classified, in the US, as being high in solid fats and added sugars. The public health impact of snacking in Brazil requires further exploration. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Alves R.J.V.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Kolbek J.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic
Plant Ecology | Year: 2010

A number of floristic and vegetation studies apply the terms campo rupestre, campo de altitude (or Brazilian páramo), and Tepui to neotropical azonal outcrop and montane vegetation. All of these are known to harbor considerable numbers of endemic plant species and to share several genera. In order to determine whether currently known combinations of vascular plant genera could help circumscribe and distinguish these vegetation types, we selected 25 floras which did not exclude herbs and compiled them into a single database. We then compared the Sørensen similarities of the genus-assemblages using the numbers of native species in the resulting 1945 genera by multivariate analysis. We found that the circumscription of campo rupestre and other Neotropical outcrop vegetation types may not rely exclusively on a combination of genera. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Cynopoecilines comprise a diversified clade of small killifishes occurring in the Atlantic Forest, one of the most endangered biodiversity hotspots in the world. They are found in temporary pools of savannah-like and dense forest habitats, and most of them are highly threatened with extinction if not already extinct. The greatest gap in our knowledge of cynopoecilines stems from the absence of an integrative approach incorporating molecular phylogenetic data of species still found in their habitats with phylogenetic data taken from the rare and possibly extinct species without accessible molecular information. An integrative analysis combining 115 morphological characters with a multigene dataset of 2,108 bp comprising three nuclear loci (GLYT1, ENC1, Rho), provided a robust phylogeny of cynopoeciline killifishes, which was herein used to attain an accurate phylogenetic placement of nearly extinct species. The analysis indicates that the most recent common ancestor of the Cynopoecilini lived in open vegetation habitats of the Atlantic Forest of eastern Brazil and was a miniature species, reaching between 25 and 28 mm of standard length. The rare cases of cynopoecilines specialized in inhabiting pools within dense forests are interpreted as derived from four independent evolutionary events. Shifts in habitat usage and biogeographic patterns are tentatively associated to Cenozoic paleogeographic events, but the evolutionary history of cynopoecilines may be partially lost by a combination of poor past sampling and recent habitat decline. A sharp evolutionary shift directed to increased body size in a clade encompassing the genera Campellolebias and Cynopoecilus may be related to a parallel acquisition of an internally-fertilizing reproductive strategy, unique among aplocheiloid killifishes. This study reinforces the importance of adding morphological information to molecular databases as a tool to understand the biological complexity of organisms under intense pressure from loss of habitat. © 2016 Wilson J. E. M. Costa. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Cleary D.F.R.,University of Aveiro | Smalla K.,Julius Kuhn Institute | Mendonca-Hagler L.C.S.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Gomes N.C.M.,University of Aveiro
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Here, we use DGGE fingerprinting and barcoded pyrosequencing data, at six cut-off levels (85-100%), of all bacteria, Alphaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria to assess composition in the rhizosphere of nursery plants and nursery-raised transplants, native plants and bulk sediment in a mangrove habitat. When comparing compositional data based on DGGE fingerprinting and barcoded pyrosequencing at different cut-off levels, all revealed highly significant differences in composition among microhabitats. Procrustes superimposition revealed that ordination results using cut-off levels from 85-100% and DGGE fingerprint data were highly congruent with the standard 97% cut-off level. The various approaches revealed a primary gradient in composition from nursery to mangrove samples. The affinity between the nursery and transplants was greatest when using Betaproteobacteria followed by Alphaproteobacteria data. There was a distinct secondary gradient in composition from transplants to bulk sediment with native plants intermediate, which was most prevalent using all bacteria at intermediate cut-off levels (92-97%). Our results show that PCR-DGGE provides a robust and cost effective exploratory approach and is effective in distinguishing among a priori defined groups. © 2012 Cleary et al.

Uchoa B.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | Rappoport T.G.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Castro Neto A.H.,Boston University
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2011

We examine the exchange Hamiltonian for magnetic adatoms in graphene with localized inner shell states. On symmetry grounds, we predict the existence of a class of orbitals that lead to a distinct class of quantum critical points in graphene, where the Kondo temperature scales as TK|J-J c|1/3 near the critical coupling Jc, and the local spin is effectively screened by a super-Ohmic bath. For this class, the RKKY interaction decays spatially with a fast power law ∼1/R7. Away from half filling, we show that the exchange coupling in graphene can be controlled across the quantum critical region by gating. We propose that the vicinity of the Kondo quantum critical point can be directly accessed with scanning tunneling probes and gating.© 2011 The American Physical Society.

Aguiar R.R.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Weber H.I.,Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro
Nonlinear Dynamics | Year: 2011

The subject of this work is the experimental investigation and the mathematical modeling of the impact force behavior in a vibro-impact system, where a hammer is mounted on a cart that imposes a prescribed displacement. By changing the hammer stiffness and the impact gap it is possible to investigate the impact force behavior under different excitation frequencies. The experimental data will be used to validate the mathematical model. The hammer behavior is studied in more detail using a nonlinear analysis, which shows the various responses of the hammer, such as dynamical jumps, bifurcations and chaos. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

De Paula A.S.,University of Brasilia | Savi M.A.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
International Journal of Non-Linear Mechanics | Year: 2011

Chaos may be exploited in order to design dynamical systems that may quickly react to some new situation, changing conditions and their response. In this regard, the idea that chaotic behavior may be controlled by small perturbations allows this kind of behavior to be desirable in different applications. This paper presents an overview of chaos control methods classified as follows: OGY methods include discrete and semi-continuous approaches; multiparameter methods also include discrete and semi-continuous approaches; and time-delayed feedback methods that are continuous approaches. These methods are employed in order to stabilize some desired UPOs establishing a comparative analysis of all methods. Essentially, a control rule is of concern and each controller needs to follow this rule. Noisy time series is treated establishing a robustness analysis of control methods. The main goal is to present a comparative analysis of the capability of each chaos control method to stabilize a desired UPO. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Cabral I.E.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Revista brasileira de enfermagem | Year: 2010

The purpose of the article was to identify a problematic, challenges and strategies recommended in those texts and analysis the applicability of such recommendations reflected on papers published from 2005-2008. A thematic analysis was applied to the full texts available on LILACS data base. Results showed that the development of nursing research was articulated to the neoliberal and globalization economic system, the national health system, the healthcare demands of population, and nursing profession. The post-graduation expansion in Latin America was a result of the international efforts of the Brazilian post-graduation programs, and the increase number of nurse researchers as well as Center of Nursing Research. Because the scientific production is inserted on academic field, the research findings do not become healthcare policy yet. Nursing organizations and their partners need to continue making efforts to overcome old challenges and to build new meanings for nursing research.

Merched R.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing | Year: 2013

This paper shows, under general input data models, how block memoryless equalizers should be formulated considering reduced-redundancy transmissions for superfast detection. We propose linear and DFE-based, both multicarrier (MC) and single-carrier-frequency-domain (SC-FD) transceivers, along with efficientmethods for the equalizer calculation, in a unified manner. We argue that, under a one-tap block decision feedback, transmitted redundancy can be reduced below the ⌈(L-1/2)⌉ minimum samples allowed in the linear case, where L is the channel length, even down to zero-redundancy, with improved BER performance. This is quantified in light of the optimal reconstruction delay set for a minimum-norm zero-forcing feedforward matrix in terms of the channel zeros location. The proposed MC and SC-FD block DFEs do not cancel inter-block-interference (IBI) via zeros-jamming; Instead, it removes IBI completely, in part by decision-feedback, and in part by zero-padding, which allows for much lower redundancy transmissions. The remaining ISI is further eliminated through a one-step block-iterative-generalized-DFE (BI-GDFE) obtained in the minimum-mean-square-error (MMSE) sense. Unlike computationally demanding block DFEs that eliminate ISI via successive cancelation, the proposed DFE schemes are as efficient as a superfast block-linear equalizer, requiring at most 3 receive branches to realize the order-M feedforward matrices in O{scrit}(M log M) operations. © 2013 IEEE.

Pimentel-Coelho P.M.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Pediatric research | Year: 2012

Despite recent advances in the treatment of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) using therapeutic hypothermia, at least 30% of the cooled infants will die or have moderate/severe neurological disability. Umbilical cord blood cells (UCBCs), which are readily available at birth, have been shown to reduce sensorimotor and/or cognitive impairments in several models of brain damage, representing a promising option for the treatment of neurological diseases. In this review, we discuss recent preclinical studies that assessed the effects of UCBC transplantation in the Rice-Vannucci animal model of HIE. We also review the possible cell types and mechanisms involved in the therapeutic effect of UCBC transplantation, including neuroprotection, immunomodulation, and stimulation of neural plasticity and regeneration. In addition, we discuss how neuroimaging methods, such as bioluminescence imaging, nuclear-medicine imaging, or magnetic resonance imaging, could be used to evaluate the biodistribution of UCBCs in both preclinical and clinical studies.

Ferreira A.,National University of Singapore | Rappoport T.G.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Cazalilla M.A.,National University of Singapore | Cazalilla M.A.,National Tsing Hua University | And 2 more authors.
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2014

We show that the extrinsic spin Hall effect can be engineered in monolayer graphene by decoration with small doses of adatoms, molecules, or nanoparticles originating local spin-orbit perturbations. The analysis of the single impurity scattering problem shows that intrinsic and Rashba spin-orbit local couplings enhance the spin Hall effect via skew scattering of charge carriers in the resonant regime. The solution of the transport equations for a random ensemble of spin-orbit impurities reveals that giant spin Hall currents are within the reach of the current state of the art in device fabrication. The spin Hall effect is robust with respect to thermal fluctuations and disorder averaging. © 2014 American Physical Society.

Herculano-Houzel S.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Frontiers in Neuroanatomy | Year: 2010

While larger brains possess concertedly larger cerebral cortices and cerebella, the relative size of the cerebral cortex increases with brain size, but relative cerebellar size does not. In the absence of data on numbers of neurons in these structures, this discrepancy has been used to dispute the hypothesis that the cerebral cortex and cerebellum function and have evolved in concert and to support a trend towards neo corticalization in evolution. However, the rationale for interpreting changes in absolute and relative size of the cerebral cortex and cerebellum relies on the assumption that they reflect absolute and relative numbers of neurons in these structures across all species - an assumption that our recent studies have shown to be fl awed. Here I show for the first time that the numbers of neurons in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum are directly correlated across 19 mammalian species of four different orders, including humans, and increase concertedly in a similar fashion both within and across the orders Eulipotyphla (Insectivora), Rodentia, Scandentia and Primata, such that on average a ratio of 3.6 neurons in the cerebellum to every neuron in the cerebral cortex is maintained across species. This coordinated scaling of cortical and cerebellar numbers of neurons provides direct evidence in favor of concerted function, scaling and evolution of these brain structures, and suggests that the common notion that equates cognitive advancement with neocortical expansion should be revisited to consider in its stead the coordinated scaling of neocortex and cerebellum as a functional ensemble. © 2010 Herculano-Houzel.

Braz A.V.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Surgical and Cosmetic Dermatology | Year: 2010

Introduction: Diverse anatomical characteristics and varied kinetic spectra determine the specific contraction patterns of individuals' frontal facial musculature. Objective:To identify and classify the frontal facial musculature contraction patterns in patients who sought care for treating frontal facial wrinkles. Methods: Retrospective analysis of pictures taken from 83 patients. The muscular contraction pattern was classified according to the predominant hyperkinetic area that was observed in the picture in the frontal muscle's maximum contraction. Results: Three contraction patterns were identified: total, medial and lateral. In 50.6% of cases, the total pattern was observed: the horizontal rhytids present in the center of the forehead extend laterally beyond the mediopupillary line, up to the end of the brows. The medial pattern was observed in 25.3% of cases: the horizontal rhytids are concentrated in the central region of the forehead, predominantly contained between the mediopupillary lines. The lateral pattern was observed in 24% of the cases: the horizontal rhytids prevail on the sides of the forehead, mainly occurring laterallyto the mediopupillary line. Conclusions: The identification and classification of Frontalis muscle contraction patterns provides an individualized approach for each patient, which is one of the most important pillars of a successful treatment plan.

de Serpa Jr. O.D.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Historia, Ciencias, Saude - Manguinhos | Year: 2010

The article discusses the theory of degeneration as presented in the works of Benedict-Augustin Morel, situating it within the scientific and cultural context of its day. It underscores the roles played by the notions of heredity and environment in grounding this theory and how it related to the mid-nineteenth century French understanding of psychiatric medicine. It also explores the ramifications of this theory, particularly the works of Valentin Magnan, with the ultimate progressive transition from the notion of degeneration to that of degenerate. Other points of analysis include French psychiatry's concepts of imbalance and constitution and German psychiatry's concept of endogeneity as heirs to degeneration in twentieth-century psychiatry, as well as the Neo-Lamarckian appropriation of this debate in Brazil.

Maranhao-Filho P.A.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Arquivos de neuro-psiquiatria | Year: 2011

The authors propose that the neurological exam needs reevaluation with respect to the dynamic balance test (walking). Validated tests such as: preferred and maximum gait speed, dynamic gait index, five-times-sit-to-stand test, timed up & go cognitive and manual, should be part of the neurological examination routine. In the neurological exam of older patients, these same bedside tests bring the plus of evaluation the risk of occasional falling.

Bandeira-Melo C.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) | Year: 2011

Eicosanoids (prostaglandins, leukotrienes and lipoxins) are a family of signaling lipids derived from arachidonic acid that have important roles in physiological and pathological processes. Over the past years, it has been established that successful eicosanoid production is not merely determined by arachidonic acid and eicosanoid-forming enzymes availability, but requires sequential interactions between specific biosynthetic proteins acting in cascade and may involve very unique spatial interactions. Direct assessment of specific subcellular locales of eicosanoid synthesis has been elusive, as those lipid mediators are newly formed, not stored and often rapidly released upon cell stimulation. In this chapter, we discuss the EicosaCell protocol for intracellular detection of eicosanoid-synthesizing compartments by means of a strategy to covalently cross-link and immobilize the lipid mediators at their sites of synthesis followed by immunofluorescent-based localization of the targeted eicosanoid.

Malajovich G.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Foundations of Computational Mathematics | Year: 2013

This paper investigates the expected number of complex roots of nonlinear equations. Those equations are assumed to be analytic, and to belong to certain inner product spaces. Those spaces are then endowed with the Gaussian probability distribution. The root count on a given domain is proved to be 'additive' with respect to a product operation of functional spaces. This allows one to deduce a general theorem relating the expected number of roots for unmixed and mixed systems. Examples of root counts for equations that are not polynomials, nor exponential sums are given at the end. © 2013 SFoCM.

Merched R.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications | Year: 2010

High Doppler effects resulting from fast time varying dispersive channels give rise to the so-called intercarrier interference, whose accurate modeling for data recovery is paramount. We present a novel turbo estimation scheme based on a known linearized model of the time varying channel via its derivatives. The derivatives estimation is adaptive, in the sense that at each turbo estimation it incorporates information on previously estimated parameters. This is combined with a decision-directed scheme implemented at bit level with soft decision. We show that any pilot based scheme that is able to induce a Toeplitz structure in the channel correlation matrix, can make use of an existing class of so-called superfast algorithms for minimum mean-square error (MMSE) channel estimation. Given a structure for the vector of pilots and an upper bound for the channel delay spread, say N, we show that it is only necessary to store 2N coefficients per pilot structure in order to recover the entire channel parameters. We bring attention to the fact that either for static or slowly varying channels, any Toeplitz-like model can yield a superfast equalization method as well, and show how fast order recursive algorithms can be combined to a superfast receiver structure, in order to yield both efficient equalizer computation and equalization. © 2010 IEEE.

Ferreira D.C.,University of Sao Paulo | Pires J.R.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Temperini M.L.A.,University of Sao Paulo
Journal of Physical Chemistry B | Year: 2011

This paper investigates the structure of the products obtained from the polymerization of aniline with ammonium persulfate in a citrate/phosphate buffer solution at pH 3 by resonance Raman, NMR, FTIR, and UV-vis-NIR spectroscopies. All the spectroscopic data showed that the major product presented segments that were formed by a 1,4-Michael reaction between aniline and p-benzoquinone monoimine, ruling out the formation of polyazane structure that has been recently proposed. The characterization of samples obtained at different stages of the reaction indicated that, as the reaction progressed, phenazine units were formed and 1,4-Michael-type adducts were hydrolyzed/oxidized to yield benzoquinone. Raman mapping data suggested that phenazine-like segments could be related to the formation of the microspheres morphology. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

A multi-functionality framework is used to critically evaluate rural and eco-tourism in the Central Amazon. This part of the region is shown to have the best potential for both consumption and productive rural activities so that this study looks at the possibility of combining tourism with farming in a multi-functional way or whether the activities merely exist side-by-side (juxtaposition) or if conflict arises due to competing land use resulting in the marginalization of the local population. Considerations of scale, market potential, accessibility and the presence of local capacities and skills are shown to be fundamental for determining whether tourism can be a viable green solution reducing deforestation and promoting social inclusion in one of the poorest and environmentally problematic regions of Brazil. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Sjaastad O.,St. Olavs Hospital | Vincent M.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Functional Neurology | Year: 2010

In the indomethacin responsive headaches (IRHs), chronic paroxysmal hemicrania (CPH) and Hemicrania continua (HC), the indomethacin (INDO) response is swift, absolute, and permanent, with moderate doses. Traditionally, CPH has been linked to cluster headache (CH) due to clinical similarities: unilaterality, intensity, and some autonomic phenomena. However, other clinical features differ essentially between these two headaches: sex ratio, mean attack frequency (CPH: 13.6 versus CH: 1.7 attacks/day), and duration of attacks. The therapeutic profile in CPH (indomethacin effect: ++; triptan effect: generally non-existent) is reversed in CH. The autonomic phenomena also differ clearly, a forehead supersensitivity sweating pattern and Horner-like pupil being present only in CH. The chronic/non-chronic stage ratio is 3.9 in CPH, against 0.14 in CH, a >25 times difference. Conversely, CPH and HC are very similar, clinically speaking. Accordingly, we should probably sever the link between CH and CPH and favour, instead, a linking together of CPH and HC, the two principal IRHs. © CIC Edizioni Internazionali.

Simoes Pires E.N.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Frozza R.L.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Hoppe J.B.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Menezes B.D.M.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Salbego C.G.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul
Brain Research | Year: 2014

Berberine is an alkaloid derived from herb the Berberis sp. and has long-term use in Oriental medicine. Studies along the years have demonstrated its beneficial effect in various neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders. The subject of this study was to evaluate whether berberine protects against delayed neuronal cell death in organotypic hippocampal culture (OHC) exposed to oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) and the cell signaling mechanism related to its effect. Hippocampal slices were obtained from 6 to 8-days-old male Wistar rat and cultured for 14 days. Following, the cultures were exposed for 1 h to OGD and then treated with Berberine (10 and 20 μM). After 24 h recovery, propidium iodide (PI) uptake was analyzed and a decrease was observed in PI uptake on OGD Ber-treated culture, which means a decrease in cellular death. Western blot analysis showed that proteins Akt, GSK3β, ERK and JNK appear to play a role in berberine-mediated neuroprotection. Furthermore, capase-3 activity of OGD Ber-treated culture was diminished by control level in a fluorimetry assay. These findings suggest that berberine-mediated neuroprotection after ischemia involves Akt/GSK3β/ERK 1/2 survival/apoptotic signaling pathway as well as JNK and caspase-3 activity inhibition. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Montagnes D.J.S.,University of Liverpool | Dower J.F.,University of Victoria | Figueiredo G.M.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology | Year: 2010

Since the introduction of the microbial loop concept, awareness of the role played by protozooplankton in marine food webs has grown. By consuming bacteria, and then being consumed by metazooplankton, protozoa form a trophic link that channels dissolved organic material into the "classic" marine food chain. Beyond enhancing energy transfer to higher trophic levels, protozoa play a key role in improving the food quality of metazooplankton. Here, we consider a third role played by protozoa, but one that has received comparatively little attention: that as prey items for ichthyoplankton. For >100 years it has been known that fish larvae consume protozoa. Despite this, fisheries scientists and biological oceanographers still largely ignore protozoa when assessing the foodweb dynamics that regulate the growth and survival of larval fish. We review evidence supporting the importance of the protozooplankton-ichthyoplankton link, including examples from the amateur aquarium trade, the commercial aquaculture industry, and contemporary studies of larval fish. We then consider why this potentially important link continues to receive very little attention. We conclude by offering suggestions for quantifying the importance of the protozooplankton-ichthyoplankton trophic link, using both existing methods and new technologies. © 2010 by the International Society of Protistologists.

Carvalho P.C.,Carlos Chagas Institute | Yates J.R.,Scripps Research Institute | Barbosa V.C.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Bioinformatics | Year: 2012

We present an updated version of the TFold software for pinpointing differentially expressed proteins in shotgun proteomics experiments. Given an FDR bound, the updated approach uses a theoretical FDR estimator to maximize the number of identifications that satisfy both a fold-change cutoff that varies with the t-test P-value as a power law and a stringency criterion that aims to detect lowly abundant proteins. The new version has yielded significant improvements in sensitivity over the previous one. © The Author 2012. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

To evaluate the prevalence and associated variables in leisure-time physical activity (LTPA), by gender, in Duque de Caxias/Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. This is a population-based cross-sectional study with 1,246 adults. During home visits, questionnaires were applied on LTPA, socio-demographic factors and anthropometric examinations were performed. Physical inactivity was high (70%) (p-value <0001) and men were more active (43.3%) than women (20%) (p-value <0.0001). Men practiced significantly more competitive and male-associated LTPA. Taking care of children was a factor that increased the likelihood of men engaging in LTPA (OR = 2.75, p-value = 0.034), whereas among women, those who spent less time on domestic activities (OR = 0.99, p-value = 0.016), did not smoke (OR = 2.63, p-value = 0.039) and had greater accumulation of abdominal fat (OR = 2.72, p -value = 0.023), practiced LTPA. Men chose LTPAs considered masculine. Socio-demographic and anthropometric measures had different associations with LTPA between the genders.

Liu J.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Mathematical Methods in the Applied Sciences | Year: 2016

This paper is concerned with the regularity criterion for a class of axisymmetric solutions to 3D incompressible magnetohydrodynamic equations. More precisely, for the solutions that have the form of u = urer+uθeθ+uzez and b = bθeθ, we prove that if |ru(x,t)|≤C holds for -1≤t < 0, then (u,b) is regular at time zero. This result can be thought as a generalization of recent results in for the 3D incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Fonseca T.C.O.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Steel M.F.J.,University of Warwick
Biometrika | Year: 2011

We construct non-Gaussian processes that vary continuously in space and time with nonseparable covariance functions. Starting from a general and flexible way of constructing valid nonseparable covariance functions through mixing over separable covariance functions, the resulting models are generalized by allowing for outliers as well as regions with larger variances. We induce this through scale mixing with separate positive-valued processes. Smooth mixing processes are applied to the underlying correlated processes in space and in time, thus leading to regions in space and time of increased spread. An uncorrelated mixing process on the nugget effect accommodates outliers. Posterior and predictive Bayesian inference with these models is implemented through a Markov chain Monte Carlo sampler. An application to temperature data in the Basque country illustrates the potential of this model in the identification of outliers and regions with inflated variance, and shows that this improves the predictive performance. © 2011 Biometrika Trust.

Diniz P.S.R.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Circuits, Systems, and Signal Processing | Year: 2011

Set-membership (SM) adaptive filtering is appealing in many practical situations, particularly those with inherent power and computational constraints. The main feature of the SM algorithms is their data-selective coefficient update leading to lower computational complexity and power consumption. The set-membership affine projection (SM-AP) algorithm does not trade convergence speed with misadjustment and computation complexity as many existing adaptive filtering algorithms. In this work analytical results related to the SM-AP algorithm are presented for the first time, providing tools to setup its parameters as well as some interpretation to its desirable features. The analysis results in expressions for the excess mean square error (MSE) in stationary environments and the transient behavior of the learning curves. Simulation results confirm the accuracy of the analysis and the good features of the SM-AP algorithms. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Porto C.G.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Ore Geology Reviews | Year: 2016

The Igarapé Bahia, situated in the Carajás Mineral Province, is a world-class example of a lateritic gold deposit. It has developed under tropical weathering conditions since at least the Eocene and resulted in a regolith cover of at least 100. m thickness. The regolith is dominated by ~. 80. m thick ferruginous saprolite containing gossan bodies that constitute the main Au ore. Above saprolite the regolith stratigraphy has been established considering two distinct domains. One composed of residual materials and the other transported materials deposited over palaeochannels. In the residual domain the ferruginous saprolite grades upwards into a fragmental duricrust, interpreted as a collapsed zone, and then into different types of ferruginous duricrusts. Over palaeochannel the ferruginous saprolite is truncated by poorly sorted ferruginous sediment of variable composition that grades upwards into the ferruginous duricrusts formed over transported materials. Lateritization took place during a marked period that transformed the colluvium of the residual domain, and the transported materials accumulated in the channel depressions, into the ferruginous duricrust units. A later bauxitization event has overprinted all duricrust types but has mostly affected the duricrusts over the palaeochannel forming gibbsitic nodules. All duricrusts were finally covered by a transported layer of latosol which flattened the whole landscape in the Carajás region. Gold shows a depletion trend across the regolith but is enriched in the fragmental duricrust below the ferruginous duricrust from which gold is leached. Gold is also chemically dispersed laterally into the fragmental duricrust, but lateral Au dispersion in the ferruginous duricrusts of the residual domain is probably also influenced by colluvial transport. Metals associated with Au mineralization (Cu, U, Mo, Pb, Ag, LREE, Sn, W, Bi, Sb and P) are generally depleted in the saprolite but most of them are still anomalous. The fragmental and ferruginous duricrusts are more leached but the tests performed to estimate the dispersion potential of metals contained in the ferruginous duricrust show that some metals are still significantly anomalous especially Au, Ag and Cu. However, if ferruginous duricrusts are used as an exploration sample media their environment of formation must be considered. Metal depletion is generally more advanced in the ferruginous duricrusts developed in the vicinities of palaeochannels as oppose to those developed in residual domain. On the contrary, Au over palaeochannel areas is enriched in the upper bauxitized ferruginous duricrusts and in their gibbsitic nodules as a result of lateral chemical transport that is more widespread than in the colluvium over residual domain. The latosol is highly depleted in most metals due to its transported nature. However, the nodular fractions of the latosol show the greatest dispersion potential especially for Au, Ag, W, U, Bi and Sn. It can incorporate magnetic nodules that bring a rich suit of metals associated to the magnetic gossans, and non-magnetic nodules, classified as concretion and pisolites, which bring metals enriched or dispersed in the ferruginous duricrusts. This suggests that Lag constitutes a promising sample medium for geochemical exploration in the lateritic terrains of the Carajás region. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Carvalho Da Fonseca A.C.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Badie B.,Beckman Research Institute
Clinical and Developmental Immunology | Year: 2013

Malignant gliomas are the most common primary brain tumors. Their deadliest manifestation, glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), accounts for 15% of all primary brain tumors and is associated with a median survival of only 15 months even after multimodal therapy. There is substantial presence of microglia and macrophages within and surrounding brain tumors. These immune cells acquire an alternatively activated phenotype with potent tumor-tropic functions that contribute to glioma growth and invasion. In this review, we briefly summarize recent data that has been reported on the interaction of microglia/macrophages with brain tumors and discuss potential application of these findings to the development of future antiglioma therapies. © 2013 Anna Carolina Carvalho da Fonseca and Behnam Badie.

Py M.O.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports | Year: 2011

Chagas disease is endemic in Latin America and has become an emerging problem in developed countries because of international migrations. The protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi is the etiologic agent and the disease is divided into two phases. The acute phase is mostly asymptomatic or presents with unspecific symptoms. Rarely, a severe and often fatal form occurs in immunosuppressed patients or infants, characterized by meningoencephalitis (sometimes including brain tumor-like lesions) and myocarditis. The chronic phase consists of an indeterminate, asymptomatic form followed by digestive, cardiac, or neurologic symptoms in about 30% of infected patients. Autonomous nervous system dysfunction is prominent in chagasic patients and participates in the affliction of the target organs. Stroke, mainly cardioembolic, may occur in the chronic phase, but other stroke etiologies are reported. Embolic sources and inflammation are thought to play a role in stroke mechanisms. Specific treatment for Chagas disease is scarce and preventive measures are needed. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

The purpose was to describe characteristics of formation and qualification of the nurses of a unit of intensive cares, and to argue its implications in the nursing assistance, how much to the use of technologies. Descriptive-exploratory study, with accomplishment of half-structuralized interview. Citizens: twenty and four operating nurses in cardio-intensive unit. Predominance of women with two years acting in the sector and course of specialization. Great part did not participate of courses for manuscript of technologies, six had not chosen the sector and eleven are inexperienced. It had balance in the time of professional formation. The professional profile must be considered to work in the sectors of intensive cares. Not to take care of this profile can bring risks to the customers.

Pacifico M.J.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Vieitez J.L.,University of the Republic of Uruguay
Nonlinearity | Year: 2010

Let f : M → M be a Cr -diffeomorphism, r ≥ 1, defined on a compact boundaryless d-dimensional manifold M, d ≥ 2, and let H(p) be the homoclinic class associated with the hyperbolic periodic point p. We prove that if there exists a C1 neighbourhood U of f such that, for every g ∈ U, the continuation H(pg) of H(p) is entropy expansive, then for g in an open and dense subset of U, there is a Dg-invariant dominated splitting for H(pg) of the formE⊕F1⊕⋯⊕ Fc⊕G where all Fj are one dimensional and not hyperbolic. Moreover, if H(p) is isolated then E is contracting and G is expanding and if the indices of the periodic points in H(pg) are equal to index (p) then H(p g) is hyperbolic for g in an open and dense subset of U. © 2010 IOP Publishing Ltd&London Mathematical Society.

Almeida-Gomes M.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Rocha C.F.D.,State University of Rio de Janeiro
Landscape Ecology | Year: 2014

In this work we evaluated anuran species distribution in an Atlantic forest fragmented landscape, in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Sampling was carried out in three continuous forest sites, 12 forest fragments, and five pasture areas (matrix). We recorded, by visual encounter surveys, 2,495 individuals from 50 amphibian species for all sampled areas. Considering the pooled data, higher richness occurs in continuous forest area. Additionally, more than a third of species that occurred in continuous forest area did not occur in fragments or in matrix. Both ordination analyses showed that continuous forest sites clustered together and matrix areas seemed to be separated from other areas. This ordination resulted from the existence of species occurring only in continuous forest, suggesting that these species may be sensitive to habitat fragmentation. Besides, matrix appears separated from other areas due to occurrence of frog species typical from disturbed environments, which are not recorded in continuous forest sites or in sampled fragments. By analyzing the effect of landscape metrics, we found that there was a tendency for fragments with lower isolation to have higher species richness and proportion of species which did not occur in matrix areas and amphibian local communities seems to be affected in a more local scale by habitat changes. Because local matrix is apparently hostile to typically forest-associated amphibian species, many of them may be unable to reach most isolated fragments by dispersal, which may explain observed results. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Aleixo A.N.F.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Balantekin A.B.,University of Wisconsin - Madison
Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical | Year: 2013

Using an algebraic approach, we construct purely coherent and squeezed states for a set of exactly solvable quantum confined systems assuming a generalization of both the ladder-operator and the displacement-operator methods, showing the equivalence between the two procedures. We obtain the analogue of the displacement and the squeeze operators and study their basic relations and their connections with the properties of the purely coherent and squeezed states that they produce. In a second approach, we construct generalized squeezed coherent and intelligent states for these systems considering the successive action of the displacement and the squeeze operators (in the first case) and the combined action of these operators (in the second case). We apply the generalized approach for shape-invariant systems with potential parameters related by a translation and by a scaling and show that the presence of the generalizing functionals of the potential parameters in the formalism opens a large number of possibilities in the construction of these special quantum states. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd.

Tattoli I.,University of Toronto | Sorbara M.T.,University of Toronto | Vuckovic D.,University of Toronto | Ling A.,University of Toronto | And 6 more authors.
Cell Host and Microbe | Year: 2012

Autophagy, which targets cellular constituents for degradation, is normally inhibited in metabolically replete cells by the metabolic checkpoint kinase mTOR. Although autophagic degradation of invasive bacteria has emerged as a critical host defense mechanism, the signals that induce autophagy upon bacterial infection remain unclear. We find that infection of epithelial cells with Shigella and Salmonella triggers acute intracellular amino acid (AA) starvation due to host membrane damage. Pathogen-induced AA starvation caused downregulation of mTOR activity, resulting in the induction of autophagy. In Salmonella-infected cells, membrane integrity and cytosolic AA levels rapidly normalized, favoring mTOR reactivation at the surface of the Salmonella-containing vacuole and bacterial escape from autophagy. In addition, bacteria-induced AA starvation activated the GCN2 kinase, eukaryotic initiation factor 2α, and the transcription factor ATF3-dependent integrated stress response and transcriptional reprogramming. Thus, AA starvation induced by bacterial pathogens is sensed by the host to trigger protective innate immune and stress responses. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

This research aimed to describe ostomized users' knowledge and practices with regard to the maintenance of an intestinal and urinary elimination ostomy; and to analyze the pertinence of sharing this knowledge and practice with fundamental nursing care in an outpatient context. The Care-Converging Research method was employed. A form was used to identify to ostomized patient and a semistructured interview to produce the data. All ethical aspects were complied with. The research revealed the need for further dissemination about these users' concrete reality, so that they can feel more welcomed, strengthened to cope with difficulties that may arise in their daily reality of living with the surgical derivation.

Lopes H.P.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Jornal Brasileiro de Reproducao Assistida | Year: 2013

This study examines the coping process of infertile couple during diagnostic investigation and treatment, which is held in a public hospital in the Assisted Reproduction Treatment department. This analysis discusses the results of a qualitative research whose goal is to emphasize the importance of integrating the medical and psychological care to infertile couples. To collect the data, it uses a semistructured psychological interview. This feature promotes a differentiated listening emotional aspects experienced by patients, allowing couples to greater reflection about their difficulties before the process of investigation and treatment of infertility. From the data, it appears that in addition to medical treatment, patients require in a psychological intervention centered emotional effects experienced by them throughout the process. Given the complexity of the process of Assisted Reproduction, it is essential to consider both the medical factors, essential for achieving the concept of biological child, as psychological factors, at the individual, marital and social. We conclude that the psychological dimension integrated medical help these patients to maximize their resources and seek more adaptive ways to minimize the possible dilemmas and anxiety experienced.

Lupi O.,State University of Rio de Janeiro | Lupi O.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Dermatologic Clinics | Year: 2011

Arboviruses continue to be a significant source of disease, especially in regions where their insect hosts are endemic. This article highlights these diseases, with particular focus on dengue, yellow fever, and viral hemorrhagic fever. A general background is provided, as well information concerning diagnosis and treatment. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

Bloise E.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Feuer S.K.,University of California at San Francisco | Rinaudo P.F.,University of California at San Francisco
Human Reproduction Update | Year: 2014

Background: The number of children conceived using assisted reproductive technologies (ART) has reached .5 million worldwide and continues to increase. Although the great majority of ART children are healthy, many reports suggest a forthcoming risk of metabolic complications, which is further supported by the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease hypothesis of suboptimal embryo/fetal conditions predisposing adult cardiometabolic pathologies. Accumulating evidence suggests that fetal and placental growth kinetics are important features predicting post-natal health, but the relationship between ART and intrauterine growth has not been systematically reviewed. methods: Relevant studies describing fetoplacental intrauterine phenotypes of concepti generated by in vitro fertilization (IVF), intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) in the mouse, bovine and human were comprehensively researched using PubMed and Google Scholar. Intrauterine growth plots were created from tabular formatted data available in selected reports. results: ART pregnancies display minor but noticeable alterations in fetal and placental growth curves across mammalian species. In all species, there is evidence of fetal growth restriction in the earlier stages of pregnancy, followed by significant increases in placental size and accelerated fetal growth toward the end of gestation. However, there is a species-specific effect of ART on birthweights, that additionally vary in a culture condition-, strain-, and/or stage at transfer-specific manner. We discuss the potential mechanisms that underlie these changes, and how they are affected by specific components of ART procedures. conclusions: ART may promote measurable alterations to intrauterine growth trajectory and placental function. Key findings include evidence that birthweight is not a reliable marker of fetal stress, and that increases in embryo manipulation result in more deviant fetal growth curves. Because growth kinetics in early life are particularly relevant to adult metabolic physiology,weadvisemorerigorous assessment of fetal growth and placental function in human ART pregnancies, as well as continued follow-up of ART offspring throughout post-natal life. Finally, strategies to minimize embryo manipulations should be adopted whenever possible. © The Author 2014.

Pereira MacHadoR.S.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Santa Cruz Coelho M.A.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Journal of Nutrition, Health and Aging | Year: 2011

Background: Brazilian population has passed for a process of demographic transition throughout latest years, characterized for the increase of the elderly population. Malnutrition is a serious problem to frail elderly. Objective: The objective of this study was o evaluate the risk of malnutrition among institutionalized elderly resident in municipal shelters in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, using the tool Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA). Design: 344 institutionalized elderly aged over 60 years old were tested in a cross-sectional study using MNA. This tool classifies the nutricional status of the elderly in three groups: malnutrition (score < 17), risk of malnutrition (score 17 - 23,5) and well-nourished (score > = 24). Anthropometric measurements such as calf circumference (CC), mid-arm circumference (MAC) and Body mass index (BMI) were also evaluated. The variables were evaluated using the chi-square or ANOVA test. To correlate it was used Pearson's Correlation Coefficient (r). Results: Mean age were 75.4 (+- 9.4) years old. Most of the elderly were female gender (59.6%). According to MNA 8.3% were with malnutrition, 55.6% at risk of malnutrition and 36.1% well-nourished. BMI classified 10.0% of the elderly as underweight. CC classified 10.0 % of them as inadequate in muscular mass. MNA was well correlated to BMI (r=0.412 p=0.000), age (r=-0.124 p=0.031), CC (r=0.399 p = 0.000) and MAC (r=0.391 p=0.000). Conclusion: Risk of malnutrition was high among the institutionalized elderly from public shelters in Rio de Janeiro - Brazil. MNA is a useful diagnostic tool for the identification on the frail elderly at risk of malnutrition.

Engelhardt E.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Dementia e Neuropsychologia | Year: 2013

Meynert described the "loop of the peduncular foot" (Schlinge des Hirnschenkelfusses), and its ganglion (Ganglion der Hirnschenkelschlinge) and related them to Reil's Substantia innominata and Gratiolet's Ansa peduncularis, from which he apparently built up his fndings. Koelliker renamed the ganglion with the eponymous designation Meynert'sches Basalganglion (Meynert's basal ganglion), a name which endures to the present day, and described its topographical spread in relation to neighboring structures. Meynert and Koelliker also described aspects of cell composition of the ganglion (or nucleus) with a better account of the latter. Both, together with Reil and Gratiolet, were the outstanding personalities of the 19th century who performed the pioneering studies on basal formations of the forebrain. After these works, a considerable body of research appeared in the 20th century, with a focus on Meynert's basal nucleus and related structures. The development of further knowledge about these structures revealed their great importance in the activity of the brain, as evidenced in both normal and pathological states.

Cardoso M.R.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Revista Latinoamericana de Psicopatologia Fundamental | Year: 2011

This article discusses the vicissitudes of traumatic neurosis, based on Freud's contributions. We propose a line of continuity, without ignoring the points of division, between traumatic neuroses and actual neuroses, through a new reading of the dimension of "actual" in Freud, articulated with the notion of the compulsion to repeat. We broaden our understating of traumatic neuroses through the idea of the formation of enclaves, radical inner exteriority, that always tend to be present and "actual" in their compulsive repetition. © 2009 Associação Universitária de Pesquisa em Psicopatologia Fundamental.

Eon J.-G.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Structural Chemistry | Year: 2016

The concepts of independent quotient and maximally independent sets in a periodic net, associated with the analysis of the Löwenstein rule in aluminosilicates, are revised. Topological graph theory is applied to validate the calculation technique of the independent quotient, based on the use of labelled quotient graphs. Some examples are considered among aluminophosphates and aluminosilicates. It is shown that chemical composition and geometry as well as topology are important factors determining cation ordering in these compounds. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New York

The restingas of the Southeastern region of Brazil present 476 morphotypes of insect galls found on 60 families, 131 genera, and 229 plant species. Myrtaceae, Asteraceae, and Fabaceae are the plant families with the greatest richness of galls and number of galled species. The superhost genera are Eugenia (Myrtaceae), Mikania (Asteraceae), and Myrcia (Myrtaceae). The superhost species are Guapira opposita (Nyctaginaceae), Mikania cf. biformis (Asteraceae), and six species of (Myrtaceae); Eugenia adstringens, Eugenia multiflora, Eugenia copacabanensis, Myrcia fallax, Myrciaria floribunda and Psidium cattleyanum. The galls occur on all vegetative and reprodutive plant organs, being more common on leaves. The gallers belong to Diptera, Lepidoptera, Hemiptera, Coleoptera, Thysanoptera, and Hymenoptera. Cecidomyiidae (Diptera) are the most frequent galling insects and the single group that produces galls on all plant organs, showing a strong preference for leaves. Lepidoptera are in the second place and the gallers attack leaves, stems, buds and fruits, with a strong preference for stems. Little is known about the taxonomical knowlegde of galling species (21% are identified at species level and 14% at genus level). The other records are in suprageneric categories. Cecidomyiidae are represented by 43 genera (about 49% of the Brazilian fauna) with 156 species (84 determined and 72 not determined), showing a good representativeness in the Southeastern region of Brazil. The most diversified genera are Clinodiplosis (31 spp.), Neolasioptera (17 spp.), Asphondylia (15 spp.), Lopesia (15 spp.), and Dasineura (13 spp.). Fifteen new gall occurrences are recorded from Cabo Frio and Paraty (RJ), and a new record of host plant is presented.

In this paper, the method proposed by Netto (2009) [1] for the prediction of the collapse pressure of corroded or worn pipes is reassessed in light of a new set of experiments recently published by Sakakibara et al. (2009) [4]. Experiments and predictions correlated very well, corroborating the reliability of the proposed equation for the estimation of the detrimental effect of narrow and long grooves on the collapse pressure of offshore pipelines. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Snopce I.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Zalesskii P.A.,University of Brasilia
Selecta Mathematica, New Series | Year: 2014

We prove that a finitely generated pro-p group acting on a pro-p tree T with procyclic edge stabilizers is the fundamental pro-p group of a finite graph of pro-p groups with vertex groups being stabilizers of certain vertices of T and edge groups (when non-trivial) being stabilizers of certain edges of T, in the following two situations: (1) the action is n-acylindrical, i.e., any non-identity element fixes not more than n edges; (2) the group G is generated by its vertex stabilizers. This theorem is applied to obtain several results about pro-p groups from the class L defined and studied inKochloukova and Zalesskii (Math Z 267:109-128, 2011) as pro-p analogues of limit groups. We prove that every pro-p group G from the class L is the fundamental pro-p group of a finite graph of pro-p groups with infinite procyclic or trivial edge groups and finitely generated vertex groups; moreover, all non-abelian vertex groups are from the class L of lower level than G with respect to the natural hierarchy. This allows us to give an affirmative answer to questions 9.1 and 9.3 in Kochloukova and Zalesskii (Math Z 267:109-128, 2011). Namely, we prove that a group G from the class L has Euler-Poincaré characteristic zero if and only if it is abelian, and if every abelian pro-p subgroup of G is procyclic and G itself is not procyclic, then def(G) ≥ 2. Moreover, we prove that G satisfies the Greenberg-Stallings property and any finitely generated non-abelian subgroup of G has finite index in its commensurator. © 2013 Springer Basel.

Costa W.J.E.M.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters | Year: 2013

Anablepsoides urubuiensis, new species, is described from the upper Urubu river drainage, northern Brazil. It constitutes the first record of a species of the A. limoncochae group for the central Amazon region. The new species is distinguished from all other rivulines by a unique colour pattern of flank, including the presence of two red stripes distinctively widened in their posterior portion; it also differs from the other congeners of the A. limoncochae group by a combination of caudal fin oval, absence of light yellow or light orange stripe on the distal margin of the anal fin in males, and dorsal fin placed in a vertical through the base between the last two anal-fin rays or posterior to it. © 2013 by Verlag Dr. Friedrich Pfeil, München, Germany.

Kury A.B.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Zoologia | Year: 2013

Roquettea decioi sp. nov. is described from Carolina, in the Brazilian state of Maranhão. It is the seventh species in Roquettea Mello-Leitão, 1931 and the eighth species of Opiliones recorded from the state. Roquettea decioi sp. nov may be characterized by ocularium low, with median depression, pedipalpal tibia without pseudo-finger forming chela and massive divergent protuberances on scutal area III. © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Zoologia All rights reserved.

Clarke A.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Journal of Geometry and Physics | Year: 2014

We give a construction of G2 and Spin(7) instantons on exceptional holonomy manifolds constructed by Bryant and Salamon, by using an ansatz of spherical symmetry coming from the manifolds being the total spaces of rank-4 vector bundles. In the G2 case, we show that, in the asymptotically conical model, the connections are asymptotic to Hermitian Yang-Mills connections on the nearly Kähler S3×S3. © 2014 .

Branciard C.,University of Queensland | Cavalcanti E.G.,Griffith University | Walborn S.P.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Scarani V.,National University of Singapore | And 2 more authors.
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2012

We analyze the security and feasibility of a protocol for quantum key distribution (QKD) in a context where only one of the two parties trusts his measurement apparatus. This scenario lies naturally between standard QKD, where both parties trust their measurement apparatuses, and device-independent QKD (DI-QKD), where neither do, and can be a natural assumption in some practical situations. We show that the requirements for obtaining secure keys are much easier to meet than for DI-QKD, which opens promising experimental opportunities. We clarify the link between the security of this one-sided DI-QKD scenario and the demonstration of quantum steering, in analogy to the link between DI-QKD and the violation of Bell inequalities. © 2012 American Physical Society.

Miranda A.F.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Miranda A.F.,State University of Rio de Janeiro | Sampaio F.J.B.,State University of Rio de Janeiro
Journal of Sexual Medicine | Year: 2014

Introduction: A surgical approach with plaque incision and graft (PIG) to correct Peyronie's disease is the best method for complex, large deviations. However, the geometric and mechanical consequences of this intervention are poorly understood. Aim: The aim of this study was to analyze the geometric and mechanical consequences of PIG on penile straighten surgery. Method: A tridimensional penile simile model with a curvature of 85° was created to test all of the most common PIG techniques. PIG with double-Y, H-shape, and Egydio techniques were used to rectify the curved penile model. Main Outcome Measurements: The results that differed from a rectified cylinder shape were highlighted. Results: All of the analyzed techniques created a geometric distortion that could be linked to poor surgical results. We suggest a new technique to resolve these abnormalities. Conclusion: Current techniques designed to correct penile deviation using PIG present geometric and mechanical imperfections with potential consequences to the postoperative success rate. The new technique proposed in this report could be a possible solution to solve the geometric distortion caused by PIG. Miranda AF and Sampaio FJB. A geometric model of plaque incision and graft for Peyronie's disease with geometric analyses of different techniques. J Sex Med 2014;11:1546-1553. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

Candia-Vejar A.,University of Talca | Alvarez-Miranda E.,University of Talca | MacUlan N.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
RAIRO - Operations Research | Year: 2011

Uncertainty in optimization is not a new ingredient. Diverse models considering uncertainty have been developed over the last 40 years. In our paper we essentially discuss a particular uncertainty model associated with combinatorial optimization problems, developed in the 90's and broadly studied in the past years. This approach named minmax regret (in particular our emphasis is on the robust deviation criteria) is different from the classical approach for handling uncertainty, stochastic approach, where uncertainty is modeled by assumed probability distributions over the space of all possible scenarios and the objective is to find a solution with good probabilistic performance. In the minmax regret (MMR) approach, the set of all possible scenarios is described deterministically, and the search is for a solution that performs reasonably well for all scenarios, i.e., that has the best worst-case performance. In this paper we discuss the computational complexity of some classic combinatorial optimization problems using MMR approach, analyze the design of several algorithms for these problems, suggest the study of some specific research problems in this attractive area, and also discuss some applications using this model. © EDP Sciences, ROADEF, SMAI, 2011.

Moreira L.O.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Zamboni D.S.,University of Sao Paulo
Frontiers in Immunology | Year: 2012

Sensing intracellular pathogens is a process mediated by innate immune cells that is cru cial for the induction of inflammatory processes and effective adaptive immune responses against pathogenic microbes. NOD like receptors (NLRs) comprise a family of intracel lular pattern recognition receptors that are important for the recognition of damage and microbial associated molecular patterns. NOD1 and NOD2 are specialized NLRs that partic ipate in the recognition of a subset of pathogenic microorganisms that are able to invade and multiply intracellularly. Once activated, these molecules trigger intracellular signal ing pathways that lead to the activation of transcriptional responses culminating in the expression of a subset of inflammatory genes. In this review, we will focus on the role of NOD1 and NOD2 in the recognition and response to intracellular pathogens, including Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria, and on their ability to signal in response to non peptidoglycan containing pathogens, such as viruses and protozoan parasites. © 2012 Moreira and Zam-boni.

Rodrigues H.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
European Journal of Physics | Year: 2013

Taking a novel approach, this paper discusses the structure of compact stars, an important topic in theoretical astrophysics. Adopting Newtonian gravitation, we solve the hydrostatic equilibrium equation by imposing a simple parametrization for the mass density inside the star. The solutions of the equilibrium equation are carried out without numerical integration, with the aim of determining a few global properties of white dwarfs and neutron stars. The global properties of compact stars are thus provided by simple algebraic relationships. The model is intended as an introductory approach to the study of compact stars at an undergraduate or graduate level. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd.

Vieira A.R.,Federal University of Fluminense | Hor-Meyll M.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Khoury A.Z.,Federal University of Fluminense
Journal of the Optical Society of America B: Optical Physics | Year: 2013

We report on a modified Sagnac interferometer used to sort spin-orbit modes of a paraxial beam. The interferometer works as a parity sorter and can be useful for quantum information protocols. The geometry used benefits from phase stability and allows for independent manipulation of the interfering beams. © 2013 Optical Society of America.

de Oliveira L.F.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Luporini Menegaldo L.,Brazilian Military Institute of Engineering
Journal of Biomechanics | Year: 2010

EMG-driven models can be used to estimate muscle force in biomechanical systems. Collected and processed EMG readings are used as the input of a dynamic system, which is integrated numerically. This approach requires the definition of a reasonably large set of parameters. Some of these vary widely among subjects, and slight inaccuracies in such parameters can lead to large model output errors. One of these parameters is the maximum voluntary contraction force (Fom). This paper proposes an approach to find Fom by estimating muscle physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) using ultrasound (US), which is multiplied by a realistic value of maximum muscle specific tension. Ultrasound is used to measure muscle thickness, which allows for the determination of muscle volume through regression equations. Soleus, gastrocnemius medialis and gastrocnemius lateralis PCSAs are estimated using published volume proportions among leg muscles, which also requires measurements of muscle fiber length and pennation angle by US. Fom obtained by this approach and from data widely cited in the literature was used to comparatively test a Hill-type EMG-driven model of the ankle joint. The model uses 3 EMGs (Soleus, gastrocnemius medialis and gastrocnemius lateralis) as inputs with joint torque as the output. The EMG signals were obtained in a series of experiments carried out with 8 adult male subjects, who performed an isometric contraction protocol consisting of 10s step contractions at 20% and 60% of the maximum voluntary contraction level. Isometric torque was simultaneously collected using a dynamometer. A statistically significant reduction in the root mean square error was observed when US-obtained Fom was used, as compared to Fom from the literature. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Gheiner J.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Nonlinearity | Year: 2014

We consider the generic unfolding of a diffeomorphism on a compact C ∞ manifold that is Morse-Smale except for one non-hyperbolic periodic orbit being a codimension n saddle-node (one eigenvalue is 1, the other eigenvalues have norm different from 1). Local and global bifurcations are described. We characterize structural stability of the unfolding, depending on the codimension. A universal model of the unfolding is given when there is stability. Dynamical behaviour is analysed in other cases. © 2014 IOP Publishing Ltd & London Mathematical Society.

Machado A.F.P.,State University of Feira de Santana | Vianna Filho M.D.M.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Systematic Botany | Year: 2012

Dorstenia romaniucii A. Ferreira & M. D. M. Vianna (Moraceae) is described and illustrated as a new species, similar to the Atlantic Forest species D. turnerifolia Fisch. & C. A. Mey and distinguished by oval marginal bracts in two rows and intermixed flowers in the inflorescence. The classification of D. romaniucii along with D. turnerifolia clearly lies with species of Dorstenia sect. Lecania based on their elongated internodes allied to subulate stipules and suffrutescent habit. Dorstenia romaniucii is known only from Espirito Santo state, southeastern Brazil and is designated as a critically endangered species because its extent of occurrence is estimated to be less than 100 Km2 in an extremely fragmented area, in the Atlantic Forest domain. © Copyright 2012 by the American Society of Plant Taxonomists.

Belin M.W.,University of Arizona | Ambrosio R.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Indian Journal of Ophthalmology | Year: 2013

Scheimpflug cross-sectioning anterior segment imaging offers significant advantages over traditional placido based curvature analysis and ultrasound pachymetry. The accurate measurement of both the anterior and posterior corneal surfaces and the anterior and posterior lens allows for the creation of a three-dimensional reconstruction of the anterior segment. Changes on both the posterior cornea and/or corneal thickness map are earlier indicators of ectatic change than would otherwise be identifiable with only anterior curvature and ultrasonic pachymetry. Scheimpflug imaging also covers significantly more of the cornea than was possible with placido based devices. This added coverage is critical in the proper diagnosis of peripheral diseases such as pellucid marginal degeneration (PMD).

Soares Jr. D.,Federal University of Juiz de fora | Godinho L.,University of Coimbra | Pereira A.,University of Coimbra | Dors C.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering | Year: 2012

Acoustic wave propagation in heterogeneous media is a topic of significant interest in many areas of science and engineering, including aeroacoustics and sound propagation in oceans. In the present work, numerical frequency domain models based on the joint use of the method of fundamental solutions and of the radial basis function collocation method (also known as Kansa's method) are discussed. In this context, the method of fundamental solutions is used to model the homogeneous part of the propagation domain, while Kansa's method is employed to model the presence of heterogeneities. The coupling between the two parts of the propagation domain is performed iteratively, allowing independent spatial discretization between the different subdomains of the model (i.e. matching collocation points at common surfaces are not necessary). Additionally, an optimised algorithm, based on the use of a varying relaxation parameter, is employed to speed up and/or to ensure the convergence of the iterative coupling process. At the end of the paper, numerical results illustrate the applicability and potentialities of the proposed formulations. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Aragao F.T.S.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Kim Y.-R.,Kyung Hee University
Experimental Mechanics | Year: 2012

This study presents an integrated approach combining experimental tests and numerical modeling to characterize mode I fracture behavior of bituminous paving mixtures subjected to a wide range of loading rates at intermediate temperature conditions. A simple experimental protocol is developed using the semi-circular bending (SCB) test geometry. The local fracture behavior at the initial notch tip of the SCB specimens is monitored using high-speed cameras with a digital image correlation (DIC) system. The DIC results of the SCB fracture tests are then simulated using a finite element method that is incorporated with material viscoelasticity and cohesive zone fracture. Fracture properties are obtained locally at the notch tip by identifying two cohesive zone fracture parameters (cohesive strength and fracture energy) that result in a good agreement between test results and numerical simulations. The results clearly present significant rate-dependent fracture characteristics of bituminous paving mixtures at intermediate service temperatures. This study further demonstrates that fracture properties of viscoelastic materials need to be characterized at the local fracture process zone when they present ductile fracture behavior. © 2012 Society for Experimental Mechanics.

Palatnik-De-Sousa C.B.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Day M.J.,University of Bristol
Parasites and Vectors | Year: 2011

'One Health' proposes the unification of medical and veterinary sciences with the establishment of collaborative ventures in clinical care, surveillance and control of cross-species disease, education, and research into disease pathogenesis, diagnosis, therapy and vaccination. The concept encompasses the human population, domestic animals and wildlife, and the impact that environmental changes ('environmental health') such as global warming will have on these populations. Visceral leishmaniasis is a perfect example of a small companion animal disease for which prevention and control might abolish or decrease the suffering of canine and human patients, and which aligns well with the One Health approach. In this review we discuss how surveillance for leishmaniases is undertaken globally through the control of anthroponootic visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) and zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL). The ZVL epidemic has been managed to date by the culling of infected dogs, treatment of human cases and control of the sandfly vector by insecticidal treatment of human homes and the canine reservoir. Recently, preventive vaccination of dogs in Brazil has led to reduction in the incidence of the canine and human disease. Vaccination permits greater dog owner compliance with control measures than a culling programme. Another advance in disease control in Africa is provided by a surveillance programme that combines remote satellite sensing, ecological modelling, vector surveillance and geo-spatial mapping of the distribution of vectors and of the animal-to-animal or animal-to-human pathogen transmission. This coordinated programme generates advisory notices and alerts on emerging infectious disease outbreaks that may impede or avoid the spreading of visceral leishmaniasis to new areas of the planet as a consequence of global warming. © 2011 Palatnik-de-Sousa and Day; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Miranda M.L.,State University of Rio de Janeiro | Balarini M.M.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Bouskela E.,State University of Rio de Janeiro
Anesthesiology | Year: 2015

Background: Dexmedetomidine, an α-2 adrenergic receptor agonist, has already been used in septic patients although few studies have examined its effects on microcirculatory dysfunction, which may play an important role in perpetuating sepsis syndrome. Therefore, the authors have designed a controlled experimental study to characterize the microcirculatory effects of dexmedetomidine in an endotoxemia rodent model that allows in vivo studies of microcirculation. Methods: After skinfold chamber implantation, 49 golden Syrian hamsters were randomly allocated in five groups: (1) control animals; (2) nonendotoxemic animals treated with saline; (3) nonendotoxemic animals treated with dexmedetomidine (5.0 μg kg-1 h-1); (4) endotoxemic (lipopolysaccharide 1.0 mg/kg) animals treated with saline; and (5) endotoxemic animals treated with dexmedetomidine. Intravital microscopy of skinfold chamber preparations allowed quantitative analysis of microvascular variables and venular leukocyte rolling and adhesion. Mean arterial blood pressure, heart rate, arterial blood gases, and lactate concentrations were also documented. Results: Lipopolysaccharide administration increased leukocyte rolling and adhesion and decreased capillary perfusion. Dexmedetomidine significantly attenuated these responses: compared with endotoxemic animals treated with saline, those treated with dexmedetomidine had less leukocyte rolling (11.8 ± 7.2% vs. 24.3 ± 15.0%; P < 0.05) and adhesion (237 ± 185 vs. 510 ± 363; P < 0.05) and greater functional capillary density (57.4 ± 11.2% of baseline values vs. 45.9 ± 11.2%; P < 0.05) and erythrocyte velocity (68.7 ± 17.6% of baseline values vs. 54.4 ± 14.8%; P < 0.05) at the end of the experiment. Conclusions: Dexmedetomidine decreased lipopolysaccharide-induced leukocyte-endothelial interactions in the hamster skin-fold chamber microcirculation. This was accompanied by a significant attenuation of capillary perfusion deficits, suggesting that dexmedetomidine yields beneficial effects on endotoxemic animals' microcirculation. Copyright © 2014, the American Society of Anesthesiologists, Inc. Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Pimentel L.P.R.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Combinatorics Probability and Computing | Year: 2011

In this paper we study planar first-passage percolation (FPP) models on random Delaunay triangulations. In [14], Vahidi-Asl and Wierman showed, using sub-additivity theory, that the rescaled first-passage time converges to a finite and non-negative constant μ. We show a sufficient condition to ensure that μ>0 and derive some upper bounds for fluctuations. Our proofs are based on percolation ideas and on the method of martingales with bounded increments. © 2011 Cambridge University Press.

Dupin E.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Coelho-Aguiar J.M.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Coelho-Aguiar J.M.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Cytometry Part A | Year: 2013

A wide array of neural and non-neural cell types arises from the neural crest during vertebrate embryogenesis. The neural crest forms transiently in the dorsal neural primordium to yield migratory cells that will invade nearly all tissues and later, differentiate into bones and cartilages, vascular smooth muscle cells, connective tissues, neurons and glial cells of the peripheral nervous system, endocrine cells, and melanocytes. Due to the amazingly diversified array of cell types they generate, the neural crest cells represent an attractive model in the stem cell field. We review here in vivo and in vitro studies of individual cells, which led to the discovery and characterization of neural crest progenitors endowed with multipotency and stem cell properties. We also present an overview of the diverse types, marker expression, and locations of the neural crest-derived stem cells identified in the vertebrate body, with emphasis on those evidenced recently in mammalian adult tissues. © 2012 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

Altice F.L.,Yale University | Altice F.L.,University of Malaya | Kamarulzaman A.,University of Malaya | Soriano V.V.,Hospital Carlos III | And 2 more authors.
The Lancet | Year: 2010

HIV-infected drug users have increased age-matched morbidity and mortality compared with HIV-infected people who do not use drugs. Substance-use disorders negatively affect the health of HIV-infected drug users, who also have frequent medical and psychiatric comorbidities that complicate HIV treatment and prevention. Evidence-based treatments are available for the management of substance-use disorders, mental illness, HIV and other infectious complications such as viral hepatitis and tuberculosis, and many non-HIV-associated comorbidities. Tuberculosis co-infection in HIV-infected drug users, including disease caused by drug-resistant strains, is acquired and transmitted as a consequence of inadequate prescription of antiretroviral therapy, poor adherence, and repeated interfaces with congregate settings such as prisons. Medication-assisted therapies provide the strongest evidence for HIV treatment and prevention efforts, yet are often not available where they are needed most. Antiretroviral therapy, when prescribed and adherence is at an optimum, improves health-related outcomes for HIV infection and many of its comorbidities, including tuberculosis, viral hepatitis, and renal and cardiovascular disease. Simultaneous clinical management of multiple comorbidities in HIV-infected drug users might result in complex pharmacokinetic drug interactions that must be adequately addressed. Moreover, interventions to improve adherence to treatment, including integration of health services delivery, are needed. Multifaceted, interdisciplinary approaches are urgently needed to achieve parity in health outcomes in HIV-infected drug users. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Davidovich L.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Physica Scripta | Year: 2016

Since the beginning of quantum physics, the relation between the properties of the microscopic quantum and the macroscopic classical world has been an important source for the development of the theory, and has led to new insights on the role of the environment in the transition from quantum to classical physics. Decoherence affects both coherence and entanglement of open systems. Quantum optics and cavity quantum electrodynamics have allowed detailed investigations of this phenomenon, within the framework of microwaves and light waves. In this paper, I present a personal account of theoretical and experimental developments that have led to the probing of the subtle frontier between quantum and classical phenomena. © 2016 The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.

Vivallo F.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Zootaxa | Year: 2013

In this paper, a complete taxonomic revision of the species of Centris (Wagenknechtia) Moure is presented for the first time. The following species are recognized: Centris cineraria Smith, C. escomeli Cockerell, C. moldenkei Toro & Chiappa, C. muralis Burmeister, C. orellanai Ruiz, C. rhodophthalma Pérez and C. vardyorum Roig-Alsina. Floral associations, distribution records, and diagnoses of both sexes based on type specimens, are given. An identification key, illustrations, along with an updated catalogue of all species of the subgenus, are also provided. In addition, a neotype for Centris orellanai is designated. © 2013 Magnolia Press.

Barbosa J.F.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Rodrigues H.D.D.,National Institute of Amazonian Research
Zootaxa | Year: 2013

A new species of the genus Martarega White, 1879 is described based on brachypterous and macropterous specimens, collected in three regions of Brazil [North (State of Pará), Central-West (State of Goiás), and Southeast (State of Minas Gerais)]. The new species, Martarega nessimiani sp. nov., is very similar to M. brasiliensis Truxal, 1949. These species are differentiated by the rounded shape of the patch of thin setae on the male mesotrochanter, and the angular shape of the hemelytral process stripe of the female hemelytra in the new species, whereas M. brasiliensis has the patch of thin setae with an irregular shape and the hemelytral process stripe almost straight. Illustrations of both species are presented. In addition, we give new distributional records of another 11 species of Notonectidae in Brazil: Martarega membranacea White, M. chinai Hynes, M. bentoi Truxal, M. brasiliensis, M. gonostyla Truxal, M. nieseri Moreira Ribeiro & Nessimian, Buenoa amnigenus (White), B. konta Nieser & Pelli, B. salutis Kirkaldy, B. truxali Nieser, and Notonecta pulchra Hungerford. Copyrigth © 2013 Magnolia Press.

Herculano-Houzel S.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Herculano-Houzel S.,Instituto Nacional Of Neurociencia Translacional
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

It is usually considered that larger brains have larger neurons, which consume more energy individually, and are therefore accompanied by a larger number of glial cells per neuron. These notions, however, have never been tested. Based on glucose and oxygen metabolic rates in awake animals and their recently determined numbers of neurons, here I show that, contrary to the expected, the estimated glucose use per neuron is remarkably constant, varying only by 40% across the six species of rodents and primates (including humans). The estimated average glucose use per neuron does not correlate with neuronal density in any structure. This suggests that the energy budget of the whole brain per neuron is fixed across species and brain sizes, such that total glucose use by the brain as a whole, by the cerebral cortex and also by the cerebellum alone are linear functions of the number of neurons in the structures across the species (although the average glucose consumption per neuron is at least 10× higher in the cerebral cortex than in the cerebellum). These results indicate that the apparently remarkable use in humans of 20% of the whole body energy budget by a brain that represents only 2% of body mass is explained simply by its large number of neurons. Because synaptic activity is considered the major determinant of metabolic cost, a conserved energy budget per neuron has several profound implications for synaptic homeostasis and the regulation of firing rates, synaptic plasticity, brain imaging, pathologies, and for brain scaling in evolution. © 2011 Suzana Herculano-Houzel.

Gouveia L.,University of Lisbon | Simonetti L.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Uchoa E.,Federal University of Fluminense
Mathematical Programming | Year: 2011

The hop-constrained minimum spanning tree problem (HMSTP) is an NP-hard problem arising in the design of centralized telecommunication networks with quality of service constraints. We show that the HMSTP is equivalent to a Steiner tree problem (STP) in an appropriate layered graph. We prove that the directed cut model for the STP defined in the layered graph, dominates the best previously known models for the HMSTP. We also show that the Steiner directed cuts in the extended layered graph space can be viewed as being a stronger version of some previously known HMSTP cuts in the original design space. Moreover, we show that these strengthened cuts can be combined and projected into new families of cuts, including facet defining ones, in the original design space. We also adapt the proposed approach to the diameter-constrained minimum spanning tree problem (DMSTP). Computational results with a branch-and-cut algorithm show that the proposed method is significantly better than previously known methods on both problems. © 2009 Springer and Mathematical Programming Society.

Nicolalde Rodriguez D.P.,Brazilian Military Institute of Engineering | Apolinario Jr. J.A.,Brazilian Military Institute of Engineering | Biscainho L.W.P.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security | Year: 2010

This paper addresses a forensic tool used to assess audio authenticity. The proposed method is based on detecting phase discontinuity of the power grid signal; this signal, referred to as electric network frequency (ENF), is sometimes embedded in audio signals when the recording is carried out with the equipment connected to an electrical outlet or when certain microphones are in an ENF magnetic field. After down-sampling and band-filtering the audio around the nominal value of the ENF, the result can be considered a single tone such that a high-precision Fourier analysis can be used to estimate its phase. The estimated phase provides a visual aid to locating editing points (signalled by abrupt phase changes) and inferring the type of audio editing (insertion or removal of audio segments). From the estimated values, a feature is used to quantify the discontinuity of the ENF phase, allowing an automatic decision concerning the authenticity of the audio evidence. The theoretical background is presented along with practical implementation issues related to the proposed technique, whose performance is evaluated on digitally edited audio signals. © 2010 IEEE.

The implementation of a food and nutrition surveillance system (Sisvan) aimed at indigenous communities in Brazil was first proposed in 2003 and since then has relied on funds provided by the Brazilian federal government and the World Bank. This study aimed to examine the conditions and factors which led the managers of the indigenous health subsystem to recognize the nutritional deficits of indigenous peoples as a relevant public health problem and the reasons why Sisvan was chosen as an alternative. This is a qualitative study based on analytical perspective of John Kingdon (1984), which focuses on the early stages of the policy cycle, namely: the setting of a political agenda and the specifications of alternatives from which a choice for solution is made. The results show that the convergence of a flow of critical situations related to the nutritional status of indigenous peoples coupled with a favorable political stream opened a "window of opportunity". This led to the situation of nutritional insecurity of these people to be recognized as a problem and become relevant in the government decision agenda. Sisvan, which was an internationally recognized alternative and which had been implemented into the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS) since the 1990s, was chosen. The Sisvan for indigenous peoples became a full component of the indigenous health system in 2006.

Liu I.-S.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
International Journal of Engineering Science | Year: 2014

The theories of mixtures in the framework of continuum mechanics have been developed throughout the sixties and seventies. In this paper, we shall focus on one of the typical constitutive theories obtained by Bowen (1976) for mixture of elastic materials. We employ a different procedure in the exploitation of the entropy principle, by the use of Lagrange multipliers for a solid-fluid mixture. It is interesting to note that these two theories are completely equivalent concerning the constitutive restrictions. The general results are then applied to the studies of porous media by introducing the concept of porosity. The resulting theory is consistent with Darcy's law and the concepts of pore fluid pressure and effective stress principle in soil mechanics. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Lima F.R.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers: Municipal Engineer | Year: 2014

This paper presents a briefing on the development and the evolution of cities in Brazil, commenting on historical context, engineering teaching and practice, and infrastructure highlights. Infrastructure emphasises the challenges of energy generation and distribution, urban mobility and housing policies. The briefing also discusses the new legal base for innovative intervention processes, as master plans, participative planning and public-private partnerships that, in the next few years, will impact on city planning and managing. © 2014, Thomas Telford Services Ltd. All rights reserved.

Monteiro R.Q.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Bioscience reports | Year: 2013

Several studies have suggested a role for blood coagulation proteins in tumour progression. Herein, we discuss (1) the activation of the blood clotting cascade in the tumour microenvironment and its impact on primary tumour growth; (2) the intravascular activation of blood coagulation and its impact on tumour metastasis and cancer-associated thrombosis; and (3) antitumour therapies that target blood-coagulation-associated proteins. Expression levels of the clotting initiator protein TF (tissue factor) have been correlated with tumour cell aggressiveness. Simultaneous TF expression and PS (phosphatidylserine) exposure by tumour cells promote the extravascular activation of blood coagulation. The generation of blood coagulation enzymes in the tumour microenvironment may trigger the activation of PARs (protease-activated receptors). In particular, PAR1 and PAR2 have been associated with many aspects of tumour biology. The procoagulant activity of circulating tumour cells favours metastasis, whereas the release of TF-bearing MVs (microvesicles) into the circulation has been correlated with cancer-associated thrombosis. Given the role of coagulation proteins in tumour progression, it has been proposed that they could be targets for the development of new antitumour therapies.

Nobrega C.E.L.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Sphaier L.A.,Federal University of Fluminense
Energy and Buildings | Year: 2012

The increasing environmental concern associated with synthetic refrigerants has shed new light on the use of natural substances in refrigeration cycles. Accordingly, cycles that employ natural refrigerants, such as Brayton and Desiccant cooling cycles have been increasingly addressed. The present work proposes the combination of these two cycles into a cascade configuration: the Desiccant-Brayton Cascade (DBC) cycle. While in standard Brayton cycles the air can only be cooled back to ambient temperature in the regenerator, in the proposed DBC cycle it can be cooled below this limit, using the evaporative cooling effect provided by the desiccant cycle side. In addition, the DBC configuration requires no additional heat input for driving the desiccant cooling side, as the heat associated with the high compressor outlet temperature is used to regenerate the dehumidifier, rather than being dumped to the environment. The DBC cycle is modeled in terms of heat and mass balances and components' performance characteristics, and a computational implementation is developed to solve the resulting non-algebraic system of equations. The operation of the proposed cycle is analyzed for a number of conditions, and the results show that cascade configuration can produce a significant performance improvement compared to the standard Brayton cycle. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Pinto R.R.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Curcio F.F.,University of Sao Paulo
Copeia | Year: 2011

The geographic variation and hemipenial morphology of Siagonodon brasiliensis are described based on a comprehensive sample, allowing the reappraisal of its generic identity, and the proposal of a new nomenclatural combination. We suggest that the presence of two supralabials, as mentioned in the original description of S. brasiliensis, is not a common feature for this species, occurring at low frequencies throughout its geographic distribution. Based on a diagnosis presented in a recently published paper, as well as on additional external traits and on hemipenial characters, we recognize Siagonodon brasiliensis as a species of the genus Tricheilostoma. In addition, a new species of worm snake of the genus Siagonodon is described from the savannas of the state of Tocantins, Brazil. The new species differs from other congeners by having a slightly acuminate snout in lateral and ventral views, subcircular rostral in dorsal view, and 12 scale rows around middle of tail. The diagnosis of the genus Siagonodon is revised and expanded based on direct observation of morphological characters. © 2011 by the American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists.

Vincent M.B.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Current Pain and Headache Reports | Year: 2011

Cervicogenic headache (CeH) is a relatively common syndrome. The paroxysmal and rather intense head pain usually is unilateral, spreading from the back of the head to the frontal and temporal regions, and triggered by certain movements or sustained provocative head positions. Digital pressure over triggering areas at the upper nuchal area reproduces the spontaneous pain pattern. Available clinical criteria differentiate this picture from other headache disorders, although superposition may be present in some cases. The neck is involved with other pain disorders apart from CeH. Migraine may be induced by cervical trigger factors in some cases, and whiplash lesions produce CeH-like symptoms as well as others. Occipital neuralgia refers to pain restricted to the distribution of the affected nerve and should not be mistaken as CeH. There is no definite, universal treatment for CeH yet. Options include physical therapy, preventive medicines, anesthetic blocks, denervation procedures, and surgery. The treatment choice must be performed on individual basis. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.