Federal University of Health Sciences, Porto Alegre

www.ufcspa.edu.br
Porto Alegre, Brazil
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Heinen T.E.,Federal University of Health Sciences, Porto Alegre | Heinen T.E.,University of Porto | Gorini da Veiga A.B.,Federal University of Health Sciences, Porto Alegre
Toxicon | Year: 2011

Many active principles produced by animals, plants and microorganisms have been employed in the development of new drugs to treat diseases such as cancer. Among the animals that produce pharmacologically active molecules capable of interfering in human cellular physiology, the highlights are venomous arthropods, such as scorpions, bees, wasps, spiders, ants and caterpillars. The substances found in the venom of these animals present great potential as anti-tumor agents. In this review, we present the main results of years of research involving the active compounds of arthropods venoms that have anti-cancer activity. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Canuto R.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Garcez A.S.,University of the Rio dos Sinos Valley | Olinto M.T.A.,University of the Rio dos Sinos Valley | Olinto M.T.A.,Federal University of Health Sciences, Porto Alegre
Sleep Medicine Reviews | Year: 2013

The aim of this systematic review was to examine the association between shift work and metabolic syndrome (MetS) as well as the potential confounders investigated. A systematic search was conducted with the aim of finding original articles on the association between shift work and MetS. The included articles were chosen based on established inclusion criteria; their methodological quality was assessed using a validated quality checklist. A total of 10 articles were included in this review. The majority of the studies were classified as having a low risk of bias. The definitions of MetS and shift work varied between studies. Among the ten studies, eight found a positive association between shift work and MetS after controlling for socio-demographic and behavioral factors. Only three studies included sleep duration as a confounder, and these studies presented discordant results. We conclude that there was insufficient evidence regarding the association between shift work and prevalent MetS when the confounders are taken into account. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Damin D.C.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Ziegelmann P.K.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Damin A.P.,Federal University of Health Sciences, Porto Alegre
Colorectal Disease | Year: 2013

Aim: Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is associated with cervical cancer, but whether it is involved in colorectal carcinogenesis is controversial. We conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the association between HPV and colorectal adenocarcinoma. Method: A search of the MEDLINE database was performed using the MESH terms 'HPV', 'human papillomavirus', and 'colon cancer', 'rectal cancer', 'colorectal cancer'. The prevalence of HPV infection in colorectal cancer was estimated by pooling data from 16 studies (involving 1436 patients) published up to July 2012, taking into consideration methodological heterogeneity between studies. The association of HPV with colorectal cancer risk was estimated from case-control studies. Results: The HPV overall prevalence was 31.9% (95% CI: 19.3-47.9). It was lowest in Europe (14.1%, 95% CI: 4.9-34.1) and highest in South America (60.8%, 95% CI: 42.7-76.4). Eight studies presented the results of HPV typing in 302 HPV-positive colorectal carcinomas. HPV 18 was the virus more frequently found in colorectal cancer cases from Asia (73.34%, 95% CI: 44.9-90.7) and Europe (47.3%, 95% CI: 34.5-60.4). In contrast, HPV 16 was more prevalent in colorectal tumours from South America (58.3%, 95% CI: 45.5-69.9). The analysis of five case-control studies showed an increase in colorectal carcinoma risk with HPV positivity (OR = 10.04; 95% CI: 3.7-27.5). Conclusion: The results provide quantitative evidence for an association between HPV infection and colorectal cancer risk. © 2013 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.


Venturini C.D.,Federal University of Health Sciences, Porto Alegre
Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity | Year: 2010

Chronic hyperglycemia increases oxidative stress status and has been associated with neurological complications in diabetic individuals. This study compared the antioxidant properties of red wine or resveratrol in different brain areas of diabetic and non-diabetic rats, and investigated the effect of them on hippocampal cell proliferation in hippocampal dentate gyrus of diabetic rats. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic and control rats were treated with red wine (4 mL/kg), resveratrol (20 mg/kg), or saline, by oral gavage, for 21 days. Lipid peroxidation (TBARS), catalase and superoxide dismutase were measured to evaluate the oxidative stress and the BrdU-positive cells were assessed to measure changes in cellular proliferation. In diabetic animals, resveratrol showed antioxidant property in the hippocampus and in the striatum, while red wine had an antioxidant effect only in the hippocampus. Neither red wine nor resveratrol reversed the lower hippocampal cell proliferation in diabetic rats. Daily doses of red wine or resveratrol have an antioxidant effect in rats depending on the brain area and the glycemic status.


Turatti L.,Federal University of Health Sciences, Porto Alegre
AIDS research and human retroviruses | Year: 2012

Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has increased the survival of HIV-infected patients. However, adverse effects play a major role in adherence to HAART. Some protease inhibitors (mainly atazanavir and indinavir) act as inhibitors of uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT1A1), the enzyme responsible for hepatic conjugation of bilirubin. Variations in the promoter region of the UGT1A1 gene (UGT1A1*28, rs8175347) can influence bilirubin plasma levels, modulating the susceptibility to hyperbilirubinemia. Aiming to analyze the association between UGT1A1*28 allele and hyperbilirubinemia in individuals exposed to HAART, we evaluated 375 HIV-positive individuals on antiretroviral therapy. Individuals carrying the UGT1A1*28 allele had a higher risk of developing severe hyperbilirubinemia [prevalence ratio (PR)=2.43, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08-5.45, p=0.032] as well as atazanavir users (PR=7.72, 95% CI=3.14-18.98, p<0.001). This is the first description of such an association in Brazilian HIV patients, which shows that in African-American and Euroamerican HAART users, the UGT1A1*28 allele also predisposes to severe hyperbilirubinemia, especially in those exposed to atazanavir.


Berton D.C.,Federal University of Health Sciences, Porto Alegre
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2012

Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a common infectious disease in intensive care units (ICUs). The best diagnostic approach to resolve this condition remains uncertain. To evaluate whether quantitative cultures of respiratory secretions are effective in reducing mortality in immunocompetent patients with VAP, compared with qualitative cultures. We also considered changes in antibiotic use, length of ICU stay and mechanical ventilation. We searched The Cochrane Library, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) Issue 2, 2011, which contains the Acute Respiratory Infections Group's Specialised Register, MEDLINE (1966 to June Week 4, 2011), EMBASE (1974 to June 2011) and LILACS (1982 to June 2011). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing respiratory samples processed quantitatively or qualitatively, obtained by invasive or non-invasive methods from immunocompetent patients with VAP and which analysed the impact of these methods on antibiotic use and mortality rates. Two review authors independently reviewed and trials identified in the search results and assessed studies for suitability, methodology and quality. We analysed data using Review Manager software. We pooled the included studies to yield the risk ratio (RR) for mortality and antibiotic change with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Of the 4459 references identified from the electronic databases, five RCTs (1367 patients) met the inclusion criteria. Three studies compared invasive methods using quantitative cultures versus non-invasive methods using qualitative cultures, and were used to answer the main objective of this review. The other two studies compared invasive versus non-invasive methods, both using quantitative cultures. We combined all five studies to compare invasive versus non-invasive interventions for diagnosing VAP. The studies that compared quantitative and qualitative cultures (1240 patients) showed no statistically significant differences in mortality rates (RR 0.91; 95% CI 0.75 to 1.11). The analysis of all five RCTs showed there was no evidence of reduction in mortality in the invasive group versus the non-invasive group (RR 0.93; 95% CI 0.78 to 1.11). There were no significant differences between the interventions with respect to the number of days on mechanical ventilation, length of ICU stay or antibiotic change. There is no evidence that the use of quantitative cultures of respiratory secretions results in reduced mortality, reduced time in ICU and on mechanical ventilation, or higher rates of antibiotic change when compared to qualitative cultures in patients with VAP. Similar results were observed when invasive strategies were compared with non-invasive strategies.


Berton D.C.,Federal University of Health Sciences, Porto Alegre | Kalil A.C.,Federal University of Health Sciences, Porto Alegre | Teixeira P.J.,Federal University of Health Sciences, Porto Alegre
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews | Year: 2014

BACKGROUND: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a common infectious disease in intensive care units (ICUs). The best diagnostic approach to resolve this condition remains uncertain.OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether quantitative cultures of respiratory secretions and invasive strategies are effective in reducing mortality in immunocompetent patients with VAP, compared with qualitative cultures and non-invasive strategies. We also considered changes in antibiotic use, length of ICU stay and mechanical ventilation.SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL (2014, Issue 9), MEDLINE (1966 to October week 2, 2014), EMBASE (1974 to October 2014) and LILACS (1982 to October 2014).SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing respiratory samples processed quantitatively or qualitatively, obtained by invasive or non-invasive methods from immunocompetent patients with VAP and which analysed the impact of these methods on antibiotic use and mortality rates.DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently reviewed the trials identified in the search results and assessed studies for suitability, methodology and quality. We analysed data using Review Manager software. We pooled the included studies to yield the risk ratio (RR) for mortality and antibiotic change with 95% confidence intervals (CI).MAIN RESULTS: Of the 5064 references identified from the electronic databases (605 from the updated search in October 2014), five RCTs (1367 patients) met the inclusion criteria. Three studies compared invasive methods using quantitative cultures versus non-invasive methods using qualitative cultures, and we used them to answer the main objective of this review. The other two studies compared invasive versus non-invasive methods, both using quantitative cultures. We combined all five studies to compare invasive versus non-invasive interventions for diagnosing VAP. The studies that compared quantitative and qualitative cultures (1240 patients) showed no statistically significant differences in mortality rates (RR 0.91; 95% CI 0.75 to 1.11). The analysis of all five RCTs showed there was no evidence of reduction in mortality in the invasive group versus the non-invasive group (RR 0.93; 95% CI 0.78 to 1.11). There were no significant differences between the interventions with respect to the number of days on mechanical ventilation, length of ICU stay or antibiotic change.AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There is no evidence that the use of quantitative cultures of respiratory secretions results in reduced mortality, reduced time in ICU and on mechanical ventilation, or higher rates of antibiotic change when compared to qualitative cultures in patients with VAP. We observed similar results when invasive strategies were compared with non-invasive strategies.


de Mattos A.A.,Federal University of Health Sciences, Porto Alegre
Annals of Hepatology | Year: 2011

The role of proteins in the maintenance of colloid osmotic pressure has been described by Starling since 1896. For many decades, the importance of albumin was associated exclusively to its colloid osmotic function. More recently, other properties of albumin have been demonstrated, such as: carrying different substances, anti-inflammatory activity, preserving capillaries permeability, anti-oxidant role. It is noteworthy that, in decompensated cirrhosis, there is qualitative and quantitative decrease in albumin function. This is why, when we use it, we must have in mind its pharmacological role, as well as its colloid osmotic functioning. Currently, albumin has three major indications in the treatment of cirrhosis. The first would be in the treatment of tense or refractory ascites, when large-volume paracentesis are accomplished, maily when more than 4-5L of ascites are drained, in order to avoid post-paracentesis dysfunction. The second would be in cases of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, avoiding renal impairment and increasing survival; it is formally indicated when bilirubin is greater than 4 mg/dL or creatinine is greater than 1 mg/dL. Finally, we understand its use associated to terlipressin seems to be the best treatment strategy for type I hepa-torenal syndrome. Hence, its judicial use is of great relevance and benefit in the treatment of these complications of the cirrhotic patient.


de Andrade R.B.,Federal University of Health Sciences, Porto Alegre
Journal of applied toxicology : JAT | Year: 2010

In the present study, we investigated the potential in vitro toxicity of the tellurium compound 3-butyl-1-phenyl-2-(phenyltelluro)oct-en-1-one on creatine kinase activity in cerebral cortex and cerebellum of 30-day-old Wistar rats. First, enriched mitochondrial and cytosolic fractions from the two tissues were pre-incubated for 30 min in the presence or absence of 1, 5 or 20 microm of organotellurium and the creatine kinase activity was measured. The organochalcogen reduced creatine kinase activity in a concentration-dependent pattern in the two tissues studied. Furthermore, the enzyme activity was performed after pre-incubation for 30, 60 or 90 min in the presence of 5 microm of the organotellurium. The compound inhibited creatine kinase activity in a time-dependent way in the enriched mitochondrial fraction of both tissues, but not in the cytosolic fraction, indicating different mechanisms for the organochalcogen in the mitochondrial and in the cytosolic creatine kinase. Pre-incubation of tellurium compound with reduced glutathione suggests that creatine kinase activity inhibition might be caused by direct interaction with thiol groups or by oxidative stress. Our findings suggest that creatine kinase inhibition may be one of the mechanisms by which this organotellurium could cause toxicity to the rat brain. (c) 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Alves de Mattos A.,Federal University of Health Sciences, Porto Alegre
Annals of hepatology : official journal of the Mexican Association of Hepatology | Year: 2010

The treatment of patients with cirrhosis has the following purposes: to prevent the complications of the disease; to allow for the regression of cirrhosis; and to prevent reinfection in the graft in patients undergoing liver transplantation. When the sustained viral response is evaluated in patients with cirrhosis, especially in those with decompensated disease, it is noted to be lower than that of patients with chronic hepatitis, and with a higher possibility of complications of the treatment. Based on a review of the literature, we conclude that we should treat patients with compensated cirrhosis, probably also those with portal hypertension, and patients with decompensated cirrhosis only when included on the transplant list, as long as Child B with HCV genotype 2 (possibly 3) and preferably after clinical compensation.

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