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PubMed | Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution Research Institute for Cardiology and RAS Institute for Nuclear Research
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Pacing and clinical electrophysiology : PACE | Year: 2016

The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of idiopathic ventricular tachycardia and premature ventricular beats on cardiac function and dyssynchrony and to elucidate relationships between data of scintigraphic and intracardiac electrophysiology studies (EPSs).The study comprised 64 patients with idiopathic ventricular arrhythmias (VAs; median age of 14 years ranging from 8 to 18 years). The control group comprised 20 patients (median age of 12 ranging from 7 to 16 years) without cardiac arrhythmias. EPS and radiofrequency ablation (RFA) procedure for VA were performed in 21 children according to indications. The functional state of both ventricles was assessed by gated blood pool single photon emission computer tomography (GBP-SPECT) before and after RFA in all patients.Patients with VA had local areas of asynchronous myocardial contraction (AMC). Compared with the control group, VA patients had significantly higher values of end-diastolic volume, end-systolic volume, and lower contractility indices. Negative association was found between total numbers of AMC areas and cardiac contractility indices. Ectopic foci localization, determined based on EPS data, was associated with AMC areas topography based on GBP-SPECT. RFA procedure significantly improved cardiac contractility indices; AMC areas completely disappeared or decreased compared with the preoperative conditions.In VA patients, AMC areas were localized mostly in the right ventricle. Comparison of the results of GBP-SPECT and EPS studies showed a relationship between AMC localizations and ectopic foci topography. The fact that AMC areas disappeared after RFA supports the hypothesis stating that the presence of AMC areas is a scintigraphic symptom of ectopic focus.


Suslova T.E.,Tomsk State University | Sitozhevskii A.V.,Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution Research Institute for Cardiology | Ogurkova O.N.,Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution Research Institute for Cardiology | Kravchenko E.S.,Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution Research Institute for Cardiology | And 3 more authors.
Frontiers in Physiology | Year: 2015

Patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have high risk of microcirculation complications and microangiopathies. An increase in thrombogenic risk is associated with platelet hyperaggregation, hypercoagulation, and hyperfibrinolysis. Factors leading to platelet activation in MetS and T2DM comprise insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, non-enzymatic glycosylation, oxidative stress, and inflammation. This review discusses the role of nitric oxide (NO) in the regulation of platelet adhesion and aggregation processes. NO is synthesized both in endotheliocytes, smooth muscle cells, macrophages, and platelets. Modification of platelet NO-synthase (NOS) activity in MetS patients can play a central role in the manifestation of platelet hyperactivation. Metabolic changes, accompanying T2DM, can lead to an abnormal NOS expression and activity in platelets. Hyperhomocysteinemia, often accompanying T2DM, is a risk factor for cardiovascular accidents. Homocysteine can reduce NO production by platelets. This review provides data on the insulin effects in platelets. Decrease in a number and sensitivity of the insulin receptors on platelets in T2DM can cause platelet hyperactivation. Various intracellular mechanisms of anti-aggregating insulin effects are discussed. Anti-aggregating effects of insulin are mediated by a NO-induced elevation of cGMP and upregulation of cAMP- and cGMP-dependent pathways. The review presents data suggesting an ability of platelets to synthesize humoral factors stimulating thrombogenesis and inflammation. Proinflammatory cytokines are considered as markers of T2DM and cardiovascular complications and are involved in the development of dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. The article provides an evaluation of NO-mediated signaling pathway in the effects of cytokines on platelet aggregation. The effects of the proinflammatory cytokines on functional activity of platelets are demonstrated. © 2015 Suslova, Sitozhevskii, Ogurkova, Kravchenko, Kologrivova, Anfinogenova and Karpov.


PubMed | Tomsk State University, Tomsk Polytechnic University and Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution Research Institute for Cardiology
Type: | Journal: Frontiers in cell and developmental biology | Year: 2015

Here we review available data on nitric oxide (NO)-mediated signaling in skeletal muscle during physical exercise. Nitric oxide modulates skeletal myocyte function, hormone regulation, and local microcirculation. Nitric oxide underlies the therapeutic effects of physical activity whereas the pharmacological modulators of NO-mediated signaling are the promising therapeutic agents in different diseases. Nitric oxide production increases in skeletal muscle in response to physical activity. This molecule can alter energy supply in skeletal muscle through hormonal modulation. Mitochondria in skeletal muscle tissue are highly abundant and play a pivotal role in metabolism. Considering NO a plausible regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis that directly affects cellular respiration, we discuss the mechanisms of NO-induced mitochondrial biogenesis in the skeletal muscle cells. We also review available data on myokines, the molecules that are expressed and released by the muscle fibers and exert autocrine, paracrine and/or endocrine effects. The article suggests the presence of putative interplay between NO-mediated signaling and myokines in skeletal muscle. Data demonstrate an important role of NO in various diseases and suggest that physical training may improve health of patients with diabetes, chronic heart failure, and even degenerative muscle diseases. We conclude that NO-associated signaling represents a promising target for the treatment of various diseases and for the achievement of better athletic performance.


Efimova I.,Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution Research Institute for Cardiology | Efimova N.,Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution Research Institute for Cardiology | Lishmanov Y.,Tomsk Polytechnic University
Journal of Clinical Hypertension | Year: 2014

The aim of the study was to estimate regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and cognitive function in patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS) before and after antihypertensive combination therapy. The study included 24 patients with MetS (average age 52.4±1.6 years). All patients underwent brain single-photon emission computed tomography with technetium-99m hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime and comprehensive neuropsychological testing before and after 6-month antihypertensive combination therapy. All patients with MetS showed lower rCBF values in all regions of the brain compared with the control group. Their parameters of attention, immediate visual memory, and mentation were lower by 25%, 22%, and 13% compared with the control group, respectively. Six-month antihypertensive combination therapy increased cerebral perfusion and improved attention, mentation, and visual memory in MetS patients. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Patent
Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution Research Institute For Cardiology, Tomsk Polytechnic University and Ltd Liability Company Nanocor | Date: 2016-04-08

The invention relates to the medicine, namely to an agent for reducing the cholesterol and triglycerides in the blood plasma. The agent claimed comprises a nanocomposite that is a carbon-containing nanoparticles coated with the organic alkyl functional groups representing the residuals C4H9, C6H11, C8H15, C10H21, C16H33, C18H35. These groups are deposited by the covalent modification using diazonium salts of the general formula XC6H4N2+Y, where X is the alkyl residual C4H9, C6H11, C8H15, C10H21, C16H33, or C18H35, Y is the anion HSO4, Cl, BF4 or OTs. The invention provides an effective reduction of cholesterol and triglyceride presented in the blood plasma.


PubMed | Tomsk Polytechnic University and Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution Research Institute for Cardiology
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Cardiorenal medicine | Year: 2016

Nonpulsatile blood flow plays an important role in the pathogenesis of renal dysfunction in patients with extracorporeal circulation. In our opinion, hypoxic preconditioning (HP) can be used to protect kidneys from postsurgical dysfunction. The aim of this study was to evaluate nephroprotective efficacy of HP in myocardial revascularization with extracorporeal circulation.The randomized, controlled trial was performed in 63 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Thirty-three patients were subjected to HP during CABG; 30 patients were included in the comparison group. All patients underwent dynamic renal scintigraphy with (99m)c-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid and were subjected to measuring the concentration of lipocalin in blood serum before and after CABG.After CABG, the mean values of the total glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and GFR for each kidney significantly decreased only in patients of the comparison group. Significant increases in the concentration of serum neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin occurred 5 h after surgery both in the group with HP (70.65 46.71 to 127.58 98.46 ng/ml) and in the comparison group (65.01 38.64 to 171.65 89.91 ng/ml). At the same time, the mean difference values between pre- and postoperative lipocalin levels were 56.94 51.75 ng/ml in the study group and 106.64 51.27 ng/ml in the comparison group; these differences were highly statistically significant ( = 0.004).The results of our study showed that (i) HP exerts nephroprotection in patients undergoing on-pump CABG, and (ii) determination of the lipocalin-2 level can be used for early diagnosis of acute kidney injury in cardiac surgery patients.


Rebrova T.Y.,Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution Research Institute for Cardiology | Afanasiev S.A.,Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution Research Institute for Cardiology | Putrova O.D.,Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution Research Institute for Cardiology | Repin A.N.,Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution Research Institute for Cardiology
Advances in Gerontology | Year: 2015

Microviscosity coefficients were studied in the area of integrated and annular lipids of erythrocyte membranes in the peripheral blood of patients aged 35–50 and 60–75 with chronic coronary heart disease (CHD), as well as healthy donors of corresponding age. It was found in healthy donors that the microviscosity coefficients in the area of integrated and of annular lipids are significantly higher in the senior age group (60–75 years). In CHD, both an increase and a decrease in the microviscosity parameters in the area of lipid–lipid interactions can be characteristic for erythrocyte membranes, regardless of the patient age. In the protein–lipid contacts, an increase in microviscosity parameters is characteristic for patients aged 35–50 and, in contrast, a decrease in the microviscosity coefficient was observed in 60- to 75-year-old patients. It was concluded that the indicators of erythrocyte membrane microviscosity in patients of different age groups reflect both the implementation of general mechanisms of adaptive changes in cell membranes and the individual characteristics determined by their lipid and protein composition during the development of chronic CHD. © 2015, Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.


PubMed | Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution Research Institute for Cardiology
Type: Clinical Trial | Journal: Current hypertension reports | Year: 2015

The aims of the study were to evaluate the effects of renal sympathetic denervation (RSD) on the heart and to identify the predictors of RSD efficacy in patients with resistant arterial hypertension. The study comprised 60 RSD patients (54.69.5 years) who received full-dose antihypertensive therapy (4.1 drugs) including diuretics. Initially, 58.6% of patients had abnormal left ventricular (LV) diastolic function. All patients received echocardiography before and 24 weeks after RSD. Renal sympathetic denervation was achieved through the endovascular radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of the renal arteries. Drug therapy continued for the entire period of observation. After RSD, all patients were retrospectively assigned to two groups: group 1 comprised patients (n=22; 36.7%) in whom the myocardial mass (MM) of the left ventricle decreased by more than 10 g after RSD; group 2 comprised patients (n=38; 63.3%) in whom LV MM increased or decreased by less than 10 g. Anthropometry, arterial blood pressure, heart rate, therapy, and LV end-diastolic dimensions (EDD) were comparable in these groups. After RSD, the values of office blood pressure significantly decreased and MM regressed by more than 10 g in 36.7% of patients; LV diastolic function normalized in 31% of patients, and diastolic dysfunction improved in 14% of patients. The study found the associations between the initial LV wall dimensions and LV MM changes. Unlike LV EDD, arterial blood pressure, or heart rate, the initial values of LV wall thickness predicted LV MM regress.#NCT01499810 https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01499810.


PubMed | Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution Research Institute for Cardiology
Type: | Journal: Journal of diabetes research | Year: 2016

Coupling of the functional stability of rat myocardium and activity of lipid peroxidation processes in combined development of postinfarction remodeling and diabetes mellitus has been studied. The functional stability of myocardium was studied by means of the analysis of inotropic reaction on extrasystolic stimulus, the degree of left ventricular hypertrophy, and the size of scar zone. It was shown that in combined development of postinfarction cardiac remodeling of heart (PICR) with diabetes mellitus (DM) animal body weight decreased in less degree than in diabetic rats. Animals with combined pathology had no heart hypertrophy. The amplitude of extrasystolic contractions in rats with PICR combined with DM had no differences compared to the control group. In myocardium of rats with PICR combined with DM postextrasystolic potentiation was observed in contrast with the rats with PICR alone. The rats with combined pathology had the decreased value of TBA-active products. Thus, the results of study showed that induction of DM on the stage of the development of postinfarction remodeling increases adaptive ability of myocardium. It is manifested in inhibition of increase of LPO processes activity and maintaining of force-interval reactions of myocardium connected with calcium transport systems of sarcoplasmic reticulum of cardiomyocytes.


PubMed | Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution Research Institute for Cardiology
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of clinical hypertension (Greenwich, Conn.) | Year: 2014

The aim of the study was to estimate regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and cognitive function in patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS) before and after antihypertensive combination therapy. The study included 24 patients with MetS (average age 52.41.6years). All patients underwent brain single-photon emission computed tomography with technetium-99m hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime and comprehensive neuropsychological testing before and after 6-month antihypertensive combination therapy. All patients with MetS showed lower rCBF values in all regions of the brain compared with the control group. Their parameters of attention, immediate visual memory, and mentation were lower by 25%, 22%, and 13% compared with the control group, respectively. Six-month antihypertensive combination therapy increased cerebral perfusion and improved attention, mentation, and visual memory in MetS patients.

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