Dutsin Ma, Nigeria

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Ogunwole J.O.,Federal University, Dutsin-Ma | Timm L.C.,Federal University of Pelotas | Gabriels D.M.,Ghent University
International Agrophysics | Year: 2014

Understanding soil spatial variability and identifying soil parameters most determinant to soil organic carbon stock is pivotal to precision in ecological modelling, prediction, estimation and management of soil within a landscape. This study investigates and describes field soil variability and its structural pattern for agricultural management decisions. The main aim was to relate variation in soil organic carbon stock to soil properties and to estimate soil organic carbon stock from the soil properties. A transect sampling of 100 points at 3 m intervals was carried out. Soils were sampled and analyzed for soil organic carbon and other selected soil properties along with determination of dry aggregate and water-stable aggregate fractions. Principal component analysis, geostatistics, and state-space analysis were conducted on the analyzed soil properties. The first three principal components explained 53.2% of the total variation; Principal Component 1 was dominated by soil exchange complex and dry sieved macroaggregates clusters. Exponential semivariogram model described the structure of soil organic carbon stock with a strong dependence indicating that soil organic carbon values were correlated up to 10.8m.Neighbouring values of soil organic carbon stock, all waterstable aggregate fractions, and dithionite and pyrophosphate iron gave reliable estimate of soil organic carbon stock by state-space. © 2014 Institute of Agrophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences.


Adesoji A.T.,Federal University, Dutsin-Ma | Ogunjobi A.A.,University of Ibadan | Olatoye I.O.,University of Ibadan | Olatoye I.O.,Washington State University | Douglas D.R.,Washington State University
Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials | Year: 2015

Background: Antibiotic resistance genes [ARGs] in aquatic systems have drawn increasing attention they could be transferred horizontally to pathogenic bacteria. Water treatment plants (WTPs) are intended to provide quality and widely available water to the local populace they serve. However, WTPs in developing countries may not be dependable for clean water and they could serve as points of dissemination for antibiotic resistant bacteria. Only a few studies have investigated the occurrence of ARGs among these bacteria including tetracycline resistance genes in water distribution systems in Nigeria. Methodology: Multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria, including resistance to tetracycline, were isolated from treated and untreated water distribution systems in southwest Nigeria. MDR bacteria were resistant to >3 classes of antibiotics based on break-point assays. Isolates were characterized using partial 16S rDNA sequencing and PCR assays for six tetracycline-resistance genes. Plasmid conjugation was evaluated using E. coli strain DH5α as the recipient strain. Results: Out of the 105 bacteria, 85 (81 %) and 20 (19 %) were Gram- negative or Gram- positive, respectively. Twenty-nine isolates carried at least one of the targeted tetracycline resistance genes including strains of Aeromonas, Alcaligenes, Bacillus, Klebsiella, Leucobacter, Morganella, Proteus and a sequence matching a previously uncultured bacteria. Tet(A) was the most prevalent (16/29) followed by tet(E) (4/29) and tet30 (2/29). Tet(O) was not detected in any of the isolates. Tet(A) was mostly found with Alcaligenes strains (9/10) and a combination of more than one resistance gene was observed only amongst Alcaligenes strains [tet(A) + tet30 (2/10), tet(A) + tet(E) (3/10), tet(E) + tet(M) (1/10), tet(E) + tet30 (1/10)]. Tet(A) was transferred by conjugation for five Alcaligenes and two E. coli isolates. Conclusions: This study found a high prevalence of plasmid-encoded tet(A) among Alcaligenes isolates, raising the possibility that this strain could shuttle resistance plasmids to pathogenic bacteria. © 2015 Timilehin et al.


Adesoji A.T.,Federal University, Dutsin-Ma | Ogunjobi A.A.,University of Ibadan | Olatoye I.O.,University of Ibadan | Olatoye I.O.,Washington State University | Douglas D.R.,Washington State University
Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials | Year: 2015

Background: Antibiotic resistance genes [ARGs] in auatic systems have drawn increasing attention they could be transferred horizontally to pathogenic bacteria. Water treatment plants (WTPs) are intended to provide uality and widely available water to the local populace they serve. However, WTPs in developing countries may not be dependable for clean water and they could serve as points of dissemination for antibiotic resistant bacteria. Only a few studies have investigated the occurrence of ARGs among these bacteria including tetracycline resistance genes in water distribution systems in Nigeria. Methodology: Multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria, including resistance to tetracycline, were isolated from treated and untreated water distribution systems in southwest Nigeria. MDR bacteria were resistant to >3 classes of antibiotics based on break-point assays. Isolates were characterized using partial 16S rDNA seuencing and PCR assays for six tetracycline-resistance genes. Plasmid conjugation was evaluated using E. coli strain DH5α as the recipient strain. Results: Out of the 105 bacteria, 85 (81 %) and 20 (19 %) were Gram- negative or Gram- positive, respectively. Twenty-nine isolates carried at least one of the targeted tetracycline resistance genes including strains of Aeromonas, Alcaligenes, Bacillus, Klebsiella, Leucobacter, Morganella, Proteus and a seuence matching a previously uncultured bacteria. Tet(A) was the most prevalent (16/29) followed by tet(E) (4/29) and tet30 (2/29). Tet(O) was not detected in any of the isolates. Tet(A) was mostly found with Alcaligenes strains (9/10) and a combination of more than one resistance gene was observed only amongst Alcaligenes strains [tet(A) + tet30 (2/10), tet(A) + tet(E) (3/10), tet(E) + tet(M) (1/10), tet(E) + tet30 (1/10)]. Tet(A) was transferred by conjugation for five Alcaligenes and two E. coli isolates. Conclusions: This study found a high prevalence of plasmid-encoded tet(A) among Alcaligenes isolates, raising the possibility that this strain could shuttle resistance plasmids to pathogenic bacteria. © 2015 Timilehin et al.


Auta T.,Federal University, Dutsin-Ma | Hassan A.T.,University of Ibadan
Asian Pacific Journal of Reproduction | Year: 2016

Objective: To evaluate the reproductive toxicity of aqueous wood ash extract of Azadirachta indica (A. indica) in male albino mice. Methods: Four different dose levels of 0, 5, 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight were administered to 20 male mice, with five mice per group for seven days that were sacrificed 35 days thereafter. Gonadosomatic index, sperm motility, sperm count, sperm morphology, serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), leuitinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone assay, and histopathology of testes were carried out. Results: Though no toxic effect on testicular weight, FSH, LH and testosterone (P > 0.05), significant decrease in sperm motility, live/dead sperm and sperm count, with significant increase of abnormal sperm were recorded (P < 0.05). Dose dependent histopathological damage of testes was obtained (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Aqueous wood ash extract of A. indica have damaging effects on sperms and testicular tissues, which could impair reproduction. © 2016 Hainan Medical College.


Adesoji A.T.,Federal University, Dutsin-Ma | Ogunjobi A.A.,University of Ibadan
BioMed Research International | Year: 2016

Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamases (ESBL) provide high level resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics among bacteria. In this study, previously described multidrug resistant bacteria from raw, treated, and municipal taps of DWDS from selected dams in southwestern Nigeria were assessed for the presence of ESBL resistance genes which include blaTEM, blaSHV, and blaCTX by PCR amplification. A total of 164 bacteria spread across treated (33), raw (66), and municipal taps (68), belonging to α-Proteobacteria, β-Proteobacteria, γ-Proteobacteria, Flavobacteriia, Bacilli, and Actinobacteria group, were selected for this study. Among these bacteria, the most commonly observed resistance was for ampicillin and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (61 isolates). Sixty-one isolates carried at least one of the targeted ESBL genes with b l a T E M being the most abundant (50/61) and blaCTX being detected least (3/61). Klebsiella was the most frequently identified genus (18.03%) to harbour ESBL gene followed by Proteus (14.75%). Moreover, combinations of two ESBL genes, blaSHV + blaTEM or blaCTX + blaTEM, were observed in 11 and 1 isolate, respectively. In conclusion, classic blaTEM ESBL gene was present in multiple bacterial strains that were isolated from DWDS sources in Nigeria. These environments may serve as foci exchange of genetic traits in a diversity of Gram-negative bacteria. © 2016 Ayodele T. Adesoji and Adeniyi A. Ogunjobi.


Oshoke J.O.,Federal University, Dutsin-Ma | Akinyeml A.O.,University of Nigeria
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2015

This study was carried out to assess the nutrient composition of Cassa occidentalis as a protein supplement source in the diets of fish to enhance their productivity. Proximate composition results showed high dry matter (95.65%), crude fiber (11.92%), nitrogen free extract (61.88%) and calorific value (1483.26 kcal/100 g), but low ether extract (3.69%) and crude protein (18.74%). The amino acid profile reveals a high concentration of leucine (6.23 g/100 g protein), histidine (2.27 g/100 g protein), proline (3.36 g/100 g protein) and glycine (3.51 g/100 g protein), Arginine (4.83 g/100 g protein) while the rest of the amino acids were low concentration in the raw seed. The concentration of anti-nutrients in the legume seeds recorded low values (0.99 and 0.14% and 0.28 mg/100 g) for Phytic acid, tannin and phytate respectively, while oxalate and cyanogenic glycoside levels were high. C. occidentalis seed is a good source of amino acid but it contained some antinutritional factors that must be deactivated for effective utilization in fish feed and also processing of the seeds will definitely improve the crude protein content. © Asian Network for Scientific Information, 2015.


Atalabi T.E.,Federal University, Dutsin-Ma | Lawal U.,Federal University, Dutsin-Ma | Ipinlaye S.J.,Federal University, Dutsin-Ma | Ipinlaye S.J.,P.A. College
Parasites and Vectors | Year: 2016

Background: The national burden of genito-urinary schistosomiasis in Nigeria has been expressed by an estimate of 101.3 million people at risk with an alarming figure of 29 million infected. Report obtained from respondents about Praziquantel® distribution and the obviously prevalent haematuria without any control programme in place justified the need for data on the prevalence, intensity of infection and associated risk factors which were the objectives this cross-sectional survey sought to address. Methods: A total of 718 students aged 10-23 years from the study area were surveyed between May and August, 2015. Data on socio-demographic and risk factors were obtained using structured questionnaires. Clean universal bottles with corresponding labels were offered for sample collection between 10:00 am and 13:30 pm. Centrifuged samples were microscopically examined and intensity of infection was recorded per 10 ml of each sample. Results: Prevalence of genito-urinary schistosomiasis was 22.7 % with a mean intensity of 25.05 (± standard deviation, ± 71.51) eggs/10 ml of urine. Higher prevalence (19.5 %) and mean intensity (28.7 eggs/10 ml of urine) was recorded among boys. Sex (χ 2 = 77.065, P < 0.0001), age group 16-18 (χ 2 = 5.396, P = 0.0202), altitude (χ 2 = 8.083, P = 0.0045), unwholesome water sources (χ 2 = 27.148, P < 0.0001), human recreational activities (χ 2 = 122.437, P < 0.0001), mothers' occupation (χ 2 = 6.359, P = 0.0117), farming (χ 2 = 6.201, P = 0.0128) and other brown collar jobs (χ 2 = 4.842, P = 0.0278) in fathers' occupational category were found to be significantly associated with urogenital schistosomiasis. Boys were seven times more likely to be infected compared to girls [AOR (95 % CI): 7.3 (4.26-12.4)]. Age group 16-18 years was four times more likely to be infected compared to age group 10-12 years [AOR (95 % CI): 4.43 (2.62-7.49)]. Similarly, respondents with farming as fathers' occupation were twice more likely to be infected than those whose fathers were civil servants [AOR (95 % CI): 2.08 (1.2-3.59)]. Conclusions: Dutsin-Ma and Safana were classified as moderate-risk Local Government Areas (LGA). Sex, altitude, unwholesome water sources and mothers' occupation were identified as the determining epidemiological factors in the prevalence of the disease. Sustainable chemotherapeutic intervention with Praziquantel®, good network of treated pipe-borne water, health education and waste disposal facilities are highly recommended to reduce its prevalence below the threshold of public health significance. © 2016 The Author(s).


Ogunwole J.O.,Federal University, Dutsin-Ma | Pires L.F.,State University of Ponta Grossa | Shehu B.M.,Bayero University
Revista Brasileira de Ciencia do Solo | Year: 2015

Quantification of soil physical quality (SPQ) and pore size distribution (PSD) can assist understanding of how changes in land management practices influence dynamics of soil structure, and this understanding could greatly improve the predictability of soil physical behavior and crop yield. The objectives of this study were to measure the SPQ index under two different land management practices (the continuous arable cropping system and natural bush fallow system), and contrast the effects of these practices on the structure of PSD using soil water retention data. Soil water retention curves obtained from a pressure chamber were fitted to van Genuchten’s equation, setting m (= 1-1/n). Although values for soil bulk density were high, soils under the continuous arable cropping system had good SPQ, and maintained the capacity to support root development. However, soils under the natural bush fallow system had a worse structure than the continuous arable system, with restrictions in available water capacity. These two management systems had different PSDs. Results showed the inferiority of the natural bush fallow system with no traffic restriction (which is the common practice) in relation to the continuous arable cropping system in regard to physical quality and structure. © 2015, Revista Brasileira de Ciencia do Solo. All rights reserved.


Udom B.E.,University of Port Harcourt | Ogunwole J.O.,Federal University, Dutsin-Ma
Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science | Year: 2015

Different land-use affects the organization of mineral soil particles and soil organic components into aggregates and the consequent arrangement of the aggregates will influence essential ecosystem functions. We investigated a continuous rubber plantation (forested), land fallowed for 10 y (fallow), 10-y continuous arable cropping land and cropped land with top soil removed (TSR) for concentrations of C, N, and P in bulk soil and dry aggregates. Results showed that a high level of soil disturbance decreased the proportion of surface (0-15 cm) soil aggregate stability (low mean weight diameter) in TSR by 149% and arable cropping by 125% compared with the forested. Aggregate associated SOC was higher in aggregate-size fractions of forested land-use when compared with that in 10-y fallow, continuous arable cropping, and TSR. For aggregate associated N, fallow and forested land-use types concentrated higher proportion across aggregate sizes than the arable cropping and TSR. Macro aggregate fractions generally contained higher concentrations of C, N, and P compared with the micro-aggregates. Water transmission indicators like total porosity and saturated hydraulic conductivity recorded higher values with forested and fallow land-use than the others. We can thus conclude that long-term soil disturbance due to cultivation and removal of top soil reduces the accumulation of soil C, N, and P in bulk soil and decreases water transmission properties. On the other hand, aggregate-associated C, N and P accumulations are dependent on the level of soil surface disturbance and aggregate sizes. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Adesoji A.T.,Federal University, Dutsin-Ma | Ogunjobi A.A.,Federal University, Dutsin-Ma | Olatoye I.O.,Federal University, Dutsin-Ma
Chemotherapy | Year: 2016

Background: The emergence of antibiotic resistance among pathogenic bacteria in clinical and environmental settings is a global problem. Many antibiotic resistance genes are located on mobile genetic elements such as plasmids and integrons, enabling their transfer among a variety of bacterial species. Water distribution systems may be reservoirs for the spread of antibiotic resistance. Materials and Methods: Bacteria isolated from raw, treated, and municipal tap water samples from selected water distribution systems in south-western Nigeria were investigated using the point inoculation method with seeded antibiotics, PCR amplification, and sequencing for the determination of bacterial resistance profiles and class 1/2 integrase genes and gene cassettes, respectively. Results:sul1,sul2, and sul3 were detected in 21.6, 27.8, and 0% of the isolates, respectively (n = 162). Class 1 and class 2 integrons were detected in 21.42 and 3.6% of the isolates, respectively (n = 168). Genes encoding resistance to aminoglycosides (aadA2, aadA1, and aadB), trimethoprim (dfrA15, dfr7, and dfrA1), and sulfonamide (sul1) were detected among bacteria with class 1 integrons, while genes that encodes resistance to strepthothricin (sat2) and trimethoprim (dfrA15) were detected among bacteria with class 2 integrons. Conclusions: Bacteria from these water samples are a potential reservoir of multidrug-resistant traits including sul genes and mobile resistance elements, i.e. the integrase gene. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel

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