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Al Qurashi M.M.,King Saud University | Yusuf A.,Firat University | Yusuf A.,Federal University, Dutse | Aliyu A.I.,Firat University | And 2 more authors.
Superlattices and Microstructures | Year: 2017

In this work, the soliton solutions of the fourth-order nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE) with dual-power law nonlinearity is analyzed using Ricatti-Bernoulli (RB) sub-ODE and modified Tanh-Coth methods. We obtain new solutions that are not in existence in previous time. The constraint conditions between the soliton parameters are determined. The solutions we obtained may be used to explain and understand the physical nature of the wave spreads in the most dispersive optical medium. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

Hindatu Y.,University of Malaya | Hindatu Y.,Bauchi State University | Annuar M.S.M.,University of Malaya | Subramaniam R.,University of Malaya | Gumel A.M.,Federal University, Dutse
Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering | Year: 2017

Insufficient power generation from a microbial fuel cell (MFC) hampers its progress towards utility-scale development. Electrode modification with biopolymeric materials could potentially address this issue. In this study, medium-chain-length poly-3-hydroxyalkanoates (PHA)/carbon nanotubes (C) composite (CPHA) was successfully applied to modify the surface of carbon cloth (CC) anode in MFC. Characterization of the functional groups on the anodic surface and its morphology was carried out. The CC-CPHA composite anode recorded maximum power density of 254 mW/m2, which was 15–53% higher than the MFC operated with CC-C (214 mW/m2) and pristine CC (119 mW/m2) as the anode in a double-chambered MFC operated with Escherichia coli as the biocatalyst. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry showed that power enhancement was attributed to better electron transfer capability by the bacteria for the MFC setup with CC-CPHA anode. © 2017 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

Lawal I.A.,Federal University, Dutse | Abdulkarim S.A.,Federal University, Dutse | Hassan M.K.,Pennsylvania State University | Sadiq J.M.,Nokia Inc.
Proceedings - 2016 15th IEEE International Conference on Machine Learning and Applications, ICMLA 2016 | Year: 2016

Accurate forecasting of data traffic demand is very crucial for profitable operation of cellular data networks because it helps in facilitating the optimization and planning of the network resources. Many machine learning regression models including Support Vector Regression and Abductive Networks have been applied to this problem, but this paper study the concept of ensemble method for improving the forecasting accuracy. Specifically, a cooperative ensemble training strategy using two optimization algorithms is proposed to train a Neural Network model. The trained model is characterized with good forecasting performance due to the exchange of experience and knowledge among the two optimization algorithm during the training process. A dataset consisting of 44160 recordings of hourly High Speed Data Packet Access (HSDPA) data traffic, which was collected over a period of 30 days from sixty different sites of a UMTS based cellular operator was used to evaluate the performance of the propose method. Experimental results show the superiority of the Neural Network model trained with the proposed ensemble training strategy over other state-of-the-art methods.

Okunowo W.O.,University of Lagos | Olagboye A.M.,University of Lagos | Afolabi L.O.,Federal University, Dutse | Oyedeji A.O.,University of Lagos
African Entomology | Year: 2017

The larvae of the insect Rhynchophorus phoenicis are consumed by the rural people in Nigeria. The proximate composition of the larvae was determined by standard analytical methods. The amino acid composition was determined using an Amino Acid Analyzer and the fatty acid profile was determined with the aid of a gas chromatograph-mass spectrophotometer. The vitamin and mineral contents were analysed by high pressure liquid chromatography and atomic absorption spectrophotometry, respectively. The proximate composition in percentage for crude protein, crude lipid, crude carbohydrate, crude fibre and ash content were 24.43±1.30, 15.36±0.82, 3.14±0.13, 2.27±0.28 and 1.00±0.19, respectively. Leucine (6.74 g/100 g protein) and lysine (5.83 g/100 g protein) were the highest essential amino acids present. The major fatty acids were margaric acid (43.4 %), petroselinic acid (31.06 %) and cis-13-octadecenoic acid (20.24 %). The unsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio was 1:11. The major water-soluble vitamin was vitamin C(11.14 mg/100 g) and the main fat-soluble vitamin was vitamin E (25.18 mg/100 g). The results also indicate that the larvae were low in minerals. This study shows that R. phoenicis larvae can be used as a human food supplement to balance diet. © 2016 Entomological Society of Southern Africa.

Onumara O.J.,GSS Maigatari | Taura L.S.,Bayero University | Ndikilar C.E.,Federal University, Dutse
African Review of Physics | Year: 2015

An analytical application of the 1-D Brownian dynamics in a fluid is used to study the thermal dynamics of bioenzymes. The origin of thermal fluctuations that give rise to mutations during the conduct of DNA test using imaging techniques was identified and a solution to carry out the techniques without thermal fluctuations of the bio-enzymes has been suggested. The Langevin equation, the consistency of the equipartition of the kinetic energy theorem and the fluctuations of the positions 1-D Brownian particle in the fluid were used. Also, the results on previous work on thermal dynamics of bioenzymes were reproduced analytically and used to plot the mean squared displacement (MSD) against time. Our results give a straight-line graph for isotropic random-walk, a curve facing downwards for confined random-walk, a three point segment graph for unrestricted and isotropic random-walk and finally a zigzag line graph for partially confined random-walk. Comparative studies of the above results with that of Aleksandra Radenovic are in good agreement. However, the result only differs in a partially confined random-walk, where Aleksandra Radenovic had a hopping nature of graph for the 2-D Brownian dynamics.

PubMed | Harper Adams University College, University of Bonn, The World Bank and Federal University, Dutse
Type: | Journal: Journal of animal physiology and animal nutrition | Year: 2016

Growth, apparent nutrient digestibility, ileal digesta viscosity, and energy metabolizability of growing turkeys fed diets containing malted sorghum sprouts (MSP) supplemented with enzyme or yeast were investigated using 120, 28-day-old male turkeys. Six treatments were laid out in a 32 factorial arrangement of treatments with three dietary inclusion levels of MSP (0, 50, and 100g/kg) and supplemented with 200mg/kg yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) or 200mg/kg of a commercial enzyme. The experiment lasted for the starter (day 28-56) and grower phases (day 57-84) of the birds. Each treatment group consisted of 20 turkeys replicated four times with five birds each. Data were analysed using analysis of variance while polynomial contrast was used to determine the trends (linear and quadratic) of MSP inclusion levels. Irrespective of dietary supplementation with enzyme or yeast, final body weight (BW), total BW gain, and feed intake for turkey poults from day 29-56 was reduced (p<0.05) with increasing inclusion level of MSP. Dietary supplementation with yeast resulted in increased (p<0.05) feed intake while enzyme supplementation improved (p<0.05) feed conversion ratio of the poults. Turkeys fed enzyme-supplemented MSP diets had higher (p<0.05) BW gain than their counterparts fed yeast-supplemented MSP diets. Apparent ash digestibility reduced linearly (p<0.05) with increasing inclusion levels of MSP. Apparent metabolizable energy (AME) did not vary significantly (p>0.05) with MSP inclusion levels. Enzyme supplementation reduced (p<0.05) ileal viscosity but had no effect (p>0.05) on AME. Inclusion of MSP resulted in poor growth performance. This confirms earlier studies that utilization of MSP by poultry is rather poor. Supplementation with enzyme or yeast did not lead to any appreciable improvement in performance of turkeys in this study.

Alhassan M.A.,Federal University, Dutse | Jawawi D.N.A.,University of Technology Malaysia
2014 8th Malaysian Software Engineering Conference, MySEC 2014 | Year: 2014

Effective measurement for successful Statistical Process Control (SPC) implementations across any level of Capability Maturity Model (CMM) is not a very straightforward activity. Based on CMM standard, SPC is only applicable to its higher maturity levels so as to tackle quantitative process management issues like out-of-control process and to point out further areas of process improvements. This study reveals that; SPC can be used at CMM level 2 to repeatedly control process but with some difficulties. The difficulty of accurate process measurement for successful SPC implementation is addressed by proposing a Sequential Strategy for Process Measurement (SSPM). This strategy can support software organization's process measurement activities for process control and management. © 2014 IEEE.

Hafeez H.Y.,Federal University, Dutse | Ndikilar C.E.,Federal University, Dutse | Adamu B.I.,Federal University, Dutse | Sa'Adu I.,Federal University, Dutse
AIP Advances | Year: 2016

In this article, the behavior of a half spin particle is studied. Specifically an electron with mass me, when passing through a magnetic field with fixed strength Bo is examined. A magnetic impurity is considered as a scatterer of a half spin particle in one dimension. This corresponds for example to a defect in the local magnetic structure inducing a magnetic field, e.g. as a result of strong spin-orbit coupling. From this set-up, the spin-flipping scattering processes are observed. Different profiles of Spin-Flip-Rate (SFR) against frequencies ω and amplitudes U are drawn respectively, for angle φ0=0, θ = π 2 and different values of, μBB0, and radius R. © 2016 Author(s).

Yelwa S.A.,Federal University, Dutse | Dangulla M.,University of Nigeria
Research Journal of Applied Sciences | Year: 2013

Seventytwo dekadal NDVI dataset derived from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer-Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (AVHRR-NDVI) on board the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration-National Aeronautics Space Administration (NOAA-NASA) meteorological satellites were recomposed into a 24 time-series monthly Maximum Value Composite (MVC) images covering the El-Nino Southern Oscillations (ENSO) event of 1997 to 1998 and analysed within a Geographical Information System (GIS) environment using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) with the standardised principal components and supplemented with coefficient of variation derived images. The purpose is to assess the impact of such event on landcover across Nigeria and in particular, vegetation patterns across the country. Results from this analysis produced 24 standardised principal component imageries with another corresponding 24 individual loading scores presented in graphs. Others include inter-seasonal coefficient of variation change images for 1997 and 1998 as well as an annual mean NDVI image of the total 24 time-series dataset; temporal profiles of sites observed with distinct changes and a coefficient of variation graph through the monthly time-series were presented. The resultant component one image shows an overall 96.5% of the variation in the total time-series dataset while the succeeding imageries illustrated change elements in the order of the component loadings (which are weighted). In comparison with the mean imagery of the total 24 time-series dataset, the first component image showed a considerable similarity indicating a typical characteristic of landcover (particularly vegetation NDVI) pattern over the whole country during the 1997 to 1998 ENSO event with positive and negative anomalies in certain locations across some states but more distinct in locations around the Kainji and Lake Chad basins, Niger delta area, Bayelsa, Lagos, Taraba, Plateau, Jigawa, Katsina, Sokoto, Zamfara Adamawa, Yobe and Bomo states. Thus, results from this study highlighted specific locations across the country with anomalies of climatic impact as a result of the 1997 to 1998 ENSO event. © Medwell Journals, 2013.

PubMed | Federal University, Dutse
Type: | Journal: Current diabetes reviews | Year: 2016

Considerable efforts are being made daily to discover novel therapeutic targets to better understand the mechanism for designing drugs in treating diabetes. Inhibition of hepatic gluconeogenesis by metformin remains the first line of oral therapy for managing type 2 diabetes. The link between rise in blood lactate level and reduction of hepatic glucose production with metformin usage remains to be determined. Carbonic anhydrase is proposed to be the link connecting blood lactate accumulation and inhibition of hepatic gluconeogenesis and thus could serve as a new therapeutic target for reducing hepatic glucose production. Understanding the link between rise in blood lactate level and the role of carbonic anhydrase in lactate uptake will be essential towards the development of a promising new antidiabetic medication.

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