Ebonyi State, Nigeria

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Nwaeze E.,Federal University, Ndufu-Alike | Ehiri R.C.,Federal University, Ndufu-Alike
Journal of Water and Climate Change | Year: 2017

This paper investigates the effect of increasing levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) on rainwater. The design of this research includes the collection and analysis of recorded partial pressures of carbon dioxide (pCO2) at six air-space control stations in Nigeria. The already established equations for the chemistry of water constitute the theoretical framework of this investigation. These equations resolve into a mathematical model which connects the pCO2 and the activity index of hydrogen ions (pH) in rainwater. A cubic polynomial, which represents the predictive framework of this study, fits the average pCO2, while the model generates the corresponding pH. The obtained results show that the increasing levels of CO2 contribute to climate change and the proportionate decrease of pH in rainwater. An extrapolated result reveals that the acidity of rainwater will increase from 5.3% in 2000 to 93.7% by 2050. © IWA Publishing 2017.

Osigwe A.C.,Federal University, Ndufu-Alike
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2016

This study examined the nexus of fuel consumption, car characteristics and prices in Ibadan. It also ascertained whether car buyers undervalue fuel savings. A sample of 600 car owners drawn from the six major institutions in Ibadan was used. In addition to the descriptive analysis, the hedonic car price function was estimated using OLS and IV estimation techniques. The result of the IV estimations were preferred and interpreted. Empirical findings indicated that respondents do not undervalue fuel savings. More explicitly, 98.8% of the respondents indicated that they would pay additional naira to buy fuel efficient car, if the additional naira is less than the present value of extra future cost of fuel for an inefficient car. Moreover, when asked to rank the factors considered important when purchasing a car, fuel consumption ranked third. The estimated hedonic price model indicated that the impact of fuel consumption on car price was significantly negative, implying that the respondents were willing to pay less for a fuel inefficient car. Moreover, the security and luxury car features were found to increase the price of cars. The study recommended that advocacy and orientations be carried out by the stakeholders in the car market to deepen users and potential buyers' understanding on car price determinants. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Ekennia A.C.,Federal University, Ndufu-Alike | Onwudiwe D.C.,North West University South Africa | Osowole A.A.,University of Ibadan
Journal of Sulfur Chemistry | Year: 2015

Copper(II), cobalt(II) and nickel(II) bis(N-methyl-N-phenyl dithiocarbamate) complexes having the general formula [M{S2CN(MePh)}2] (where M = Cu, Co and Ni) have been prepared and characterized by spectral and thermal analysis. The IR spectra suggest that coordination of dithiocarbamate (DTC) occurred through the two sulfur atoms in a symmetrical bidentate fashion. The electronic spectra, conductance measurement and magnetic moment analysis support the proposed geometry for the electronically dilute complexes. The results of the thermal analysis showed that after dehydration, a one-step decomposition pattern leading to the formation of respective metal sulfide as the end-product occurred. The results are consistent with the proposed composition of the complexes. The in vitro antibacterial activity of the complexes was investigated against strains of gram-negative Escherichia coli, Klebsiella oxytoea and Pseudomonas aureginosa, and gram-positive Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus and Protues mirabilis. The antibacterial activity of the complexes compared favorably with that of streptomycin and augmentine against S. aureus and B. cereus. The cobalt complex had the best antibacterial activity against the test compounds with inhibitory zone range of 11-14.5mm. © 2014 © 2014 Taylor & Francis.

Ee M.,Federal University, Ndufu-Alike
IMSCI 2014 - 8th International Multi-Conference on Society, Cybernetics and Informatics, Proceedings | Year: 2014

Examination Fraud is a menace that could seriously affect the society if unchecked. Widespread examination fraud in the academic sector could lead to the graduation of half-baked graduates, who are unable to prove their worth in the professional world. Such people could infiltrate the leadership cadre of the society, and possibly propagate academic decadence. The conduct of examinations is a pervasive human activity, which is not limited to the academic world. Employment aptitude tests, for instance could be prone to examination fraud. It is therefore necessary to harness the power of Computational Sciences to deal with the problem of examination fraud. This research proposes the use of randomized algorithms to tackle the problem of examination malpractices, especially in the academic institutions. One serious fonn of examination cheating considered in this work is the one involving the collusion of individuals, who may have had prior knowledge of each other's academic ability. Such a prior knowledge makes it possible for some candidates to depend on a set of academically top candidates in the examination hall, in order to scale through their examinations. It is also possible for some candidates to have prior knowledge of the examination papers through pre-examination leakage. The focus of the proposed algorithm is to introduce an element of randomization, such that collusion between the candidates or between the candidates and the invigilators could be controlled. The proposed algorithm is made up of three variations, all of which have been presented, and analyzed. The first option is to computationally randomize the seating arrangement, so as to limit the possibility of each student sitting close to a very familiar person. The second option is to introduce randomization into the serial arrangement of the examination papers, such that the candidates sitting near one another may not be able to collude effectively. The third option is to introduce variations into the content of the actual examination, such that some candidates sitting close to themselves may not have the same examination questions. The overall algorithm is fully analyzed, and a proof is given, to show that the model treats all the examination candidates with fairness. The system is designed, and implemented in MATLAB.

Conlette O.C.,Federal University, Ndufu-Alike
Petroleum Science and Technology | Year: 2016

Microbial communities in light crude oil were analyzed using 16S rRNA gene sequencing technique in order to determine their potential contribution to biodegradation, souring, and corrosion. Apart from the presence of Desulfovibrio in Meren oil with potential for souring and corrosion, the major threat posed by microbial community of light crude is biodegradation because majority of the microorganisms that dominated the light crude like Thauera, Halomonas, Marinobacter, Methanosaeta, Methanolobus, Planctomycetes, Pseudomonas, and Bacteroidetes are known hydrocarbon degraders. It is suspected that considerable concentrations of dissolved oxygen in the crude might have encouraged the growth of aerobic species and syntrophic utilization of substrates by hydrocarbon degrading bacteria and methanogens is likely responsible for massive degradation of oil in the storage tank. © 2016 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Okoro C.C.,Federal University, Ndufu-Alike
Petroleum Science and Technology | Year: 2015

The biocidal efficacy of THPS on oil pipeline biofilms was determined by direct MPN counts of SRB and APB after incubations at various concentrations of THPS for 14 days and also by its inhibitory effects on functional group activities of some oil field microorganisms. THPS was unable to drastically inhibit SRB growth at lower concentrations (0.1-0.3%) but its selective action on the activities of the hNRB and so-NRB further inhibits SRB growth and prevents sulfide formation at lower concentrations (0.2-0.3%). It was also observed that sulfide formation occurred at relatively high concentration of SRB (<106 cells/mL) at 0.1% THPS concentration. © 2015 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

The efficacy of chlorine dioxide (ClO2) as an oil field biocide was determined by direct MPN counts of SRB and APB after incubation at various concentrations of ClO2 for 14 days in produced and injection water samples and also by monitoring its inhibitory effects on functional group activities of some microorganisms. ClO2 was effective in inhibiting the ability of SRB to reduce sulfate to sulfide at relatively high concentrations (0.7 and 1.0 mg/L). It was also observed that ClO2 did not considerably inhibit the activities of so-NRB as was the case with SRBs and hNRBs but rather facilitated sulfide oxidation. Copyright © 2015 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Background: This article examines the concepts of low glycemic indices (GIs) and glycemic load (GL) foods as key drivers in the dietary management of type 2 diabetes as well as their shortcomings. The controversies arising from the analysis of glycemic index (GI) and GL of foods such as their reproducibility as well as their relevance to the dietary management of type 2 diabetes are also discussed. Methods: Search was conducted in relevant electronic databases such as: Pubmed, Google Scholar, HINARI, the Cochrane library, Popline, LILACS, CINAHL, EMBASE, etc to identify the current status of knowledge regarding the controversies surrounding management of diabetes with low GI and GL foods. Conclusion: This article suggests that in view of discrepancies that surround the results of GI versus GL of foods, any assay on the GI and GL of a food with the aim of recommending the food for the dietary management of type 2 diabetes, could be balanced with glycated hemoglobin assays before they are adopted as useful antidiabetic foods. © 2016, Makerere University, Medical School. All rights reserved.

Onwudebelu U.,Federal University, Ndufu-Alike | Chukuka B.,Secure ID Ltd
Proceedings of the 2012 IEEE 4th International Conference on Adaptive Science and Technology, ICAST 2012 | Year: 2012

Make no mistake, "cloud computing" is not the same as "networking". As a buzzword of the moment among computer scientists and technologists, cloud computing has become more and more pronounce in various media channels. The consumers are however worried about the safety of their data, their programs and their privacy in a cloud-oriented environment and are asking: will they lose control of their asset? Will using cloud computing put their enterprises at risk? Cloud computing may bring the potential for increased risk to organizations and therefore, each organization must choose a cloud service provider advisably. In this paper we try to expose potential sources of risk that an enterprise may face as it become a member of the "cloud initiative" world. This will enable them have a better understanding of the risk they are likely to encounter in a cloud-based environment and thus take precautionary measures. In addition, we make recommendations to be taken to minimize the risk to the barest minimum. © 2012 IEEE.

Conlette O.C.,Federal University, Ndufu-Alike
Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences | Year: 2015

Microbial functional group activities such as the ability to reduce sulfate and generate sulfide by sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB), oxidize sulfide and reduce nitrate by sulfide oxidizing, nitrate reducing bacteria (soNRB), and nitrate reduction by heterotrophic nitrate reducing bacteria (hNRB) were determined in samples collected from an oil producing and processing facility in Coleville synthetic brine medium (CSB-K). Corrosion rates of the initial raw samples were measured with a linear polarization resistance (LPR) probe. Skimmer pit water samples (ES_SP) recorded the highest SRB activity in both VFA and lactate media (120 and 167 units/day). Same sample also recorded relatively high hNRB activity (127 units/day) and soNRB activity (116 units/day) with a relatively high corrosion rate (0.23±0.042 mm/yr). Other samples that recorded relatively high corrosion rates with corresponding high microbial activities include; PG_S (0.2±0.07), ES_SW ( 0.14±0.028) ES_MX (0.1±0.028) and ES_PW(0.08±0.042). Sample AB_PW recorded relatively low corrosion rate (0.05±0.042) with a corresponding low microbial activity. The study have clearly demonstrated how the knowledge of the presence and activities of the three microbial functional groups studied can be used to mitigate corrosion and souring episodes.

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