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Boca do Acre, Brazil

Guilherme E.,Federal University of Acre
Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia | Year: 2012

The Brazilian state of Acre borders Peru and Bolivia to the west and south, and the Brazilian states of Amazonas and Rondônia to the north and east, respectively. The state is located within the lowlands of the western Amazon basin, adjacent to the foothills of the Andes, within a "megadiverse" region of the Brazilian Amazon basin. Despite its diversity, the region is still only poorly known in scientific terms, and is considered to be a priority for future biological surveys. Given this situation, the present study aims to contribute to the scientific knowledge of the avian fauna of southwestern Amazonia, by evaluating the following questions - (a) how many and which bird species occur in the state of Acre?; (b) how are these species distributed within the state?; and (c) what are the priority areas for new ornithological surveys within the state of Acre? My methodological procedures included (a) a wide literature search; (b) two years of field surveys, including observation records and the collection of voucher specimens; map the distribution of avian taxa within the two main interfuvial regions (east and west of the Purus River) of the state; and the identification of contact and possible hybridization zones, based on the distribution of parapatric sister taxa. Te literature search and fieldwork resulted in the compilation of 9550 avian records, encompassing 4763 specimens, of which 2457 (51.5%) were collected during the past five years. A total of 667 species were confirmed for the state of Acre, representing 75 families and 23 orders. A total of 64 migratory species were also recorded, of which 46.8% (n=30) are Nearctic migrants, 15 (23.4%) were considered to be intratropical migrants, and 19 (29.6%) were classified as austral migrants. Overall, 41 of the recorded species and subespecies were endemic to the Inambari center of endemism. Of all forest avian taxa present year round in the state, 79% are distributed in both main interfuvial regions, 16% were recorded only in the central-western sub-region (west of the Purus), and 5% only in the eastern sub-region (east of the Purus). At least five pairs of purported sister taxa presented allopatric distributions, whereas 15 had parapatric distribution within the state. Two zones of secondary contact (east and west) were identified, which coincided with two possible hybridization zones. Te main conclusions of this study are: (a) the total number of species recorded in the state is high but will probably increase as new surveys are conducted; (b) neither of the state's major rivers-the Purus and the Juruá-act as physical barriers to the dispersal of most of the resident species found in the state; (c) the zones of secondary contact found do not coincide with the basins of these two major rivers, which supports the idea that factors other than physical barriers to dispersal determine the present distribution of some of the resident bird taxa of Acre; and (d) birds restricted to the white-sand forests (campinas and campinaranas) found only in the western portion of the state, as well as those found only in the dense forests of eastern Acre, constitute together the most threatened elements of the state's avifauna since no conservation units protect these specific habitats. Source

Da Silva A.R.,Federal University of Acre | D'Andretta Tanaka A.C.,University of Sao Paulo
Maturitas | Year: 2013

Objective To determine the frequency and severity of menopausal symptoms and associated factors in middle-aged Brazilian women. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out involving 1415 women aged 35-65 years attended at the Outpatient unit of the Clinicas Hospital of Rio Branco, Acre state, Brazil. The Menopause Rating Scale (MRS) was used to assess the severity of menopause symptoms. The Stata 10 statistical package was used for all data analysis whereas Pearson's x2 nonparametric association test was used for bivariate analysis, adopting a level of statistical significance of 5%. On the multivariate analysis, independent variables positively associated with the dependent model were retained in the final model (p < 0.005). Results Overall, 54.1% of participants were premenopausal, 10.1% perimenopausal, and 35.8% postmenopausal. Irritability was the most frequent symptom (78.3%), followed by joint and muscular discomfort (74.8%), and anxiety (72.7%). Mean total MRS score was 15.6 + 8.8 (median 15). After adjusting for confounding factors, the logistic regression analysis found low educational level (OR:1.53; [95% CI:1.21-1.95]; p < 0.001); self-perceived poor/very poor health (OR:4.48; [95% CI: 3.53-5.69]; p < 0.001), and menopausal transition phase (OR:1.73; [95% CI:1.18-2.53]; p = 0.005) to be statistically significantly associated with more severe menopausal symptoms. Conclusion Among Brazilian women, atypical symptoms of the menopause were the most frequently reported. Severe menopausal symptoms were more likely in women with low educational level, self-perceived poor health and at the menopausal transition phase. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source

De Melo T.N.,Federal University of Acre
Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club | Year: 2016

Aspects of the foraging behaviour of Rufous-breasted Piculet Picumnus rufiventris are described for the first time, as well as a nest of the species. The observations were made in Rio Branco, Acre, in westernmost Brazil. The species used culms and branches of bamboo and vines as foraging substrates, and was observed consuming adult ants and their larvae. In early June 2013, an apparently recently fledged juvenile was observed accompanied by two adults near a hole in a dead tree, 1.14 m above ground. The characteristics of the presumed nest are described and compared to those of congenerics. © 2016 The Authors; Journal compilation © 2016 British Ornithologists' Club. Source

Cardoso M.A.,University of Sao Paulo | Scopel K.K.G.,Federal University of Juiz de fora | Muniz P.T.,Federal University of Acre | Villamor E.,University of Michigan | Ferreira M.U.,University of Sao Paulo
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Background: Although iron deficiency is considered to be the main cause of anemia in children worldwide, other contributors to childhood anemia remain little studied in developing countries. We estimated the relative contributions of different factors to anemia in a population-based, cross-sectional survey. Methodology: We obtained venous blood samples from 1111 children aged 6 months to 10 years living in the frontier town of Acrelândia, northwest Brazil, to estimate the prevalence of anemia and iron deficiency by measuring hemoglobin, erythrocyte indices, ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor, and C-reactive protein concentrations. Children were simultaneously screened for vitamin A, vitamin B12, and folate deficiencies; intestinal parasite infections; glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency; and sickle cell trait carriage. Multiple Poisson regression and adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) were used to describe associations between anemia and the independent variables. Principal Findings: The prevalence of anemia, iron deficiency, and iron-deficiency anemia were 13.6%, 45.4%, and 10.3%, respectively. Children whose families were in the highest income quartile, compared with the lowest, had a lower risk of anemia (aPR, 0.60; 95%CI, 0.37-0.98). Child age (<24 months, 2.90; 2.01-4.20) and maternal parity (>2 pregnancies, 2.01; 1.40-2.87) were positively associated with anemia. Other associated correlates were iron deficiency (2.1; 1.4-3.0), vitamin B12 (1.4; 1.0-2.2), and folate (2.0; 1.3-3.1) deficiencies, and C-reactive protein concentrations (>5 mg/L, 1.5; 1.1-2.2). Conclusions: Addressing morbidities and multiple nutritional deficiencies in children and mothers and improving the purchasing power of poorer families are potentially important interventions to reduce the burden of anemia. © 2012 Cardoso et al. Source

Fujimoto D.E.,Federal University of Acre | Koifman S.,Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz FIOCRUZ
Revista Brasileira de Hematologia e Hemoterapia | Year: 2014

Background: Dengue is an infectious disease with a recurring incidence, especially in developing countries. Despite recent economic growth, success in disease control has not been achieved, and dengue has evolved from cyclic epidemic outbreaks to a lack of seasonality. The lack of scientific basis for the proper management of cases with hemorrhagic manifestations, especially regarding transfusion procedures, might contribute to the high death rate in potentially avoidable cases. Objective: The aim of the study was to identify the clinical and laboratory manifestations in hemorrhagic dengue fever treated at the emergency services in Rio Branco, AC, Brazil, as well as to describe transfusion characteristics of patients and identify possible prognostic factors. Methods: A retrospective descriptive study was performed to analyze the distribution of relative frequencies of clinical and laboratory variables. The study was carried out in Rio Branco with confirmed dengue fever cases. Secondary data were obtained by Acre Epidemiological Surveillance teams of cases with bleeding or platelet counts under 100.0 × 109/L. The patients' clinical, laboratory and transfusion data were obtained from hospital records. Results: A total of 90,553 dengue cases were reported of which 7,447 had serologic confirmation; 267 cases had hemorrhagic manifestations and 193 patients were located. Nearly half of the patients had anemia and the mean of the lowest platelet count of these patients was 26.4 × 109/L. Platelet concentrate was transfused in 22.3% of cases with a mean of 7.5 IU/patient, fresh frozen plasma in 21.2% with a mean of 5.2 IU/patient and just 2.6% of patients received concentrated red blood cells with a mean of 3.2 IU/patient. Bleeding led to transfusions. Signs of plasma leakage and cardiopulmonary dysfunction were correlated to unfavorable outcomes. Conclusion: The pattern of clinical and laboratory criteria observed in this investigation does not differ from the literature. Transfusions were used as part of the treatment of dengue hemorrhagic fever manifestations. Some of the clinical manifestations may be related to unfavorable outcomes. © 2014 Associação Brasileira de Hematologia, Hemoterapia e Terapia Celular All rights reserved. Source

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