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Mohammed I.,Federal Teaching Hospital Gombe | Iliyasu G.,Bayero University | Habib A.G.,Bayero University
Pathogens and Global Health | Year: 2017

For more than a century, meningitis epidemics have regularly recurred across sub-Saharan Africa, involving 19 contiguous countries that constitute a ‘meningitis belt’ where historically the causative agent has been serogroup A meningococcus. Attempts to control epidemic meningococcal meningitis in Africa by vaccination with meningococcal polysaccharide (PS) vaccines have not been successful. This is largely because PS vaccines are poorly immunogenic in young children, do not induce immunological memory, and have little or no effect on the pharyngeal carriage. Meningococcal PS–protein conjugate vaccines overcome these deficiencies. Conjugate meningococcal vaccine against serotype A (MenAfriVac) was developed between 2001 and 2009 and deployed in 2010. So far, 262 million individuals have been immunized across the meningitis belt. The public health benefits of MenAfriVac have already been demonstrated by a sharp decline in reported cases of meningococcal disease in the countries where it has been introduced. However, serogroup replacement following mass meningitis vaccination has been noted, and in 2015 an epidemic with a novel strain of serogroup C was recorded in Niger and Nigeria for the first time since 1975. This has posed a serious challenge toward elimination of meningococcal meningitis epidemics in the African. For an effective control of meningococcal meningitis in the African meningitis belt, there is a need for an effective surveillance system, provision of rapid antigen detection kits as well as affordable vaccine that provides protection against the main serogroups causing meningitis in the sub-region. © 2017 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.


PubMed | Federal Ministry of Health, University of Maryland Baltimore County, National Hospital Abuja, Federal Teaching Hospital and 14 more.
Type: | Journal: Frontiers in public health | Year: 2015

The epidemiological transition in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has given rise to a concomitant increase in the incidence of non-communicable diseases including cancers. Worldwide, cancer registries have been shown to be critical for the determination of cancer burden, conduct of research, and in the planning and implementation of cancer control measures. Cancer registration though vital is often neglected in SSA owing to competing demands for resources for healthcare. We report the implementation of a system for representative nation-wide cancer registration in Nigeria - the Nigerian National System of Cancer Registries (NSCR). The NSCR coordinates the activities of cancer registries in Nigeria, strengthens existing registries, establishes new registries, complies and analyses data, and makes these freely available to researchers and policy makers. We highlight the key challenges encountered in implementing this strategy and how they were overcome. This report serves as a guide for other low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) wishing to expand cancer registration coverage in their countries and highlights the training, mentoring, scientific and logistic support, and advocacy that are crucial to sustaining cancer registration programs in LMIC.


Manga M.M.,Federal Teaching Hospital Gombe | Fowotade A.,University of Ibadan | Abdullahi Y.M.,Federal Teaching Hospital Gombe | El-Nafaty A.U.,Federal Teaching Hospital Gombe | And 4 more authors.
Infectious Agents and Cancer | Year: 2015

Background: Sub-Saharan countries including Nigeria have the highest burden of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection in the world. Most studies on HPV surveillance in Nigeria were done in the southern part of the country. Geographical and socio-cultural diversity of Nigeria makes these data unlikely to be universally representative for the entire country. Northern Nigeria especially the North-East carries a higher prevalence of cervical cancer and many of its risk factors. The region may be harbouring a higher prevalence of HPV infection with a possibility of different genotypic distribution. This study was carried out to determine the burden and confirm the predominant HPV genotypes among women presenting for cervical cancer screening at the Federal Teaching Hospital Gombe (FTHG), North-eastern, Nigeria. Methods: The study was an observational hospital based cross sectional study among women who presented for cervical cancer screening in FTHG. A total of 209 consenting women were tested for cervical HPV infection using PCR. DNA sequencing was carried out on positive samples to determine the prevalent HPV genotypes. Results: The prevalence of cervical HPV infection among the participants with mean age of 39.6∈±∈10.4 years was 48.1 %. The five most predominant genotypes were 18, 16, 33, 31 and 35, with prevalence of 44.7 %, 13.2 %, 7.9 %, 5.3 % and 5.3 % respectively. Other genotypes observed were 38, 45, 56, 58, 82 and KC5. Multiple HPV infections were detected among 7.9 % of participants. Risk factors such as level of education (X 2∈=∈15.897; p∈=∈0.007), age at sexual debut (X 2∈=∈6.916; p∈=∈0.009), parity (X 2∈=∈23.767; p∈=∈0.000), number of life time sexual partners (X 2∈=∈7.805; p∈=∈0.005), age at first pregnancy (X 2∈=∈10.554; p∈=∈0.005) and history of other malignancies (X 2∈=∈7.325; p∈=∈0.007) were found to have a statistically significant association with HPV infection. Conclusion: This study identified a high burden of HPV infection in Northern Nigeria while also confirming HPV 18 and 16 as the most predominant genotypes. It further justifies the potential benefit of the currently available HPV vaccines in the area. A larger and community based study is however recommended for better representation of the area. © 2015 Manga et al.


PubMed | Federal Teaching Hospital Gombe and University of Ibadan
Type: | Journal: Infectious agents and cancer | Year: 2015

Sub-Saharan countries including Nigeria have the highest burden of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection in the world. Most studies on HPV surveillance in Nigeria were done in the southern part of the country. Geographical and socio-cultural diversity of Nigeria makes these data unlikely to be universally representative for the entire country. Northern Nigeria especially the North-East carries a higher prevalence of cervical cancer and many of its risk factors. The region may be harbouring a higher prevalence of HPV infection with a possibility of different genotypic distribution. This study was carried out to determine the burden and confirm the predominantHPV genotypes among women presenting for cervical cancer screening at the Federal Teaching Hospital Gombe (FTHG), North-eastern, Nigeria.The study was an observational hospital based cross sectional study among women who presented for cervical cancer screening in FTHG. A total of 209 consenting women were tested for cervical HPV infection using PCR. DNA sequencing was carried out on positive samples to determine the prevalent HPV genotypes.The prevalence of cervical HPV infection among the participants with mean age of 39.610.4years was 48.1%. The five most predominant genotypes were 18, 16, 33, 31 and 35, with prevalence of 44.7%, 13.2%, 7.9%, 5.3% and 5.3% respectively. Other genotypes observed were 38, 45, 56, 58, 82 and KC5. Multiple HPV infections were detected among 7.9% of participants. Risk factors such as level of education (X (2)=15.897; p=0.007), age at sexual debut (X (2)=6.916; p=0.009), parity (X (2)=23.767; p=0.000), number of life time sexual partners (X (2)=7.805; p=0.005), age at first pregnancy (X (2)=10.554; p=0.005) and history of other malignancies (X (2)=7.325; p=0.007) were found to have a statistically significant association with HPV infection.This study identified a high burden of HPV infection in Northern Nigeria while also confirming HPV 18 and 16 as the most predominant genotypes. It further justifies the potential benefit of the currently available HPV vaccines in the area. A larger and community based study is however recommended for better representation of the area.

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