Lokoja, Nigeria

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Adang K.L.,Federal University, Lokoja | Asher R.,Gombe State University | Abba R.,Gombe State University
Asian Journal of Poultry Science | Year: 2014

A study was conducted to determine the prevalence of gastro-intestinal helminths in domestic chickens and ducks slaughtered at the Gombe main market, Gombe State, Nigeria. Faecal samples from 150 chickens and 150 ducks, comprising of 75 male and 75 female samples of each host species, were collected from the dressing unit of the market and examined in the laboratory for helminths, using the intestinal scrapping method. The overall prevalence of helminths was 81.0% in chickens and 4.7% in ducks. More infections with cestodeswere recorded in both host species. The helminths identified from chickens comprised Railleitina tetragona 52 (34.7%), R. cesticillus 32 (21.3%), R. echinobothrida 38 (25.3%), R.magninumida 5 (3.3%), Amoebotaenia cuneata 6(4.0%), Hymenolepis carioca 18 (12.0%) and Ascaridia galli 16 (10.7%), while helminths identified from ducks comprised R. cesticullus 4(2.7%), R. magninumida 5(3.3%), Hymenolepis carioca 2 (1.3%) and Ascaridia galli 1 (0.7%). The males of both host species 67 (89.3%) and 4(5.3%), respectively were more infectedthan the females 55 (73.3%) and 3 (4.0%), respectively. Chi square test revealed no significant difference (p>0.05) in the infection rates between the sexes. Eighty (53.3%) of the chickens had single infections, 38 (25.3%) had double infections and 4 (2.7%) had triple infections while in ducks, 3 (2.0%) had single infections, 3 (2.0%) had double infections and 1 (0.7%) had triple infection. The study revealed that helminths are common parasites of chickens and ducks in Gombe and could be an impediment to their production in the area. © Academic journals Inc.

Adang K.L.,Federal University, Lokoja | Ayuba J.,Gombe State University | Yoriyo K.P.,Gombe State University
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences | Year: 2015

A study was conducted in order to determine the prevalence of ectoparasites of sheep and goats in Gombe between March and June 2011. A total of 312 animals comprising of 155 sheep and 157 goats were examined and using the hand picking and hair brushing methods, ectoparasites present on the animals were collected. Of the 312 animals examined, 30 sheep representing 19.4% and 22 goats representing 14.0% were infested. The ectoparasites identified on sheep were Lice: Damalinia ovis 6 (3.9%), Ticks: Rhipicephalus sp. 5 (3.2%), Amblyomma sp. 9 (5.8%), Boophilus sp. 10 (6.5%) and Fleas: Ctenocephalides felis 8 (5.2%). The ectoparasites identified on goats were Lice: Damalinia ovis 6 (3.8%), Ticks: Rhipicephalus sp. 8 (5.1%), Amblyomma sp. 2 (1.3%), Boophilus sp. 5 (3.2%), Ixodes ricinus 3 (1.9%), Hyalomma sp. 4 (2.5%) and Mites: Sarcoptes scabiei 3 (1.3%). Ectoparasite infestations were higher in young animals; 11 (19.6%) in sheep and 15 (22.7%) in goats than in adult animals; 19 (19.2%) in sheep and 7 (7.7%) in goats. Female animals of 21 (24.1%) sheep and 17 (22.4%) goats were more infested than male animals of 9 (13.2%) sheep and 5 (6.2%) goats. Single infestations recorded in 22 (14.2%) sheep and 13 (8.3%) goats were higher than double infestations recorded in 8 (5.2%) sheep and 9 (5.7%) goats. The highest mean ectoparasite burden was 14.0±1.2 per host and the lowest mean ectoparasite burden was 1.6±1.9 per host in both sheep and goats. Chi square test revealed no statistically significant differences in the prevalence of ectoparasite infestations between sheep and goats, in age of sheep and goats, in sex and age of sheep, in single and double infestations of sheep and goats (p>0.05) but revealed statistically significant differences in sex of sheep and goats, in sex and age of goats (p<0.05). The study concludes that ectoparasites are common to both sheep and goats in Gombe and could affect their health and productivity as well as their economic and market value. © 2015 Asian Network for Scientific Information.

Musa O.K.,Federal University, Lokoja | Kurowska E.E.A.,University of Silesia | Schoeneich K.,Ahmadu Bello University | Alagbe S.A.,Ahmadu Bello University
Environmental Earth Sciences | Year: 2015

Mud volcanoes grouped into 14 fields are found in southern Gombe, part of the Cretaceous Upper Benue Trough filled with Early Cretaceous continental deposits and Late Cretaceous marine deposits, having a history of magmatism dating from Albian to Pleistocene. They are mostly of small sizes, having cones not exceeding one and half metres in height and diameters ranging from 0.5 to 8 m at base, as well as pools with muddy water and mudflows were encountered. Results of the study show that the cationic and anionic concentration varies as follows: Ca2+ (8.26–46.4 mg/l), Mg2+ (1.16–20 mg/l), Na+(18.6–4789 mg/l), K+ (9.4–134 mg/l), Fe (0.02–5.74 mg/l), HC3 − (126–3111 mg/l), Cl– (5–2625 mg/l), SO4 2– (12.5–16.9 mg/l), CO3 2– (3–2040 mg/l) and SiO2 (7–45.6 mg/l). The study also reveals that the water issuing from the mud volcanoes, in most cases, is highly alkaline (pH ranges from 7.94 to 8.99), saline (TDS varies from 140 to 1620 mg/l), very hard (TH varies from 102 to 1180 mg/l) and belongs to five hydrochemical facies, namely: Na–HCO3, Na–HCO3–Cl, Na–Ca–HCO3, Na–Cl–CO3–HCO3 and Ca–Na–HCO3. The dominant hydrochemical facies is Na–HCO3 while Ca–Na–HCO3 is the minor water type. Statistical correlation reveals positive correlation between most of the parameters. With the exception of Ca2+, Mg2+ and SO4 2−, all other parameters are far above the World Health Organisation standards for drinking water. These waters are mineralised and are not considered to be suitable for drinking and domestic purposes, but may be considered for therapeutic purposes. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Nwani C.D.,University of Nigeria | Somdare P.O.,Federal University, Lokoja | Ogueji E.O.,Federal University, Ndufu-Alike | Nwani J.C.,Ebonyi State University | And 2 more authors.
Drug and Chemical Toxicology | Year: 2016

Fenthion is one of the most widely used organophosphate insecticides for the control of many varieties of pests in Nigeria. The genotoxic effect of the pesticide was evaluated in the blood erythrocytes of Clarias gariepinus using the micronucleus (MN) test. The oxidative stress parameters were also studied in the liver and gill tissues. Fish were exposed to 2.0, 4.0, and 8.0 mgL−1 of fenthion and sampling was done on days 1, 7, 14, 21 and after 7-day recovery. Micronuclei induction was highest (7.55) on day 14 at all concentrations in the peripheral blood cells. Oxidative stress was evidenced by increased lipid peroxidation (LPO). Maximum LPO values of 62.47% and 71.17% were observed in the gill and liver tissues respectively in C. gariepinus exposed to 8.0 mgL−1 concentration of fenthion. There were alterations in the values of reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) during the exposure and recovery periods. The 7-day recovery period was not adequate to eliminate fenthion-induced changes as LPO, CAT, and GR activity remain elevated. However, MN frequency and activity of SOD, GSH, and GPx (except at 8.0 mgL−1) recovered. The present findings give further credence on the integrated use of MN test and oxidative stress parameters in risk assessment of pollutants in aquatic ecosystem. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

Jimoh O.A.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | Jimoh O.A.,Federal University, Lokoja | Mahmed N.,University Malaysia Perlis | Okoye P.U.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | Ariffin K.S.,Universiti Sains Malaysia
Environmental Earth Sciences | Year: 2016

Vast amounts of carbide lime waste generated as a by-product of acetylene gas production require urgent utilization to avert handling and disposal difficulties. The carbide lime waste is often rich in calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2), rendering it an alternative potential precursor for precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC) production. The study demonstrated that suspension of carbide lime can be utilized to synthesize PCC at favorable conditions. The characteristics and crystal morphology of the lime and as-synthesized PCC were determined using X-ray fluorescence and scanning electron microscope. The influencing reaction parameters based on temperature, flow rate, total dissolved solid and carbide lime concentration were investigated. Under specific reaction conditions of 2 M carbide lime concentration, final pH of 6.98, 90 min, and 452.30 mL/min CO2 flowrate, high purity of 99 % PCC was attained. The produced PCC from carbide lime meets end user requirement on a par with conventional PCC products. © 2016, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Ahwinahwi U.S.,Delta State University, Abraka | Ahwinahwi U.S.,Federal University, Lokoja | Chukwudi K.,Delta State University, Abraka | Chukwudi K.,Federal University, Lokoja
Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science | Year: 2016

Objectives: This study was designed to evaluate the Perception and Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicines (CAM) among the undergraduate Students of Delta State University (DELSU), Abraka.-Nigeria. Methods: Self- administered questionnaires were distributed randomly to the participants. Result: Out of 450 students that voluntarily participated in the study, 368 (81.78%) had used or were currently using at least one of the various CAM modalities; Family members (282, 37.15%) appeared to be the most common source of information and knowledge about CAM while Herbal medicine (250, 37.71%) was the most commonly used and perceived to be the most effective CAM method, and the most popular ailment effectively treated with CAM was Malaria (142, 34.22%). Pharmacists (98, 45.80%) played a major role in influencing their perceptions towards CAM use and the major reason for CAM use was that CAM is Cheaper (159, 27.09%) than Conventional medicine, however, lack of scientific evidence to support CAM practices (340, 31.66%) was obtained as the most prevailing barrier to CAM use. Conclusion: Majority of undergraduate Students of DELSU used CAM and possessed positive perceptions of Complementary and Alternative medicine. Concerted efforts should therefore be made by members of the healthcare team to ensure the safety of these modalities. © 2016 Ufuoma Shalom Ahwinahwi and Kingsley Chukwudi.

Adam S.U.,Federal University, Lokoja | Shamsudin M.N.,University Putra Malaysia | Sidique S.F.,University Putra Malaysia | Rahim K.A.,University Putra Malaysia | Radam A.,University Putra Malaysia
Resources, Conservation and Recycling | Year: 2015

Pollution concern has been established as an important predictor of economic value ascription related to solid waste service improvement, such as recycling. However, the variable is not directly observable and as such, its influence is captured by existing applied economics papers via "yes" or "no" discrete-nominal measure. Such measure assumes the variable has one dimension. This leads to loss of information, considering its multi-dimensional structure in theory. It thus implies that, if a respondent in an economic valuation study indicates a support for an improvement signified by a "yes" response to valuation question, a uni-dimensional dummy variable cannot tell what dimension of concern the respondent subscribes to. Despite this importance of understanding the variable's dimension, it has rarely been explored. This study investigates such dimensions and our findings support the existence of both the theoretically espoused dual and tripartite factor models. This implies a possible misspecification in existing solid waste related studies that have most often captured the variables via uni-dimensional nominal-discrete measure. © 2015 Published by Elsevier B.V.

Toyin A.,Federal University, Lokoja | Adekeye O.A.,University Of Ilorin | Bale R.B.,University Of Ilorin | Sanni Z.J.,Federal University, Lokoja | Jimoh O.A.,Federal University, Lokoja
Journal of African Earth Sciences | Year: 2016

The basal unit of the succession in the Illela borehole belongs to the Dange Formation comprising thick calcareous and variably coloured dark-greyish shale of 36.30 m thick which is overlain by a 31.44 m thick limestone of Kalambaina Formation with 1.7 m thick shaly-limestone inclusive. The uppermost part of the section belongs to the Gwandu Formation which has intercalation of silty-clay, muddy siltstones with well lithified ironstone capping the borehole section. The limestone/carbonate microfacie as deduced from their salient lithologic, sedimentologic and paleontologic features are comparable to standard microfacie (SMF) types 9 and 10, i.e. bioclastic wackestone/bioclastic micrite and packstone-wackestone respectively. Diagenetically, syndepositional and early diagenesis have taken place particularly cementation and replacement in the carbonate rocks and these have greatly affected the reservoir potential negatively. The matrix/grain relationships indicate a shallow marine environment of deposition. The borehole section is delineated into upper foraminifera and lower ostracod biostratigraphic units as no formal biostratigraphic zonation could be attempted due to low diversity of both benthic foraminifera, marine ostracods and the absence of planktonic foraminifera. The similarity of the ostracod assemblages between this study area, Illela borehole, West Africa, North Africa (Libya), Mali and Niger Republic) and South-Western Nigeria (West Africa) suggests that a marine connection exists between the Gulf of Guinea and the Sokoto Basin via the area occupied by the River Niger during the Paleocene. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

Ekpenyong M.,University of Uyo | Isabona J.,Federal University, Lokoja | Isong E.,Akwa Ibom State University
Proceedings - 2015 International Conference on Computational Science and Computational Intelligence, CSCI 2015 | Year: 2015

A neural network (NN) approach is proposed in this paper to optimize the operation of cellular networks. First, we derive an analytical equation to establish the effect of essential handoff contributory factors. Data of these factors were then obtained from base stations of an operational network carrier, and trained on a backpropagation NN algorithm. Results obtained revealed that the network performance improved with big data and increase in number of neurons for SINR data, but, increasing the number of layers degraded the system performance. However, with relative signal strength data, improved performance was achieved for big data and increase in number of layers for normalized and un-normalized data. Finally, self organizing map was explored to visualize the existing system for the purpose of improving further, its performance. © 2015 IEEE.

Onimisi J.A.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | Onimisi J.A.,Federal University, Lokoja | Ismail R.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | Ariffin K.S.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | And 2 more authors.
Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering | Year: 2016

Various techniques and approaches have been designed to synthesize precipitated calcium carbonate. We used a continuous sprayed-mist technique that induced spontaneous precipitation reaction of the droplets with the higher surface area when in contact with the gas. The effects of optimum reactant concentration, gas flow rate, and reactant feeding rate including reaction conditions were investigated. The effectiveness of the techniques was scrutinized by analyzing the resultant PCC characteristics, especially the particle phase morphology and size distribution using XRD, FTIR, and SEM. The variation of initial concentration of milk of lime with different gas flow rate was studied. Experimental results, as well as XRD and FTIR, indicated that all the products produced were favorable for the formation of calcite. SEM revealed that the morphologies of PCC were all rhombohedral and tended to adhere to each other (twinning). It was found that production of PCC by using spray-mist method is suitable for lower initial concentration of Ca(OH)2 and higher gas flow rate only. © 2016 Korean Institute of Chemical Engineers, Seoul, Korea

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