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Onumara O.J.,GSS Maigatari | Taura L.S.,Bayero University | Ndikilar C.E.,Federal University, Dutse
African Review of Physics | Year: 2015

An analytical application of the 1-D Brownian dynamics in a fluid is used to study the thermal dynamics of bioenzymes. The origin of thermal fluctuations that give rise to mutations during the conduct of DNA test using imaging techniques was identified and a solution to carry out the techniques without thermal fluctuations of the bio-enzymes has been suggested. The Langevin equation, the consistency of the equipartition of the kinetic energy theorem and the fluctuations of the positions 1-D Brownian particle in the fluid were used. Also, the results on previous work on thermal dynamics of bioenzymes were reproduced analytically and used to plot the mean squared displacement (MSD) against time. Our results give a straight-line graph for isotropic random-walk, a curve facing downwards for confined random-walk, a three point segment graph for unrestricted and isotropic random-walk and finally a zigzag line graph for partially confined random-walk. Comparative studies of the above results with that of Aleksandra Radenovic are in good agreement. However, the result only differs in a partially confined random-walk, where Aleksandra Radenovic had a hopping nature of graph for the 2-D Brownian dynamics.

PubMed | Harper Adams University College, University of Bonn, The World Bank and Federal University, Dutse
Type: | Journal: Journal of animal physiology and animal nutrition | Year: 2016

Growth, apparent nutrient digestibility, ileal digesta viscosity, and energy metabolizability of growing turkeys fed diets containing malted sorghum sprouts (MSP) supplemented with enzyme or yeast were investigated using 120, 28-day-old male turkeys. Six treatments were laid out in a 32 factorial arrangement of treatments with three dietary inclusion levels of MSP (0, 50, and 100g/kg) and supplemented with 200mg/kg yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) or 200mg/kg of a commercial enzyme. The experiment lasted for the starter (day 28-56) and grower phases (day 57-84) of the birds. Each treatment group consisted of 20 turkeys replicated four times with five birds each. Data were analysed using analysis of variance while polynomial contrast was used to determine the trends (linear and quadratic) of MSP inclusion levels. Irrespective of dietary supplementation with enzyme or yeast, final body weight (BW), total BW gain, and feed intake for turkey poults from day 29-56 was reduced (p<0.05) with increasing inclusion level of MSP. Dietary supplementation with yeast resulted in increased (p<0.05) feed intake while enzyme supplementation improved (p<0.05) feed conversion ratio of the poults. Turkeys fed enzyme-supplemented MSP diets had higher (p<0.05) BW gain than their counterparts fed yeast-supplemented MSP diets. Apparent ash digestibility reduced linearly (p<0.05) with increasing inclusion levels of MSP. Apparent metabolizable energy (AME) did not vary significantly (p>0.05) with MSP inclusion levels. Enzyme supplementation reduced (p<0.05) ileal viscosity but had no effect (p>0.05) on AME. Inclusion of MSP resulted in poor growth performance. This confirms earlier studies that utilization of MSP by poultry is rather poor. Supplementation with enzyme or yeast did not lead to any appreciable improvement in performance of turkeys in this study.

Miyim A.M.,National University of Malaysia | Miyim A.M.,Federal University, Dutse | Ismail M.,National University of Malaysia | Nordin R.,National University of Malaysia
Journal of Theoretical and Applied Information Technology | Year: 2016

Considered as low-powered cellular base stations, Microcells (Femtocells) are found to be deployed in homes and public places. They provide good coverage for very high user data throughputs and operate on licensed spectrum. This paper propose cell reselection transmit beacon (CRTB) transmitted by microcell on the cellular frequency to aid quick discovery of microcell. The performance of microcell discovery is achieved by setting a proximity threshold for the macrocell high enough to impact on mobile user equipment (UE) in the network. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the beacon in triggering cell reselection while impacting little on the macrocell UE throughput and facilitate the handover procedure at the microcell base station. © 2005-2016 JATIT & LLS. All rights reserved.

Salga M.S.,Umaru Musa Yar'Adua University | Sada I.,Umaru Musa Yar'Adua University | Mustapha A.,Federal University, Dutse
Oriental Journal of Chemistry | Year: 2014

Herein we report the synthesis, characterization and antioxidant activity of the Schiff base ligands (E)-4-bromo-2-((2-piperazine-1-yl)ethylimino)methylphenol and 2,2'-(1E,1E')-cyclohexane- 1,2-diylbis(azan-1-yl-1-ylidene))bismethan-1-yl-1-ylidene)bis (4-bromophenol) and their complexes of copper (II) ion. Antioxidant activities of the copper complexes were studied by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay according to the procedure reported by Benzie and Strain1 which considered the reduction of ferric tripyridyl triazine complex to a ferrous complex at low pH by monitoring the change in absorption at 593nm. The overall results showed an increased in antioxidant activity with the increase in steric crowd. Similarly, the ligands show high activity than the complexes. © 2014, Oriental Scientific Publishing Company. All rights reserved.

PubMed | Information and Analysis Center, Federal University, Dutse, University of Tokyo, Ahmadu Bello University and 2 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Veterinary parasitology | Year: 2013

African trypanosomosis is a potentially fatal disease that is caused by extracellular parasitic protists known as African trypanosomes. These parasites inhabit the blood stream of their mammalian hosts and produce a number of pathological features, amongst which is anemia. Etiology of the anemia has been partly attributed to an autoimmunity-like mediated erythrophagocytosis of de-sialylated red blood cells (dsRBCs) by macrophages. Lactose infusion to infected animals has proven effective at delaying progression of the anemia. However, the mechanism of this anemia prevention is yet to be well characterized. Here, the hypothesis of a likely induced further modification of the dsRBCs was investigated. RBC membrane galactose (RBC m-GAL) and packed cell volume (PCV) were measured during the course of experimental trypanosomosis in mice infected with Trypanosoma congolense (stb 212). Intriguingly, while the membrane galactose on the RBCs of infected and lactose-treated mice (group D) decreased as a function of parasitemia, that of the lactose-untreated infected group (group C) remained relatively constant, as was recorded for the uninfected lactose-treated control (group B) animals. At the peak of infection, the respective cumulative percent decrease in PCV and membrane galactose were 30 and 185 for group D, and 84 and 13 for group C. From this observed inverse relationship between RBCs membrane galactose and PCV, it is logical to rationalize that the delay of anemia progression during trypanosomosis produced by lactose might have resulted from an induction of galactose depletion from dsRBCs, thereby preventing their recognition by the macrophages.

Gumel A.M.,University of Malaya | Gumel A.M.,Federal University, Dutse | Annuar M.S.M.,University of Malaya | Yusuf H.,University of Malaya
Journal of Nanomaterials | Year: 2015

Biodegradable and biocompatible polymeric nanomaterials, serving as biomedical devices have garnered significant attention as a promising solution to therapeutic management of many chronic diseases. Despite their potentials, majority of the synthetic nanomaterials used in biomedical applications lack crucial properties, for example, ligand binding sites, responsiveness, and switchability to efficiently deliver intended drugs to the target site. Advancements in manipulating nanoscale geometry have incurred the incorporation of triggered release mechanism within the nanomaterials design. This expanded their potential applications beyond nanocarriers to theranostics exhibiting both tandem drug delivery and diagnostic capabilities. Additionally, it highlights possibilities to design nanomaterials that could translate chemical response(s) to photometric display, thus making affordable biosensors and actuators readily available for biomedical exploitation. It is anticipated that, in the near future, these implementations could be made to access some of the most difficult therapy locations, for example, blood brain barrier to provide efficient management of Alzheimer, Huntington, and other neurodegenerative diseases. This review aims to serve as a reference platform by providing the readers with the overview of the recent advancements and cutting-edge techniques employed in the production and instrumentation of such nanomaterials. © 2015 Ahmad Mohammed Gumel et al.

Alhassan M.A.,Federal University, Dutse | Jawawi D.N.A.,University of Technology Malaysia
2014 8th Malaysian Software Engineering Conference, MySEC 2014 | Year: 2014

Effective measurement for successful Statistical Process Control (SPC) implementations across any level of Capability Maturity Model (CMM) is not a very straightforward activity. Based on CMM standard, SPC is only applicable to its higher maturity levels so as to tackle quantitative process management issues like out-of-control process and to point out further areas of process improvements. This study reveals that; SPC can be used at CMM level 2 to repeatedly control process but with some difficulties. The difficulty of accurate process measurement for successful SPC implementation is addressed by proposing a Sequential Strategy for Process Measurement (SSPM). This strategy can support software organization's process measurement activities for process control and management. © 2014 IEEE.

Hafeez H.Y.,Federal University, Dutse | Ndikilar C.E.,Federal University, Dutse | Adamu B.I.,Federal University, Dutse | Sa'Adu I.,Federal University, Dutse
AIP Advances | Year: 2016

In this article, the behavior of a half spin particle is studied. Specifically an electron with mass me, when passing through a magnetic field with fixed strength Bo is examined. A magnetic impurity is considered as a scatterer of a half spin particle in one dimension. This corresponds for example to a defect in the local magnetic structure inducing a magnetic field, e.g. as a result of strong spin-orbit coupling. From this set-up, the spin-flipping scattering processes are observed. Different profiles of Spin-Flip-Rate (SFR) against frequencies ω and amplitudes U are drawn respectively, for angle φ0=0, θ = π 2 and different values of, μBB0, and radius R. © 2016 Author(s).

Yelwa S.A.,Federal University, Dutse | Dangulla M.,University of Nigeria
Research Journal of Applied Sciences | Year: 2013

Seventytwo dekadal NDVI dataset derived from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer-Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (AVHRR-NDVI) on board the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration-National Aeronautics Space Administration (NOAA-NASA) meteorological satellites were recomposed into a 24 time-series monthly Maximum Value Composite (MVC) images covering the El-Nino Southern Oscillations (ENSO) event of 1997 to 1998 and analysed within a Geographical Information System (GIS) environment using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) with the standardised principal components and supplemented with coefficient of variation derived images. The purpose is to assess the impact of such event on landcover across Nigeria and in particular, vegetation patterns across the country. Results from this analysis produced 24 standardised principal component imageries with another corresponding 24 individual loading scores presented in graphs. Others include inter-seasonal coefficient of variation change images for 1997 and 1998 as well as an annual mean NDVI image of the total 24 time-series dataset; temporal profiles of sites observed with distinct changes and a coefficient of variation graph through the monthly time-series were presented. The resultant component one image shows an overall 96.5% of the variation in the total time-series dataset while the succeeding imageries illustrated change elements in the order of the component loadings (which are weighted). In comparison with the mean imagery of the total 24 time-series dataset, the first component image showed a considerable similarity indicating a typical characteristic of landcover (particularly vegetation NDVI) pattern over the whole country during the 1997 to 1998 ENSO event with positive and negative anomalies in certain locations across some states but more distinct in locations around the Kainji and Lake Chad basins, Niger delta area, Bayelsa, Lagos, Taraba, Plateau, Jigawa, Katsina, Sokoto, Zamfara Adamawa, Yobe and Bomo states. Thus, results from this study highlighted specific locations across the country with anomalies of climatic impact as a result of the 1997 to 1998 ENSO event. © Medwell Journals, 2013.

PubMed | Federal University, Dutse
Type: | Journal: Current diabetes reviews | Year: 2016

Considerable efforts are being made daily to discover novel therapeutic targets to better understand the mechanism for designing drugs in treating diabetes. Inhibition of hepatic gluconeogenesis by metformin remains the first line of oral therapy for managing type 2 diabetes. The link between rise in blood lactate level and reduction of hepatic glucose production with metformin usage remains to be determined. Carbonic anhydrase is proposed to be the link connecting blood lactate accumulation and inhibition of hepatic gluconeogenesis and thus could serve as a new therapeutic target for reducing hepatic glucose production. Understanding the link between rise in blood lactate level and the role of carbonic anhydrase in lactate uptake will be essential towards the development of a promising new antidiabetic medication.

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