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The paper discusses the issue of waiting times based on a study of Spain's National Health System (Sistema Nacional de Salud, SNS), focusing on the national context, management issues and local practices. Observation visits and interviews with health personnel and managers conducted in the metropolitan areas of the Autonomous Communities of Madrid, Andalusia, Catalonia and Basque Country were complemented by secondary data and a review of the literature. There is unanimity as to the positive results of the SNS, but cutting waiting times seems to be one key aspect requiring improvement. Two directions were identified for complementary measures: guaranteed maximum waiting times in the macro-social sphere associated with local measures to increase service integration and primary care resolution rates. The peculiarities of the Spanish decentralisation process and the existence of economic, political and health profession corporate interests were mentioned as factors hampering waiting list regulation, transparency and management. A comprehensive approach to this issue shows the need to shift discussion from waiting list monitoring and/or expanded supply to guaranteed timely access. That is the quality differential that primary care-oriented systems must bring to public health systems.

Ferreira R.M.S.,Federal University of Reconcavo da Bahia
Acta Physica Polonica B | Year: 2015

In this work, we use the ideas of scaling to investigate stochastic process for asymptotic times, we play particular attention to the phenomenon of anomalous diffusion. The combination of method of complex variables with scaling concepts allows us to investigate the mechanism of diffusion as well for intermediates times. We generalized the concept of the diffusion exponent to include other than the asymptotic power-law behaviour. A method is proposed to obtain the diffusion coefficient analytically through the introduction of a time scaling factor λ. We obtain also an exact expression for λ for all kinds of diffusion. Moreover, we show that λ is a universal parameter determined by the diffusion exponent. The results are then compared with numerical calculations and very good agreement is observed. We show the existence of two kinds of ballistic diffusion, one ergodic and another non-ergodic. The method is general and may be applied to many types of stochastic problem. © 2015, Jagellonian University. All rights reserved.

Martins F.M.,Federal University of Reconcavo da Bahia
Revista Brasileira de Botanica | Year: 2012

The structure and histochemistry of colleters found on the vegetative and floral apices of Odontadenia lutea are described. Colleters occur on vegetative apices starting at the fourth node, with 68 to 80 colleters being found at each node. Each leaf primordium has only one colleter of axillary origin, 3-5 intra-petiolar, and 12-16 inter-petiolar (intra-stipular). There are four types of colleters: standard, bipartite standard, sessile, and bipartite sessile. Colleters on the reproductive apices alternate with the sepals and are sessile, reduced sessile, tripartite laminar sessile, or asymmetrical. All of the colleters have a central nucleus of parenchymatous cells covered by a palisade uniseriate secretory epidermis and a thin cuticle. Secretory idioblasts were observed in the parenchymatous axis. Vascularization was observed only in standard axillary and laminar colleters. Crystals were observed in the parenchyma of the axillary colleter. Histochemical tests demonstrated that there was no rupturing or distension of the cuticle during the secretion process. Mucilage was identified using the PAS reaction as well as by Mayer's reagent and Ruthenium red staining. The calycine colleters had two distinct secretory phases, the first synthesizing mucilage and the second producing phenolic compounds.

Scherer C.S.,Federal University of Reconcavo da Bahia
Journal of Mammalian Evolution | Year: 2013

Presented here is a cladistic analysis of the South American and some North American Camelidae. This analysis shows that Camelini and Lamini are monophyletic groups, as are the genera Palaeolama and Vicugna, while Hemiauchenia and Lama are paraphyletic. Some aspects of the migration and distribution of South American camelids are also discussed, confirming in part the propositions of other authors. According to the cladistic analysis and previous propositions, it is possible to infer that two Camelidae migration events occurred in America. In the first one, Hemiauchenia arrived in South America and, this was related to the speciation processes that originated Lama and Vicugna. In the second event, Palaeolama migrated from North America to the northern portion of South America. It is evident that there is a need for larger studies about fossil Camelidae, mainly regarding older ages and from the South American austral region. This is important to better undertand the geographic and temporal distribution of Camelidae and, thus, the biogeographic aspects after the Great American Biotic Interchange. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

The plantain cv. D´Angola demands large amount of nutrients for its growth and production. It is important to know the amounts of nutrients which are extracted, exported and restituted to the soil by the plant for an adequate fertilizer recommendation. This study aimed to evaluate cumulative phytomass and macronutrients in cv. D´Angola plantain under five doses of nitrogen (N) applied by a drip fertigation system. The trial was carried in a randomized block design with four replications in an experimental field of Embrapa Cassava and Fruits, at Cruz das Almas, State of Bahia. Phytomass and nutrient accumulation were evaluated in five plant organs (pseudostem, leaves, fruits, peduncle and inflorescence) under application of five nitrogen levels (135, 180, 225, 270 and 315 kg ha-1) by irrigation water. The results indicated that the accumulation of phytomass and nutrients for plantain cv. D'Angola showed that, there are different levels of extraction, exportation and restitution to the soil of nutrients for plant organs depending on nitrogen doses; also, on average, pseudostem and leaves were the organs that accumulated more nutrients while the inflorescence was the one that accumulated less. The decreasing order of nutrient extraction by plant was potassium, followed by nitrogen and calcium. © 2015, Sociedade Brasileira de Fruticultura. All rights reserved.

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