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Houmsou R.S.,Taraba State University | Elkanah S.O.,Taraba State University | Garba L.C.,Taraba State University | Wama B.E.,Taraba State University | And 2 more authors.
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease | Year: 2015

Objective: To determine the spatial distribution of soil-transmitted helminthiases (STHs) and level of infection in relation to epidemiological factors, and to determine co-infection with schistosomiasis among school-aged children in Gashaka Local Area, Taraba State, North East, Nigeria. Methods: Both urine and faecal samples were collected from school-aged children from January-June 2014. The samples were processed using standard filtration and formol-ether concentration techniques for urine and stools respectively. Remotely sensed images were processed using earth resource data analysis system 9.1 and ArcGis 9.2 softwares. Results: A point prevalence of 11.0% (119/1 080) was reported out of 1 080 children examined. Hookworm infection had the highest infection (5.4%, 59/1 080) followed by ascariasis (3.8%, 41/1 080) and trichuriasis (1.7%, 19/1 080). The spatial distribution of the individual helminths infection showed hookworm infection to be higher in Mayo-selbe (23.8%, 43/180), Gashaka (21.6%, 39/180) and Serti A (12.7%, 23/180) (χ2 = 52.58, P = 0.000). Ascariasis was higher in Serti A (6.7%, 12/180) and Gashaka (6.1%, 11/180) (χ2 = 54.15, P = 0.000), while trichuriasis was higher in Mayo-Selbe (7.2%, 13/180) (χ2 = 54.15, P = 0.000) than the other localities. Considering the overall STHs, localities such as Gashaka (30.0%, 54/180), Mayo-Selbe (23.8%, 43/180) and Serti A (19.4%, 35/180) were significantly infected than other localities (χ2 = 93.68, P = 0.000). The logistic regression model showed that low altitude (< 716 m) was significantly associated (odds ratio = 2.676, confidence interval = 1.981-3.615; P = 0.000) with STHs. Conclusions: Though hookworm infection remains an important public health problem in the area, its infection levels varied between children's locations. The spatial distribution maps in this study are important and useful for planning, evaluating and implementing adequate control programmes for STHs among school-aged children. © 2015 Asian Pacific Tropical Medicine Press.


Houmsou R.S.,Taraba State University | Panda S.M.,Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University | Elkanah S.O.,Taraba State University | Garba L.C.,Taraba State University | And 3 more authors.
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine | Year: 2016

Objective: To determine schistosomiasis level and risk factors that exposed school-aged children to infection as well as to model schistosomiasis map in relation to altitude and rainfall in Gashaka Local Government Area, Taraba State, Nigeria. Methods: The study was conducted between January 2014 and June 2014. Urine and faecal samples were collected from 1. 080 school-aged children and processed using the filtration and formol-ether concentration techniques, respectively. Results: Irrespective of the schistosomes species, a point prevalence of 10.18% was reported out of the 1080 children examined. Males were significantly infected than their female counterparts (11.75% vs. 8.43%) (χ2 = 4.86; P = 0.027), as well as children aged 6-10 (11.65%, 72/618) and 11-15 years (10.29%, 35/340) than the other age groups (χ2 = 9.274; P = 0.026). No significant difference was observed in schistosomiasis between children whose parents were educated (11.11%, 57/513) and not educated (9.88%, 53/536) (χ2 = 1.342; P = 0.247) and those whose parents are farmers (9.74%, 53/544) and non-farmers (10.63%, 57/536) (χ2 = 0.787; P = 0.375). Proximity to water bodies (distance < 500 m) (odds ratio = 1.809, confidence interval = 1.057-3.094; P = 0.003 1) and fishing (odds ratio = 2.632, confidence interval = 1.397-4.958; P = 0.003) were the risk factors exposing children to infection. The spatial distribution pattern of schistosomiasis showed that the infection was significantly higher in Serti A (22.2%, 26/180) and Mayo-Selbe (21.1%, 38/180) than the other localities (χ2 = 92.99; P = 0.000). Conclusions: This study reported a moderate level of infection among school-aged children with proximity to water bodies and fishing as the main risk factors. The spatial distribution of schistosomiasis in the area will guide in efficient and effective control programmes at local level. It is recommended that continued efforts be made to scale-up distribution of praziquantel to high risk areas so as to curb the progression of the disease. © 2016 Hainan Medical University.


Singh J.,Ahmadu Bello University | Taura J.J.,Federal University, Kashere
Astrophysics and Space Science | Year: 2014

We have investigated an improved version of the classic restricted three-body problem where both primaries are considered oblate and are enclosed by a homogeneous circular planar cluster of material points centered at the mass center of the system. In this dynamical model we have examined the effect on the number and on the linear stability of the equilibrium locations of the small particle due to both, the primaries' oblateness and the potential created by the circular cluster. We have drawn the zero-velocity surfaces and we have found that in addition to the usual five Lagrangian equilibrium points of the classic restricted three-body problem, there exist two new collinear points Ln1,Ln2 due to the potential from the circular cluster of material points. Numerical investigations reveal that with the increase in the mass of the circular cluster of material points, Ln2 comes nearer to the more massive primary, while Ln1 moves away from it. Owing to oblateness of the bodies, Ln1 comes nearer to the more massive primary, while Ln2 moves towards the less massive primary. The collinear equilibrium points remain unstable, while the triangular points are stable for 0 < μ < μc and unstable for μc ≤ μ ≤ 1/2, where μc is the critical mass ratio influenced by oblateness of the primaries and the potential from the circular cluster of material points. The oblateness and the circular cluster of material points have destabilizing tendency. © Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013.


Singh J.,Ahmadu Bello University | Taura J.J.,Federal University, Kashere
Astrophysics and Space Science | Year: 2014

This paper studies the motion of an infinitesimal mass in the framework of the restricted three-body problem (R3BP) under the assumption that the primaries of the system are radiating-oblate spheroids, enclosed by a circular cluster of material points. It examines the effects of radiation and oblateness up to J4 of the primaries and the potential created by the circular cluster, on the linear stability of the liberation locations of the infinitesimal mass. The liberation points are found to be stable for 0<μ<μc and unstable for μc≤μ≤1/2, where μc is the critical mass value depending on terms which involve parameters that characterize the oblateness, radiation forces and the circular cluster of material points. The oblateness up to J4 of the primaries and the gravitational potential from the circular cluster of material points have stabilizing propensities, while the radiation of the primaries and the oblateness up to J2 of the primaries have destabilizing tendencies. The combined effect of these perturbations on the stability of the triangular liberation points is that, it has stabilizing propensity. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Singh J.,Ahmadu Bello University | Taura J.J.,Federal University, Kashere
Astrophysics and Space Science | Year: 2014

Within the frame work of the circular restricted three-body problem (CR3BP) we have examined the effect of axis-symmetric of the bigger primary, oblateness up to the zonal harmonic J 4 of the smaller primary and gravitational potential from a belt (circular cluster of material points) on the linear stability of the triangular libration points. It is found that the positions of triangular libration points and their linear stability are affected by axis-symmetric of the bigger primary, oblateness up to J 4 of the smaller primary and the potential created by the belt. The axis-symmetric of the bigger primary and the coefficient J 2 of the smaller primary have destabilizing tendency, while the coefficient J 4 of the smaller primary and the potential from the belt have stabilizing tendency. The overall effect of these perturbations has destabilizing tendency. This study can be useful in the investigation of motion of a particle near axis-symmetric-oblate bodies surrounded by a belt. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

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