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Mushroom cultivation is rapidly expanding in Brazil because Brazilians have discovered the medicinal and culinary value of mushrooms and their economic situation has improved. However, the horticultural technology for cultivating mushrooms under Brazilian conditions is lacking. For many years, the mushroom cultivation technology used in Brazil was adapted from developed countries whose materials and climate were different from those of Brazil. In order to exploit the Brazilian potential for mushroom cultivation it is essential to develop cultivation technology for family owned and operated rustic farms as well as for modern large scale industrial operations. Mushroom species cultivated in Brazil are discussed and some approaches for future research are suggested. Source

Sisvar is a statistical analysis system, first released in 1996 although its development began in 1994. The first version was done in the programming language Pascal and compiled with Borland Turbo Pascal 3. Sisvar was developed to achieve some specific goals. The first objective was to obtain software that could be used directly on the statistical experimental course of the Department of Exact Science at the Federal University of Lavras. The second objective was to initiate the development of a genuinely Brazilian free software program that met the demands and peculiarities of research conducted in the country. The third goal was to present statistical analysis software for the Brazilian scientific community that would allow research results to be analyzed efficiently and reliably. All of the initial goals were achieved. Sisvar gained acceptance by the scientific community because it provides reliable, accurate, precise, simple and robust results, and allows users a greater degree of interactivity. Source

do Val A.D.,Federal University of Lavras
Genetics and molecular research : GMR

Olive trees have been grown since the beginning of civilization, and the consumption of olives and olive products is increasing worldwide, due to their health benefits and organoleptic qualities. To meet the growing market for olives, commercial cultivation of this species is expanding from traditional areas to new regions. Although the Brazilian olive industry has just begun to be established, breeding programs are already developing cultivars that are more adapted to local conditions. We used 12 microsatellite markers to evaluate 60 olive accessions, including several cultivars that were developed in Brazil. The analyses identified 72 distinct alleles; the largest number of alleles per locus were at the markers GAPU 101 and GAPU 71B, which contained 10 and 9 alleles, respectively. The largest allelic diversity and polymorphic information contents were also found at the GAPU 101 and GAPU 71B markers, with values of 0.8399/0.8203 and 0.8117/0.7863, respectively. Additionally, the 12 microsatellite markers generated a cumulative identity probability of 1.51 x 10(-10), indicating a high level of accuracy of accession identification. The set of markers that we used allowed the identification of 52 of the 60 olive genotypes, in addition to the recognition of several varietal synonyms. The components of a two-dimensional principal coordinate analysis explained 48.6% of the total genetic variation. The results obtained from the microsatellite markers showed a substantial degree of genetic diversity in the olive tree accessions used in Brazil. Source

Freitas M.P.,Federal University of Lavras
Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry

The anomeric effect has been assigned as being due to hyperconjugation, electrostatic/steric interactions or exchange effects; thus, there is no general consensus about its actual origin. The classical hyperconjugation model, usually investigated using natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis, has been arbitrarily refuted because it would not explain some cases of the preferred equatorial anomer over the axial one in polar solution. In this study, hyperconjugation was shown to be dependent on the medium and NBO analysis explains quite well the estimated amounts of axial and equatorial 2-substituted tetrahydropyrans (substituents = F, OH, NH2 and CN) both in the gas phase and aqueous solution. Overall, there is no reason to abandon the hyperconjugation model as it plays a dominating role of the anomeric effect in some systems, while NBO analysis reproduces the energetic profiles on the basis of both hyperconjugative and Lewis-type contributions. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Source

Alexandre S.S.,Federal University of Minas Gerais | Lucio A.D.,Federal University of Lavras | Neto A.H.C.,National University of Singapore | Nunes R.W.,Federal University of Minas Gerais
Nano Letters

Ab initio calculations indicate that while the electronic states introduced by tilt grain boundaries in graphene are only partially confined to the defect core, a translational grain boundary introduces states near the Fermi level that are very strongly confined to the core of the defect, and display a ferromagnetic instability. The translational boundary lies along a graphene zigzag direction and its magnetic state is akin to that which has been theoretically predicted to occur on zigzag edges of graphene ribbons. Unlike ribbon edges, the translational grain boundary is fully immersed within the bulk of graphene, hence its magnetic state is protected from the contamination and reconstruction effects that have hampered experimental detection of the magnetic ribbon states. Moreover, our calculations suggest that charge transfer between grain boundaries and the bulk in graphene is short ranged, with charge redistribution confined to ∼5 Å from the geometric center of the 1D defects. © 2012 American Chemical Society. Source

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