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Dutsin Ma, Nigeria

Ogunwole J.O.,Federal University, Dutsin-Ma | Pires L.F.,State University of Ponta Grossa | Shehu B.M.,Bayero University
Revista Brasileira de Ciencia do Solo

Quantification of soil physical quality (SPQ) and pore size distribution (PSD) can assist understanding of how changes in land management practices influence dynamics of soil structure, and this understanding could greatly improve the predictability of soil physical behavior and crop yield. The objectives of this study were to measure the SPQ index under two different land management practices (the continuous arable cropping system and natural bush fallow system), and contrast the effects of these practices on the structure of PSD using soil water retention data. Soil water retention curves obtained from a pressure chamber were fitted to van Genuchten’s equation, setting m (= 1-1/n). Although values for soil bulk density were high, soils under the continuous arable cropping system had good SPQ, and maintained the capacity to support root development. However, soils under the natural bush fallow system had a worse structure than the continuous arable system, with restrictions in available water capacity. These two management systems had different PSDs. Results showed the inferiority of the natural bush fallow system with no traffic restriction (which is the common practice) in relation to the continuous arable cropping system in regard to physical quality and structure. © 2015, Revista Brasileira de Ciencia do Solo. All rights reserved. Source

Oshoke J.O.,Federal University, Dutsin-Ma | Akinyeml A.O.,University of Nigeria
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition

This study was carried out to assess the nutrient composition of Cassa occidentalis as a protein supplement source in the diets of fish to enhance their productivity. Proximate composition results showed high dry matter (95.65%), crude fiber (11.92%), nitrogen free extract (61.88%) and calorific value (1483.26 kcal/100 g), but low ether extract (3.69%) and crude protein (18.74%). The amino acid profile reveals a high concentration of leucine (6.23 g/100 g protein), histidine (2.27 g/100 g protein), proline (3.36 g/100 g protein) and glycine (3.51 g/100 g protein), Arginine (4.83 g/100 g protein) while the rest of the amino acids were low concentration in the raw seed. The concentration of anti-nutrients in the legume seeds recorded low values (0.99 and 0.14% and 0.28 mg/100 g) for Phytic acid, tannin and phytate respectively, while oxalate and cyanogenic glycoside levels were high. C. occidentalis seed is a good source of amino acid but it contained some antinutritional factors that must be deactivated for effective utilization in fish feed and also processing of the seeds will definitely improve the crude protein content. © Asian Network for Scientific Information, 2015. Source

Adesoji A.T.,Federal University, Dutsin-Ma | Ogunjobi A.A.,University of Ibadan | Olatoye I.O.,University of Ibadan | Olatoye I.O.,Washington State University | Douglas D.R.,Washington State University
Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials

Background: Antibiotic resistance genes [ARGs] in auatic systems have drawn increasing attention they could be transferred horizontally to pathogenic bacteria. Water treatment plants (WTPs) are intended to provide uality and widely available water to the local populace they serve. However, WTPs in developing countries may not be dependable for clean water and they could serve as points of dissemination for antibiotic resistant bacteria. Only a few studies have investigated the occurrence of ARGs among these bacteria including tetracycline resistance genes in water distribution systems in Nigeria. Methodology: Multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria, including resistance to tetracycline, were isolated from treated and untreated water distribution systems in southwest Nigeria. MDR bacteria were resistant to >3 classes of antibiotics based on break-point assays. Isolates were characterized using partial 16S rDNA seuencing and PCR assays for six tetracycline-resistance genes. Plasmid conjugation was evaluated using E. coli strain DH5α as the recipient strain. Results: Out of the 105 bacteria, 85 (81 %) and 20 (19 %) were Gram- negative or Gram- positive, respectively. Twenty-nine isolates carried at least one of the targeted tetracycline resistance genes including strains of Aeromonas, Alcaligenes, Bacillus, Klebsiella, Leucobacter, Morganella, Proteus and a seuence matching a previously uncultured bacteria. Tet(A) was the most prevalent (16/29) followed by tet(E) (4/29) and tet30 (2/29). Tet(O) was not detected in any of the isolates. Tet(A) was mostly found with Alcaligenes strains (9/10) and a combination of more than one resistance gene was observed only amongst Alcaligenes strains [tet(A) + tet30 (2/10), tet(A) + tet(E) (3/10), tet(E) + tet(M) (1/10), tet(E) + tet30 (1/10)]. Tet(A) was transferred by conjugation for five Alcaligenes and two E. coli isolates. Conclusions: This study found a high prevalence of plasmid-encoded tet(A) among Alcaligenes isolates, raising the possibility that this strain could shuttle resistance plasmids to pathogenic bacteria. © 2015 Timilehin et al. Source

Auta T.,Federal University, Dutsin-Ma | Hassan A.T.,University of Ibadan
Asian Pacific Journal of Reproduction

Objective: To evaluate the reproductive toxicity of aqueous wood ash extract of Azadirachta indica (A. indica) in male albino mice. Methods: Four different dose levels of 0, 5, 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight were administered to 20 male mice, with five mice per group for seven days that were sacrificed 35 days thereafter. Gonadosomatic index, sperm motility, sperm count, sperm morphology, serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), leuitinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone assay, and histopathology of testes were carried out. Results: Though no toxic effect on testicular weight, FSH, LH and testosterone (P > 0.05), significant decrease in sperm motility, live/dead sperm and sperm count, with significant increase of abnormal sperm were recorded (P < 0.05). Dose dependent histopathological damage of testes was obtained (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Aqueous wood ash extract of A. indica have damaging effects on sperms and testicular tissues, which could impair reproduction. © 2016 Hainan Medical College. Source

Akolade J.O.,Biotechnology Advanced Laboratory | Akolade J.O.,University Of Ilorin | Usman L.A.,University Of Ilorin | Okereke O.E.,Biotechnology Advanced Laboratory | Muhammad N.O.,Federal University, Dutsin-Ma
Journal of Medicinal Food

This study was aimed at assessing the potential of essential oil from the leaf of Hoslundia opposita in the treatment of diabetes. Forty-eight rats (Rattus norvegicus) were randomized into two groups; nondiabetic and diabetic groups, each with four subgroups. Animals in the diabetic group were induced with diabetes using a single dose of alloxan monohydrate, 160 mg/kg body weight (b. wt.). The rats were treated with 110 and 220 mg/kg b. wt. of the essential oil. All treatments were administered, intraperitoneally, once a day for 4 days. In the nondiabetic condition, there was no effect of the oil on fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels in rats. In diabetic rats, the oil caused a significant reduction in FBG levels. Treatment with 110 mg/kg b. wt. of the oil reduced FBG almost to the normoglycemic level by day 4 and the overall glucose excursion during a 3-h intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test approached the baseline level at 120 min. Also, hepatic glycogen was significantly higher, while the glucose concentrations were lower in the diabetic-treated group when compared with the diabetic untreated group. Histological examinations revealed a mildly distorted architecture of the pancreatic islets β-cells of diabetic rats treated with the oil, while those of the untreated rats were severely degenerated. Overall, the in vivo antihyperglycemic activity of the essential oil may prove to be of clinical importance in the management of type 2 diabetes. © Copyright 2014, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Source

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