Federal University of Paran

Curitiba, Brazil

Federal University of Paran

Curitiba, Brazil
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Franco De Lima R.A.,University of Campinas | De Jesus M.B.,University of Campinas | Saia Cereda C.M.,University of Campinas | Tofoli G.R.,University of Campinas | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Drug Targeting | Year: 2012

Local anesthetics (LA) are among the most important pharmacological compounds used to attenuate or eliminate pain. However, systemic toxicity is still a limitation for LA application, especially for ester-type drugs, such as tetracaine (TTC) that presents poor chemical stability (due to hydrolysis by plasma esterases). Several approaches have been used to improve LA pharmaceutical properties, including the employment of drug-delivery systems. Here we used beta-cyclodextrin (β-CD) or hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) to develop two new TTC formulations (TTC:β-CD and TTC:HP-β-CD). The inclusion complexes formation, in a 1:1 stoichiometry, was confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, UV-VIS absorption and fluorescence. Nuclear magnetic resonance (DOSY experiments) revealed that TTC association with HP-β-CD is stronger (Ka=1200mol/L -1) than with β-CD (Ka=845mol/L -1). Moreover, nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) experiments provided information on the topology of the complexes, where TTC aromatic ring is buried inside the CD hydrophobic cavity. In vitro tests with 3T3 fibroblast cells culture revealed that complexation decreased TTC cytotoxicity. In addition, the total analgesic effect of TTC, tested in rats through the infraorbital nerve test, was improved in 36% with TTC:β-CD and TTC:HP-β-CD. In conclusion, these formulations presented potential for future clinical use, by reducing the toxicity and increasing the antinociceptive effect of tetracaine. © 2012 Informa UK, Ltd.

Najafzadeh M.J.,Fungal Biodiversity Center | Najafzadeh M.J.,University of Amsterdam | Najafzadeh M.J.,Mashhad University of Medical Sciences | Sun J.,Guangzhou University | And 6 more authors.
Medical Mycology | Year: 2010

A new species of Fonsecaea, Fonsecaea nubica, morphologically similar to F. pedrosoi and F. monophora, is described using multilocus molecular data including AFLP profiles, sequences of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacers (ITS), and partial sequences of the cell division cycle (cdc42), β-tubulin (tub1) and actin (act1) genes. A phylogenetic approach was used to evaluate species delimitation. Topologies of the trees were concordant. Fonsecaea strains could be classified into three major entities, i.e., one representing Fonsecaea pedrosoi isolates, another consisting of strains of F. monophora, and a third, unnamed group comprising isolates mostly recovered from cases of chromoblastomycosis in South America and China. F. nubica is part of this latter group. Based on strains analyzed thus far, we have found that the pathologies of these three Fonsecaea species are somewhat different in that F. pedrosoi and F. nubica are preponderantly associated with chromoblastomycosis, while F. monophora may also act as a systemic opportunist in cases involving brain infections. The latter species is also the most frequently recovered of the three from environmental samples. © 2010 ISHAM.

Soto J.,Federal University of Paran | Soto J.,Federal University of Paraná | Queiroz S.,Federal University of Paraná | Queiroz S.,Federal University of Amazonas | And 2 more authors.
IEEE Wireless Communications | Year: 2013

Primary user emulation attacks (PUEAs) are one of the most damaging threats in cognitive radio networks. Malicious or selfish secondary users pretend legitimate primary users to profit from the opportunistic use of the licensed frequency spectrum. Since cognitive radio importance has enhanced as an approach to spectral efficiency and to diminish the negative effects of wireless network scalability, approaches for PUEAs defense have arisen, evolving their architectural strategy, node¿s operation and analysis design. This article overviews recent achievement in PUEA defenses and presents a classification. Persistently unsolved challenges in the field are highlighted, and a framework for tackling one of the main challenges-the lack of flexibility to address this highly compromising attack-is outlined, promoting progress in the art of PUEA defense. As proof of concept, results present improvements in attack analysis employing flexible and multidimensional techniques on a case study. Finally, open issues and future directions are emphasized. © 2013 IEEE.

Wiens A.,Federal University of Paran | Lenzi L.,Federal University of Paran | Venson R.,Federal University of Paran | Correr C.J.,Federal University of Paran | And 3 more authors.
Pharmacotherapy | Year: 2013

Study Objective. To compare the efficacy of nucleoside or nucleotide analog monotherapy for the treatment of chronic hepatitis virus B (HBV) with adefovir dipivoxil, entecavir, lamivudine, telbivudine, and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate. Design. Mixed-treatment comparison meta-analysis of nine randomized controlled clinical trials. Patients. A total of 3972 adults with a diagnosis of chronic hepatitis B. Measurements and Main Results. A systematic review was conducted to search for randomized clinical trials that evaluated the efficacy of nucleoside or nucleotide analogs used as monotherapy. The evaluated outcomes were reduction of HBV DNA levels, normalization of alanine aminotransferase levels, and seroconversion of hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg). A mixed-treatment comparison was conducted to compare the odds ratios among the treatments and to rank the therapies to determine the optimal treatment option. Tenofovir had the best results among the nucleoside or nucleotide analogs for the three evaluated efficacy outcomes in both HBeAg-positive and -negative patients. Conclusion. Tenofovir has the highest probability of reducing HBV DNA, normalizing alanine aminotransferase levels and inducing HBeAg seroconversion after 1 year of treatment. An efficacy comparison of therapies is an important tool to guide clinicians in selecting the optimal treatment option.

Brandalize M.,Faculdade Guairac | Pereira E.F.,Federal University of Paran | Leite N.,Federal University of Paran | Filho G.L.,University of Sao Paulo | Louzada F.M.,Federal University of Paran
Chronobiology International | Year: 2011

The aim of this study was to assess whether the shift from afternoon to morning classes reduces the duration of sleep and whether this reduction has any relation to body fat measurements. This is a follow-up study in which students (n = 379), 12.4 (SD±0.7) yrs old, were evaluated before and after the school schedule shift, with a 1-yr interval between the first and second data collections. Adolescents were divided into two groups: an afternoon-morning group (students who shifted from afternoon to morning classes) and an afternoon-afternoon group (students who remained in afternoon classes). The morning schedule of classes lasted from 07:30 and 12:00h, and the afternoon schedule of classes lasted from 13:00 and 17:30h. Self-reported bedtime, wake-up time, and time-in-bed were obtained. Body mass index, waist circumference, and body fat percentage were obtained by direct measures. The results showed a reduction of time-in-bed during weekdays for those students who changed to the morning session (p < .001). Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) for repeated measures of anthropometric differences between afternoon-afternoon and afternoon-morning groups showed no effect of the school schedule change on weight gain. In conclusion, the time-in-bed reduction in the period analyzed cannot be considered to be a mediating factor to modifications in overweight anthropometric indicators. © Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.

Doll-Boscardin P.M.,Federal University of Paran | Sartoratto A.,University of Campinas | De Noronha Sales Maia B.H.L.,Federal University of Paraná | Padilha De Paula J.,State University of Ponta Grossa | And 3 more authors.
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine | Year: 2012

Eucalyptus L. is traditionally used for many medicinal purposes. In particular, some Eucalyptus species have currently shown cytotoxic properties. Local Brazilian communities have used leaves of E. benthamii as a herbal remedy for various diseases, including cancer. Considering the lack of available data for supporting this cytotoxic effect, the goal of this paper was to study the in vitro cytotoxic potential of the essential oils from young and adult leaves of E. benthamii and some related terpenes ( -pinene, terpinen-4-ol, and -terpinene) on Jurkat, J774A.1 and HeLa cells lines. Regarding the cytotoxic activity based on MTT assay, the essential oils showed improved results than -pinene and -terpinene, particularly for Jurkat and HeLa cell lines. Terpinen-4-ol revealed a cytotoxic effect against Jurkat cells similar to that observed for volatile oils. The results of LDH activity indicated that cytotoxic activity of samples against Jurkat cells probably involved cell death by apoptosis. The decrease of cell DNA content was demonstrated due to inhibition of Jurkat cells proliferation by samples as a result of cytotoxicity. In general, the essential oils from young and adult leaves of E. benthamii presented cytotoxicity against the investigated tumor cell lines which confirms their antitumor potential. Copyright © 2012 Patrcia Mathias Dll-Boscardin et al.

Carbajal Arizaga G.G.,University of Tijuana | Wypych F.,Federal University of Paran | Castilln Barraza F.,University of Tijuana | Contreras Lopez O.E.,University of Tijuana
Journal of Solid State Chemistry | Year: 2010

A zinc/aluminum LDH was precipitated with recycled ammonia from a chemical vapor deposition reaction. The LDH presented a crystalline phase with basal distance of 8.9 , typical for nitrate-containing LDHs, and another phase with a basal distance of 13.9 . Thermal treatment at 150 °C eliminated the phase with the bigger basal distance leaving only the anhydrous nitrate-intercalated LDH structure with 8.9 . Intense NH stretching modes in the FTIR spectra suggested that the expansion was due to intercalation of ammonia in the form of [NH4(NH3)n] species. When additional samples were precipitated with pure ammonia, the conventional LDH nitrate structure was obtained (8.9 basal distance) at pH=7, as well as a pure crystalline phase with 13.9 basal distance at pH=10 due to ammonia intercalation that can be removed by heating at 150 °C or by stirring in acetone, confirming a unusual sensu stricto intercalation process into a LDH without exchanging nitrate ions. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Dos Santos-Mallet J.R.,Oswaldo Cruz Foundation | Muller G.A.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Muller G.A.,Federal University of Paran | Gleiser R.M.,National University of Crdoba | And 4 more authors.
Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association | Year: 2010

The eggs of Aedes scapularis analyzed by scanning electron microscopy are black and elliptical in outline, measuring approximately 620.4 ± 16.74 μm long and 163.7 ± 16.90 m (n 10) wide, with an egg index (length/width ratio) of 3.79. The anterior extremity tapered abruptly from a width of 51.6 μm, while such tapering was more gradual at the posterior extremity, from a width of 61.4 m. The ventral surface of the chorionic coating presented cells with a tubular aspect containing tubercles in rows at a density of 5 to 9 per cell with 2 different sizes, the largest measuring 7.23 ± 0.98 m in a longitudinal diameter and the smallest 4.15 ± 0.53 μm (n 30). In the dorsal region, the external chorionic reticulum had a porous appearance, and its thickness ranged from 2.5 to 4.1 μm. Isolated tubercles presented wide variation per cell. In the central region of some chorionic cells were tubercles of greater diameter, characterized as central tubercles of 8.45 ± 0.67 μm, and around them 3 to 5 smaller tubercles measuring 2.57 ± 0.26 μm. The micropylar apparatus presented a collar with a very evident molding and edges with defined margins for the transition area and a thickness of around 11.1 μm. The micropyle disc margins were raised, measuring around 17.8 μm in diameter and 229 m in circumference. The micropyle orifice was very evident, with a diameter of 1.41 μm. © 2010 by The American Mosquito Control Association, Inc.

Damke E.,University of Colombo | Storti-Filho A.,University of Colombo | Irie M.M.T.,University of Colombo | Carrara M.A.,University of Colombo | And 6 more authors.
Microscopy and Microanalysis | Year: 2010

The adhesion of Candida albicans to the genital epithelium has not been fully investigated in vivo. The objective of this study was to evaluate the ultrastructural aspects of C. albicans adhesion in the lower genital system of female Wistar rats through scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The genital infection persisted until the end of the experiment, and all rats showed the same adhesion aspects. Various associated yeast/hyphae were observed in the lumen and adhered both at the vaginal and endocervical levels where the fungal filamentation process occurred. In the vaginal epithelium, closely adhered yeasts were observed as stretched strands bridging between yeasts and the epithelium surface. Different stages of the adhesion, where yeasts internalized into the epithelial cell inside a cytoplasmic vacuole, resembling endocytosis, and a wide fibrillar-floccular, glycocalyx-like layer on the yeasts were observed. On the endocervix, the adhesion occurred between the cilia. In the uterine body, only a yeast-like form was observed with superficial contact. This study reached the initial goal of demonstrating an experimental model for in vivo studies. Continuation of this line of research is important for studies of vulvovaginal candidiasis. © 2010 Microscopy Society of America.

Cancelli D.M.,Federal University of Paran | Dias N.L.,Federal University of Paran | Chamecki M.,Pennsylvania State University
Water Resources Research | Year: 2012

In water resources it is common to consider that two scalars have a similar behavior in the atmospheric surface layer. This is a consequence of Monin-Obukhov similarity theory whose direct implication is that all similarity functions between two scalars are equal. However, many works show that scalar similarity does not always hold under unstable conditions, a fact for which it is often difficult to establish a physical cause. In this paper, using a data set measured during winter over a tropical lake in Brazil (Furnas Lake), we found a relation between temperature-water vapor similarity and the strength of the surface forcing; we also confirmed that the classical balance between gradient production and molecular dissipation of scalar variance and covariance is key to scalar similarity. This balance can be disrupted by large values of the third-order transport terms, and possibly by nonstationary terms as well. In connection with the scalar variance and covariance budgets, we propose a new set of dimensionless scalar flux numbers which are able to make a good diagnosis of the aforementioned balance (or the lack thereof) for each budget. The fact that different Monin-Obukhov functions are not equally capable of identifying scalar similarity is also demonstrated and a new bulk indicator of scalar flux similarity is proposed whose absolute value, unlike the relative transfer efficiency, is bounded above by 1; this new indicator holds also in the spectral domain. Finally, we verify that low-frequency dissimilarity has a larger impact over scalar similarity than over scalar flux similarity. © 2012. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

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